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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#1
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339414/update-on-the-application-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration
#2
Hui Chen, Qian Zhang, Song Tan, Huazhu Fu, Bradley K Farris, Zhenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing development of surgical procedures and instruments, the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has been improved. OBJECTIVE: Through the past three decades, progress has been made in preventing visual loss from chronic optic nerve swelling in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), secondary intracranial hypertension and local optic nerve diseases. We now review the updated application of ONSF in those diseases. METHODS: The application of ONSF in papilledema due to IIH, secondary intracranial hypertension to cerebral venous sinus occlusion, Cryptococcal meningitis, and intracranial mass or tumors is reviewed...
March 23, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339297/long-term-effect-of-panretinal-photocoagulation-on-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-measurements-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Haeng-Jin Lee, Tae-Seen Kang, Baek-Soo Kwak, Young-Joon Jo, Jung-Yeul Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of panretinal photocoagulation on spectral domain optical coherence tomography measurements in diabetic retinopathy by comparing the thicknesses of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell layer, we used a Cirrus HD OCT® (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in normal and diabetic retinopathy cohorts. METHODS: We analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic between May 2013 and July 2014. The patients were classified into four groups: normal (Group A), diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (Group B), severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (Group C), and at least 3 years after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (Group D)...
March 24, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334035/early-inner-retinal-thinning-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jin A Choi, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Woo Kwon, Yun-Sub Shim, Dong Hyun Jee, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Chan Kee Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in the neural retina according to the presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in type 2 diabetes, and to determine the association between inner retina thickness and the severity of diabetic complications. METHODS: We studied non-glaucomatous patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects Circumpapillary RNFL and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333896/relationship-of-optic-nerve-structure-and-function-to-peripapillary-vessel-density-measurements-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-glaucoma
#5
Harsha L Rao, Zia S Pradhan, Robert N Weinreb, Srilakshmi Dasari, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Sharanya Raveendran, Narendra K Puttaiah, Jayasree P Venugopal, Dhanaraj A S Rao, Sathi Devi, Kaweh Mansouri, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sectoral and global structure-structure (vessel density-retinal nerve fiber layer thickness) and structure-function (vessel density-visual sensitivity loss) relationships of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle glaucoma and to determine if fractional polynomial (FP) models characterize the relationships better than linear models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, structure-structure and structure-function relationships of peripapillary vessel densities were determined in 227 eyes of 143 subjects (63 control and 164 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes) who had undergone standard automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography testing within 6 months of each other, using linear and FP models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333890/the-association-between-clinical-features-seen-on-fundus-photographs-and-glaucomatous-damage-detected-on-visual-fields-and-optical-coherence-tomography-scans
#6
Paula A Alhadeff, Carlos G De Moraes, Monica Chen, Ali S Raza, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
PURPOSE: To classify the appearance of the optic disc seen on fundus photographs of healthy subjects and patients with or suspected glaucoma whose diagnosis was based upon visual fields (VFs) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One eye of 100 patients with or suspected glaucoma and 62 healthy subjects were prospectively tested with 24-2 and 10-2 VF and macular and disc sdOCT cube scans. All eyes with or suspected glaucoma had a 24-2 mean deviation better than -6...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333858/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-causing-progressive-optic-nerve-edema-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#7
Astrid C Werner, Laurel N Vuong, Thomas R Hedges, Caroline R Baumal
PURPOSE: To report an human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient undergoing therapy for cryptococcal meningitis who developed progressive optic disc edema that was steroid responsive. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: One month after commencing antifungal treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, the patient developed bilateral, progressive, recurrent optic disc edema with subretinal fluid that coincided with initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and recovery of CD4 cell counts...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332994/predicting-patient-specific-dosimetric-benefits-of-proton-therapy-for-skull-base-tumors-using-a-geometric-knowledge-based-method
#8
David C Hall, Alexei V Trofimov, Brian A Winey, Norbert J Liebsch, Harald Paganetti
PURPOSE: To predict the organ at risk (OAR) dose levels achievable with proton beam therapy (PBT), solely based on the geometric arrangement of the target volume in relation to the OARs. A comparison with an alternative therapy yields a prediction of the patient-specific benefits offered by PBT. This could enable physicians at hospitals without proton capabilities to make a better-informed referral decision or aid patient selection in model-based clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Skull-base tumors were chosen to test the method, owing to their geometric complexity and multitude of nearby OARs...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331635/relationships-among-ocular-blood-flow-shown-by-laser-speckle-flowgraphy-retinal-arteriosclerotic-change-and-chorioretinal-circulation-time-obtained-by-fluorescein-angiography
#9
Hironori Osamura, Tomoaki Shiba, Takashi Itokawa, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuichi Hori
Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331373/decrease-of-the-foveal-avascular-zone-area-after-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-single-case-study
#10
Kazuyuki Kumagai, Akinori Uemura, Mariko Furukawa, Tetsuyuki Suetsugu, Nobuchika Ogino
PURPOSE: To report a patient whose foveal avascular zone (FAZ) decreased after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. METHODS: A 58-year-old woman underwent successful phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for a thin epiretinal membrane in an eye with a normal foveal contour. Optical coherence tomography angiographic en face images of the 3 mm×3 mm superficial and deep inner retinal vascular plexuses were examined preoperatively, and on days 1, 2, 9, and 37 postoperatively...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331329/successful-treatment-for-psychomotor-agitation-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-trazodone-risperidone-combination-a-case-report
#11
Zui Narita, Harumasa Takano, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a relapsing disease that typically affects the spinal cord and optic nerves. So far, a few studies have reported pharmacologic treatment for psychiatric symptoms in patients with NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, no literature has described psychomotor agitation associated with the disease and its treatment. We report an 84-year-old woman with NMOSD whose psychomotor agitation was effectively treated with a combination of trazodone and risperidone. Our observation suggests the ability of augmentation of antipsychotic drugs with antidepressants to ameliorate psychotic symptoms associated with NMOSD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329999/bilateral-cystic-coloboma-with-microphtalmos-and-eyelid-agenesis-us-and-mri-findings
#12
Youssef Omor, Benjamin Dhaene, Veronique Toppet, Marie Cassart, Patrice Jissendi-Tchofo
INTRODUCTION: The combination of bilateral microphthalmos, cystic coloboma and eyelid agenesis is rare. The definite diagnosis of this malformation is established by fundoscopic examination and confirmed by imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This disorder may be associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities. CASE REPORT: A 1-week-old male newborn was referred for bilateral eyelid agenesis. He was born at term by caesarean for foetal distress, after an uneventful gestation...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328978/thickness-of-retinal-layers-in-the-foveas-of-children-with-anisometropic-amblyopia
#13
Wuhe Chen, Jinling Xu, Jinjing Zhou, Zhouqun Gu, Shenghai Huang, Heming Li, Zhuoer Qin, Xinping Yu
PURPOSE: To use highly precise spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to determine whether there were structural abnormalities in the layers of different regions of the fovea in children with anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS: Eighteen children (mean age 7.8 years old; range 5-11 years) with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia and 18 age-matched control subjects participated. Foveal thickness was measured with an enhanced depth imaging system, SD-OCT and segmented into layers using custom developed software...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324116/thick-prelaminar-tissue-decreases-lamina-cribrosa-visibility
#14
Katie A Lucy, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman, Richard A Bilonick, Yun Ling, Larry Kagemann, Ian A Sigal, Ireneusz Grulkowski, Jonathan J Liu, James G Fujimoto, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Gadi Wollstein
Purpose: Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible LC microstructure was assessed subjectively using a grading system and objectively by analyzing the signal intensity of each scan's superpixel components. Manual delineations were made separately and in 3-dimensions quantifying prelaminar tissue thickness, analyzable regions of LC microstructure, and regions with a visible anterior LC (ALC) boundary...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#15
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324111/arap1-deficiency-causes-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-mice
#16
Ala Moshiri, Devin Humpal, Brian C Leonard, Denise M Imai, Addy Tham, Lynette Bower, Dave Clary, Thomas M Glaser, K C Kent Lloyd, Christopher J Murphy
Purpose: Small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulate membrane traffic and actin reorganization under the control of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Arap1 is an Arf-directed GAP that inhibits the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the early endosome, but the diversity of its functions is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Arap1 in the mammalian retina. Methods: Genetically engineered Arap1 knockout mice were screened for ocular abnormalities in the National Institutes of Health Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping (KOMP2) Project...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323869/tyrosine-mutated-aav2-mediated-shrna-silencing-of-pten-promotes-axon-regeneration-of-adult-optic-nerve
#17
ZhengRu Huang, ZiZhong Hu, Ping Xie, QingHuai Liu
Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway via deleting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been confirmed to enhance intrinsic growth capacity of neurons to facilitate the axons regeneration of central nervous system after injury. Considering conditional gene deletion is currently not available in clinical practice, we exploited capsid residue tyrosine 444 to phenylalanine mutated single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) as a vector delivering short hairpin RNA to silence PTEN to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survival and axons regeneration in adult rat optic nerve axotomy paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323178/study-on-the-deformations-of-the-lamina-cribrosa-during-glaucoma
#18
Hanjing Tian, Long Li, Fan Song
The lamina cribrosa is the primary site of optic nerve injury during glaucoma, and its deformations induced by elevated intraocular pressure are associated directly with the optic nerve injury and visual field defect. However, the deformations in a living body have been poorly understood yet so far. It is because that integral observation and precise measurement of the deformations in vivo are now almost impossible in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. In the present study, a new mechanical model of the lamina cribrosa is presented by using Reissner's thin plate theory...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322766/characterization-of-a-molt-related-myostatin-gene-fmmstn-from-the-banana-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis
#19
Rui Qun Zhuo, Ting Ting Zhou, Shi Ping Yang, Siuming Francis Chan
Myostatin is an important member of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) family that functions to regulate muscle growth in animals. In this study, the myostatin gene (FmMstn) and two slightly different (short and long forms) cDNAs of the banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis were cloned and characterized. Similar to Mstn gene of the scallop, fish and mammal, FmMstn gene consists of 3 exons and 2 introns. The 2 kb upstream promoter region of the FmMstn gene consists of putative response elements for myocyte enhancing factor (MEF2) and E-box factors...
March 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322502/mystery-solved-our-son-s-autism-and-extreme-self-injury-is-genetic-and-treatable
#20
Tanja Bartel
Our 17-year-old autistic son Jake is declining at the same rate his peers are developing. He has the pimples, the sudden height, and the hormones. But the right side of his body slumps like someone who has had a stroke. Once right handed, he now uses only his left hand. At 15, he knocked his eyes off their parallel tracks by slamming his temple into the corner of a wooden post. One eye looks straight ahead while the other looks up and to the side. Both optic nerves are damaged. All the damage is self-inflicted...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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