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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806257/orbital-hemangiopericytoma-in-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-hbed-cc-pet-ct
#1
Jochen Hammes, Carsten Kobe, Ute Hilgenberg, Wolfgang E Lieb, Alexander Drzezga
A 76-year-old man with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer underwent Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT. Besides a local lymph node metastasis, a nodular structure inside the left orbit caudal to the optic nerve showed increased uptake. A metastasis in this location is unlikely. The subsequently performed MRI showed the structure being T1 hypointense, T2 indifferent, and strongly gadolinium contrast agent enhancing. Histopathologic examination after surgical removal identified the tumor as hemangiopericytoma, which rarely occurs in the orbit...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806189/the-use-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#2
Noel C Y Chan, Carmen K M Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss; monitoring neurodegenerative diseases or multiple sclerosis; and predicting visual loss in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802687/-oct-topographic-characteristics-of-the-optic-nerve-in-patients-clinically-suspected-to-have-large-optic-disc-cupping-in-togo
#3
N Maneh, K D Ayena, K Vonor, K B Nonon Saa, K M Amedome, K B Dzidzinyo, C B Ikessieba, K R Kuaovi, M Banla, K P Balo
PURPOSE: To describe topographic characteristics of optic discs clinically suspected of large cupping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is retrospective study conducted from the January 2 to December 31 on the OCT registry and data base of a private ophthalmologic center in Lomé (Togo). We included records of patients with large cupping - CDR (cup-to-disc ratio) ≥ 0.4 -clinically observed and having undergone OCT-optic disc analysis. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-five patients (619 eyes) were studied, with a mean age of 41...
August 9, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802548/optic-nerve-glioblastoma-detected-by-11-c-methionine-brain-pet-ct
#4
V Rizzo, M V Mattoli, G Trevisi, A Coli, M L Calcagni, N Montano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801417/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-sonography-for-the-diagnosis-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#5
Alex Koziarz, Niv Sne, Fraser Kegel, Waleed Alhazzani, Siddharth Nath, Jetan H Badhiwala, Timothy Rice, Paul Engels, Faidi Samir, Andrew Healey, Kamyar Kahnamoui, Laura Banfield, Sunjay Sharma, Kesava Reddy, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Saleh A Almenawer
INTRODUCTION: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a significant neurological issue that may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. When evaluating patients with traumatic brain injury, it is crucial to identify those with high ICP in order to expedite ICP lowering measures and maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Several measures are used to recognise patients with increased ICP including CT scan, MRI, ICP monitor, and lumbar puncture (LP). However, these tests can be invasive, associated with radiation exposure, contraindicated, or not readily available...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799562/ophthalmic-features-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7
#6
A Campos-Romo, E O Graue-Hernandez, L Pedro-Aguilar, J C Hernandez-Camarena, D Rivera-De la Parra, V Galvez, R Diaz, A Jimenez-Corona, J Fernandez-Ruiz
PurposeTo analyze the relation between ophthalmologic and motor changes in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7).Patients and methodsThis was a case series study. Sixteen SCA7 patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including ocular extrinsic motility testing, color vision test, and optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve and macula. Changes in the corneal endothelium, electroretinographic patterns, and a complete neurologic evaluation using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) were evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799222/progression-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-associated-with-new-lesions-in-the-optic-radiations
#7
Alexander Klistorner, Elizabeth C Graham, Con Yiannikas, Michael Barnett, John Parratt, Ray Garrick, Chenyu Wang, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the association between temporal RNFL (tRNFL) thinning and disease activity in the brain determined by T2 lesions on MRI. METHODS: 55 consecutive relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 25 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent annual optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution MRI scans for tRNFL thickness and brain lesion volume analysis, respectively...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798954/acute-effect-of-pore-forming-clostridium-perfringens-%C3%AE%C2%B5-toxin-on-compound-action-potentials-of-optic-nerve-of-mouse
#8
Mercè Cases, Artur Llobet, Beatrice Terni, Inmaculada Gómez de Aranda, Marta Blanch, Briain Doohan, Alexander Revill, Angus M Brown, Juan Blasi, Carles Solsona
ε-Toxin is a pore forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D. It is synthesized as a less active prototoxin form that becomes fully active upon proteolytic activation. The toxin produces highly lethal enterotoxaemia in ruminants, has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specifically binds to myelinated fibers. We discovered that the toxin induced a release of ATP from isolated mice optic nerves, which are composed of myelinated fibers that are extended from the central nervous system...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798362/a-large-family-with-inherited-optic-disc-anomalies-a-correlation-between-a-new-genetic-locus-and-complex-ocular-phenotypes
#9
Decai Wang, Xinyuan Pan, Jiangdong Ji, Shun Gu, Xiantao Sun, Chao Jiang, Weiyi Xia, Zhihua Qiu, Xiaoli Kang, Sijia Ding, Qinghuai Liu, Xue Chen, Fang Lu, Chen Zhao
Congenital cavitary optic disc anomalies (CODA) is clinically typified by an enlarged excavation of optic disc in diverse degrees. Here, we report the clinical and genetic findings in a four-generation Chinese family with a complicated form of autosomal dominant CODA. Cardinal manifestations included bilateral excavated optic disc with multiple cilioretinal vessels emerging and bilateral retinoschisis with great variability in the range of extension and severity. Other intra-familial phenotypic diversities were also noted, including severity in retinal atrophy, onset age of visual impairment and presence of congenital nystagmus and strabismus...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798249/sight-preserving-orbital-decompression-a-novel-multidisciplinary-approach-to-managing-severe-proptosis-in-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#10
George Henry Lafford, Simon James Eccles, Jahrad Haq, Nara Orban
We describe the importance of collaboration between multiple surgical specialties in managing a complex case of sight-threatening severe proptosis in a young woman with type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) complicated by pre-existing contralateral blindness. Trans-nasal and lateral orbital surgical approaches were aided by stereotactic navigation to debulk a large frontal/sphenoid wing meningioma, which had been exerting pressure onto the right globe and optic nerve. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery along with preserved residual visual acuity, normal neurology and a good aesthetic outcome...
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797998/the-effect-of-dose-volume-parameters-on-central-nervous-system-relapse-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-receiving-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#11
Zeliha Guzeloz, Ayse Nur Demiral, Fatma Eren, Mehmet Adigul, Ahmet Ergin Capar, Handan Cakmakci, Sebnem Yilmaz, Ozlem Tufekci, Hale Oren, Riza Çetingoz
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of dosevolume parameters of brain parenchyma, optic nerves (ONs) and cribriform plate (CP), which were determined on central nervous system (CNS) control in pediatric leukemia patients who have undergone prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at our department. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the current study, the records of 14 patients were examined retrospectively. Along with the minimum and maximum doses for brain and CP, D95% (minimal dose received by the 95% volume of a structure) and V95% (percent volume of target receiving 95% of prescribed dose) could be obtained from the dose-volume histogram...
May 2017: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797550/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-the-peripapillary-retina-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma
#12
Shunhua Zhang, Chan Wu, Liang Liu, Yali Jia, Yao Zhang, Yang Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yong Zhong, David Huang
PURPOSE: To measure the change of peripapillary retinal vessel density (VD) in eyes with a history of acute primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive Chinese patients with history of unilateral acute PACG were enrolled. Eyes with acute PACG constituted the case group, while the contralateral eyes without attack constituted the control. All patients underwent ophthalmic examinations including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and visual field (VF)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797173/sphenoid-sinus-barotrauma-in-diving-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Jochen D Schipke, Sinclair Cleveland, Markus Drees
About 50% of scuba divers have suffered from barotrauma of the ears and about one-third from barotrauma of paranasal sinuses. The sphenoid sinuses are rarely involved. Vital structures, as internal carotid artery and optic nerve, adjoin the sphenoid sinus. Thus, barotrauma could lead to serious neurologic disorders, including blindness. After searching the literature (Medline) and other sources (Internet), we present some cases of sphenoid sinus barotrauma, because these injuries may be underreported and misdiagnosed due to the lack of awareness and knowledge...
August 10, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796925/neurological-comorbidity-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#14
Keiko Hirabaru, Muneaki Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of central nervous system comorbidities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: We performed a nationwide survey to investigate neurological comorbidities in 3-15-year-old children with NF1 in Japan by sending questionnaires to pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. A secondary questionnaire was sent to the parents of identified NF1 patients to assess neurological comorbidities including headache, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Rating Scale (RS), and the Social Responsiveness Scale -2...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796876/the-distribution-of-leakage-on-fluorescein-angiography-in-diabetic-macular-edema-a-new-approach-to-its-etiology
#15
Bilal Haj Najeeb, Christian Simader, Gabor Deak, Clemens Vass, Jutta Gamper, Alessio Montuoro, Bianca S Gerendas, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
Purpose: To determine the distribution of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA) and explore the clinically protective role of astrocytes against damage to the inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: A consecutive case series of 87 eyes of 87 patients with DME was included. We measured the leakage area in each field of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid on late-phase FA images. The normative thickness of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), in which the astrocytes are confined, was derived from a previous work using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796875/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-based-prediction-of-humphrey-24-2-visual-field-thresholds-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#16
Zhihui Guo, Young H Kwon, Kyungmoo Lee, Kai Wang, Andreas Wahle, Wallace L M Alward, John H Fingert, Daniel I Bettis, Chris A Johnson, Mona K Garvin, Milan Sonka, Michael D Abràmoff
Purpose: A pilot study showed that prediction of individual Humphrey 24-2 visual field (HVF 24-2) sensitivity thresholds from optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis is possible. We evaluate performance of an improved approach as well as 3 other predictive algorithms on a new, fully independent set of glaucoma subjects. Methods: Subjects underwent HVF 24-2 and 9-field OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis) testing. Nerve fiber (NFL), and ganglion cell and inner plexiform (GCL+IPL) layers were cosegmented and partitioned into 52 sectors matching HVF 24-2 test locations...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796108/research-and-clinical-application-of-three-dimensional-location-of-amygdaloid-body
#17
Haobo Duan, Pei Shang, Peng Bai, Zilu Li, Youqiong Li, Kailiang Cheng, Meiying Xin
Accurately representing the spatial location of the amygdaloid body can lay an anatomical basis for the neurosurgery operation for amputation of the amygdaloid body through lateral fissure approach. As we know, there are a number of nerve nucleuses and essential structures locating around amygdaloid body in our brain, especially optic tract. However, only few research had been done to protect these tissues or nerve nucleuses. Thus, we reconstructed the three-dimensional images of the amygdaloid body of the human brain and established a coordinate system...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795960/advances-in-experimental-optic-nerve-regeneration
#18
Bo Young Chun, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in experimental studies of optic nerve regeneration to better understand the pathophysiology of axon regrowth and provide insights into the future treatment of numerous optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and cannot regenerate if injured. There are several steps that regenerating axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must take following optic nerve injury that include: maximizing the intrinsic growth capacity of RGCs, overcoming the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve, and optimizing the reinnervation of regenerated axons to their targets in the brain...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795959/zika-virus-and-the-eye
#19
Bruno de Paula Freitas, Camila V Ventura, Mauricio Maia, Rubens Belfort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the ocular findings related to the Zika virus (ZIKV) based on the main studies published to date, describe the patterns of the lesions and risk factors, and identify the public health implications and scientific importance of this emerging disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In most studies, the ZIKV seems related to congenital ocular lesions and most mothers reported mild symptoms during the first pregnancy trimester...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795295/predictive-value-of-n95-waveforms-of-pattern-electroretinograms-pergs-in-children-with-optic-nerve-hypoplasia-onh
#20
Daphne McCulloch, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Cassandra Fink, Anthony C Fisher, Antonio Eleuteri, Mark S Borchert
PURPOSE: As part of a long-term, prospective study of prenatal and clinical risk factors for optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, pattern ERGs (PERGs) were evaluated for prognostic value using an automated objective and robust analytical method. METHODS: Participants were 33 children with ophthalmoscopically diagnosed ONH [disc diameter-to-disc macula ratio (DD/DM) less than 0.35 in one or both eyes on fundus photographs]. Using cycloplegia and chloral hydrate sedation in one session before 26 months of age, we recorded PERGs to checkerboard reversal using five check sizes...
August 9, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
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