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Shigella and 2015

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932711/molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-shigella-isolates-during-2014-and-2015-trends-in-south-india
#1
Shalini Anandan, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Revathi Gajendiren, Valsan Philip Verghese, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
BACKGROUND: Shigella species are an important cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. This study describes the prevalence of Shigella spp. serotypes and their resistance profile in Vellore, South India from 2014 to 2015. METHODS: From 2014 to 2015, 338 Shigella strains were isolated from stool samples at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Identification and serotyping was carried out using standard protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done against commonly used antibiotics...
September 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932390/newest-data-on-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanism-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#2
Tingting Qin, Huimin Qian, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Lu Zhou, Chen Dong, Bing Gu, Xiang Huo
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and related presence of mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among Shigella flexneri isolates obtained from Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: A total of 400 Shigella flexneri clinical isolates collected during 2012-2015 were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the disc-diffusion method...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885918/travelers-diarrhea-an-update-on-the-incidence-etiology-and-risk-in-military-deployments-and-similar-travel-populations
#3
Chad K Porter, Scott Olson, Alexis Hall, Mark S Riddle
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has historically been a common illness among visitors to developing nations. Although recent studies indicate decreasing incidence of TD among short-term travelers, a systematic review of illness among long-term travelers, including deployed military personnel, has not been conducted in more than 10 years. We conducted a literature search of studies published between 2005 and 2015 that evaluated TD in populations of deployed military personnel or similar long-term travelers (travel ≥1 month) to developing nations...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735965/safety-profile-and-immunologic-responses-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-administered-intramuscularly-intradermally-and-intranasally-results-from-two-parallel-randomized-phase-1-clinical-studies-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-in-europe
#4
Odile Launay, David J M Lewis, Alessandra Anemona, Pierre Loulergue, Jo Leahy, Antonella Silvia Sciré, Anaïs Maugard, Elisa Marchetti, Stefano Zancan, Zhiming Huo, Simona Rondini, Rachid Marhaba, Oretta Finco, Laura B Martin, Jochen Auerbach, Daniel Cohen, Allan Saul, Christiane Gerke, Audino Podda
BACKGROUND: Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. METHODS: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665628/incidence-of-shigella-intestinal-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#5
Valerie F Williams, Shauna Stahlman, Gi-Taik Oh
During 2007-2016, there were 428 incident cases of Shigella infection among active component service members, with an overall crude incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs). Compared to their respective counterparts, overall incidence rates were highest among females, non-Hispanic black service members, those aged 35-39 years, members of the Army, and those in military healthcare occupations. With the exception of 2015, the annual incidence rates of shigellosis from 2007 through 2016 were relatively stable...
June 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643490/characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-with-fosfomycin-resistance-from-patients-in-china
#6
Yanyan Liu, Yue Cheng, Haifei Yang, Lifen Hu, Jun Cheng, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li
BACKGROUND: The emergence of fosfomycin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes is a serious threat to public health and a new challenge in shigellosis treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify fosfomycin resistance and characterize β-lactamase genes in fos-carrying isolates of Shigella flexneri from patients in China. METHODS: A total of 263 S. flexneri isolates were collected from 34 hospitals in the Anhui Province of China during September 2012-September 2015 and screened for fosA3, fosA, and fosC2 by PCR amplification and sequencing...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591819/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-cases-of-diarrhoeal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2015
#7
Zahra Sadouki, Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Marie A Chattaway, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Neil Woodford, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins
Objectives: Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. Methods: WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Results: Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
September 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575304/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-and-post-introduction-etiology-of-diarrhea-requiring-hospital-admission-in-haydom-tanzania-a-rural-african-setting
#9
James A Platts-Mills, Caroline Amour, Jean Gratz, Rosemary Nshama, Thomas Walongo, Buliga Mujaga, Athanasia Maro, Timothy L McMurry, Jie Liu, Estomih Mduma, Eric R Houpt
Background: No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on January 1, 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a qPCR-based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital. Methods: We obtained data on admissions among children under 5 years to Haydom Lutheran Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, and estimated the impact of vaccine introduction on all-cause diarrhea admissions...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490580/what-is-the-overlap-between-hiv-and-shigellosis-epidemics-in-england-further-evidence-of-msm-transmission
#10
Keerthi Mohan, Matthew Hibbert, Graeme Rooney, Malcolm Canvin, Tristan Childs, Claire Jenkins, Ian Simms, Peter Kirwan, Valerie Delpech, Zheng Yin, Gwenda Hughes, Nigel Field
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that sexual transmission between men has replaced foreign travel as the predominant mode of Shigella transmission in England. However, sexuality and HIV status are not routinely recorded for laboratory-reported Shigella, and the role of HIV in the Shigella epidemic is not well understood. METHODS: The Modular Open Laboratory Information System containing all Shigella cases reported to Public Health England (PHE) and the PHE HIV and AIDS Reporting System holding all adults living with diagnosed HIV in England were matched using a combination of Soundex code, date of birth and gender...
May 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453565/risk-factors-and-outcome-of-shigella-encephalopathy-in-bangladeshi-children
#11
Farzana Afroze, Tahmeed Ahmed, Monira Sarmin, Abu Smsb Shahid, K M Shahunja, Lubaba Shahrin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
BACKGROUND: Although, Shigella encephalopathy, a serious extra-intestinal complication of shigellosis, significantly increases the risks of death, data are very limited on predicting factors particularly related to electrolyte profiles in children below five years of age with Shigella encephalopathy. Our objective was to determine the clinical as well as laboratory predicting factors and outcome of children with Shigella encephalopathy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this unmatched case-control design, children aged 2-59 months having a positive stool culture for Shigella and who had their serum electrolytes been done from July 2012 to June 2015 were studied...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451440/microbiological-screenings-for-infection-control-in-unaccompanied-minor-refugees-the-german-armed-forces-medical-service-s-experience
#12
Winfried Maaßen, Dorothea Wiemer, Claudia Frey, Christina Kreuzberg, Egbert Tannich, Rebecca Hinz, Andreas Wille, Andreas Fritsch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
BACKGROUND: The German Military Medical Service contributed to the medical screening of unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) coming to Germany in 2014 and 2015. In this study, a broad range of diagnostic procedures was applied to identify microorganisms with clinical or public health significance. Previously, those tests had only been used to screen soldiers returning from tropical deployments. This instance is the first time the approach has been studied in a humanitarian context. METHODS: The offered screenings included blood cell counts, hepatitis B serology and microscopy of the stool to look for protozoa and worm eggs as well as PCR from stool samples targeting pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and helminths...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416464/microbiological-quality-of-water-in-a-city-with-persistent-and-recurrent-waterborne-diseases-under-tropical-sub-rural-conditions-the-case-of-kikwit-city-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#13
Alexis B Nienie, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Amandine Laffite, Patience Ngelinkoto, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Alphonse Matand, Crispin K Mulaji, Emmanuel M Biey, Pius T Mpiana, John Poté
The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405178/utilizing-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-bacterial-panel-to-detect-stool-pathogens-from-rectal-swabs
#14
Barbara DeBurger, Sarah Hanna, Eleanor A Powell, Cindi Ventrola, Joel E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The BD MAX™ Enteric Bacterial Panel (BDM-EBP) is designed and FDA-cleared to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Shiga toxin genes stx1/2 from stool samples. However, rectal swabs, which are not FDA-cleared for clinical testing with the BDM-EBP, are common specimens received from pediatric patients for enteric pathogen testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BDM-EBP to detect stool pathogens from rectal swabs. METHODS: Routine cultures, Shiga toxin testing, and molecular testing with BDM-EBP were performed on 272 sequential rectal swabs collected from August 2015 to December 2015...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373192/a-waterborne-outbreak-of-shigella-sonnei-with-resistance-to-azithromycin-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-china-in-2015
#15
Qiuxia Ma, Xuebin Xu, Ming Luo, Jian Wang, Chaojie Yang, Xiaofeng Hu, Beibei Liang, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Hongbo Liu, Wen Li, Yu Zhong, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song, Yansong Sun
Here, we report for the first time a waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei in China in 2015. Eleven multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. sonnei isolates were recovered, showing high resistance to azithromycin and third-generation cephalosporins in particular, due to an mph(A)- and blaCTX-M-14-harboring IncB/O/K/Z group transmissible plasmid of 104,285 kb in size. Our study highlights the potential prevalence of the MDR outbreak of S. sonnei in China and its further dissemination worldwide with the development of globalization...
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222842/antimicrobial-use-for-and-resistance-of-zoonotic-bacteria-recovered-from-nonhuman-primates
#16
Jeffrey Kim, Dondrae J Coble, Gregory W Salyards, Julie K Bower, William J Rinaldi, Gail B Plauche, Gregory G Habing
As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188118/an-11-year-study-of-shigellosis-and-shigella-species-in-taiyuan-china-active-surveillance-epidemic-characteristics-and-molecular-serotyping
#17
Lifeng Zhao, Yanwen Xiong, Dequan Meng, Jiane Guo, Yiping Li, Lirong Liang, Rui Han, Yanqin Wang, Xiaofang Guo, Rui Wang, Ladi Zhang, Li Gao, Jitao Wang
A hospital-based surveillance of shigellosis was conducted in Taiyuan from 2005 to 2015. A total of 2655 stool cultures were collected from patients with diarrhea, 115 were identified as S. flexneri and 107 were S. sonnei. The highest infection rates were found among children under 5 years of age (34.2 %), and during the summer (61.0 %). ​Six serotypes were identified among S. flexneriisolates:1a, 2a, 2b, Xv, X and Y. Serotype 2a and Xv were the dominant serotypes in two periods, 2012-2015 and 2005-2008, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128070/antimicrobial-use-for-and-resistance-of-zoonotic-bacteria-recovered-from-nonhuman-primates
#18
Jeffrey Kim Dondrae J Coble Gregory W Salyards Julie K Bower William J Rinaldi Gail B Plauche And Gregory G Habing
As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions...
January 26, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098543/increasing-antibiotic-resistance-in-shigella-spp-from-infected-new-york-city-residents-new-york-usa
#19
Kenya Murray, Vasudha Reddy, John S Kornblum, HaeNa Waechter, Ludwin F Chicaiza, Inessa Rubinstein, Sharon Balter, Sharon K Greene, Sarah L Braunstein, Jennifer L Rakeman, Catherine M Dentinger
Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098533/azithromycin-nonsusceptible-shigella-flexneri-3a-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-taiwan-2015-2016
#20
Ying-Shu Liao, Yen-Yi Liu, Yi-Chun Lo, Chien-Shun Chiou
We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex with men. The bacterial strains belonged to the sublineage A of a recently reported outbreak lineage associated with men who have sex with men, characterized by reduced azithromycin susceptibility and circulation in shigellosis low-risk regions.
February 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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