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Shigella and 2015

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717292/outbreak-investigation-following-the-2015-earthquake-disaster-in-nepal
#1
Geeta Shakya, Baburam Marasini, Khem Bahadur Karki, Bishnu Prasad Upadhaya, Jyoti Acharya, Shailaja Adhikari, Rosham Manjhi, Laxman Maharjan, Lilee Shrestha, Kamal Ranabhat, Sujan Babu Marahatta, Bikal Shrestha, Meghnath Dhimal
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks following natural disasters are reported in literature. Outbreaks were documented following natural disasters in many countries including Haiti. Such possibility following 2015 Nepal earthquake was a public health concern. Risk factors needed evaluation by post-disaster outbreak investigation. Hence, present study was undertaken to investigate potentials for such outbreak and to generate evidence for public health intervention. METHODS: The study was conducted between April - May, 2015, with the cooperation of National Public Health Laboratory, Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Nepal Health Research Council and the Chinese team...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693161/study-on-the-association-between-drug%C3%A2-resistance-and-gene-mutations-of-the-active-efflux-pump-acrab%C3%A2-tolc-gene-and-its-regulatory-genes
#2
Quan-Ping Ma, Liang Su, Jing-Wen Liu, Ming-Xiao Yao, Guang-Ying Yuan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the multi‑drug resistance of Shigella flexneri and the drug‑resistant gene cassette carried by integrons; in the meanwhile, to detect the associations between drug‑resistance and gene mutations of the active efflux pump acrAB‑tolC gene and its regulatory genes, including marOR, acrR and soxS. A total of 158 isolates were isolated from the stool samples of 1,026 children with diarrhoea aged 14 years old between May 2012 and October 2015 in Henan...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536830/screening-for-infectious-diseases-among-newly-arrived-asylum-seekers-bavaria-germany-2015
#3
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501823/multidrug-resistant-shigella-sonnei-carrying-plasmid-mediated-mcr-1-gene-in-china
#4
Qiuxia Ma, Yong Huang, Jian Wang, Xuebin Xu, Jane Hawkey, Chaojie Yang, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Rongrui Li, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Yigang Tong, Kathryn E Holt, Shaofu Qiu, Yansong Sun, Hongbin Song
Since the plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1 was first reported in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China, only one mcr-1-positive isolate of Shigella sonnei, containing inactivated mcr-1, has been reported worldwide. Here, we screened 1650 historical S. sonnei strains isolated from 2003 to 2015 in China for mcr-1. We determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes of mcr-1-positive isolates and investigated the transferability of polymyxin resistance by plasmid conjugation...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473015/molecular-analysis-of-integrons-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-in-shigella-spp-isolated-from-acute-pediatric-diarrhea-patients
#5
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Sajjad Omidi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi, Arash Okazi
Introduction: Shigella spp. is a growing global health concern due to increasing multiple drug resistance, commonly resulting in therapeutic failure. Integrons are gene expression systems run by integrase genes. The aims of this study were detection of class I, II and III integrons and assessment of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea patients. Materials and methods: From January to December 2015, 16 Shigella spp. were isolated from 310 non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples in Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#6
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349705/stool-cultures-at-the-icu-get-rid-of-it
#7
Carolin F Manthey, Darja Dranova, Martin Christner, Laura Berneking, Stefan Kluge, Ansgar W Lohse, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND: Stool cultures for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella and/or Yersinia spp. are frequently ordered in critically ill patients with diarrhea. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic yield in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Therefore, we performed a cohort study at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine of a University Hospital (11 ICUs). RESULTS: From all patients who were admitted to the ICU between 2010 and 2015, stool cultures were taken from 2...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217465/heavy-precipitation-as-a-risk-factor-for-shigellosis-among-homeless-persons-during-an-outbreak-oregon-2015-2016
#8
Jonas Z Hines, Meredith A Jagger, Thomas L Jeanne, Nicole West, Andrea Winquist, Byron F Robinson, Richard F Leman, Katrina Hedberg
OBJECTIVES: Shigella species are the third most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. During a Shigella sonnei outbreak in Oregon from July 2015 through June 2016, Shigella cases spread among homeless persons with onset of the wettest rainy season on record. METHODS: We conducted time series analyses using Poisson regression to determine if a temporal association between precipitation and shigellosis incidence existed. Models were stratified by housing status...
March 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148915/the-frequency-of-mutations-in-quinolone-resistance-determining-regions-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-shigella-isolates-recovered-from-pediatric-patients-in-tehran-iran-an-overlooked-problem
#9
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella species has been increasing reported in recent years. This study was carried out to find the mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants among the clinical isolates of Shigella sp. in Tehran, Iran. A total of 50 Shigella isolates were collected from five teaching therapeutic centers in Tehran, Iran and analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 20 months from July 2015 to January 2017...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019315/infectious-disease-screening-in-asylum-seekers-range-coverage-and-economic-evaluation-in-germany-2015
#10
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Katharina Wahedi, Stefan Noest, Joachim Szecsenyi, Oliver Razum
Screening asylum seekers for infectious diseases is widely performed, but economic evaluations of such are scarce. We performed a policy analysis and economic evaluation of such screening in Germany, and analysed the effect of screening policies on cost differences between federal states. Of the 16 states, screening was compulsory for tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seekers ≥ 16 years of age in all states as well as in children < 16 years of age and pregnant women in six states, hepatitis B and enteropathogens in three, syphilis in two and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in one state...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974944/whole-genome-sequencing-for-national-surveillance-of-shigella-flexneri
#11
Marie A Chattaway, David R Greig, Amy Gentle, Hassan B Hartman, Timothy J Dallman, Claire Jenkins
National surveillance of Shigella flexneri ensures the rapid detection of outbreaks to facilitate public health investigation and intervention strategies. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to type S. flexneri in order to detect linked cases and support epidemiological investigations. We prospectively analyzed 330 isolates of S. flexneri received at the Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit at Public Health England between August 2015 and January 2016. Traditional phenotypic and WGS sub-typing methods were compared...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932711/molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-shigella-isolates-during-2014-and-2015-trends-in-south-india
#12
Shalini Anandan, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Revathi Gajendiren, Valsan Philip Verghese, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
BACKGROUND: Shigella species are an important cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. This study describes the prevalence of Shigella spp. serotypes and their resistance profile in Vellore, South India from 2014 to 2015. METHODS: From 2014 to 2015, 338 Shigella strains were isolated from stool samples at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Identification and serotyping was carried out using standard protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done against commonly used antibiotics...
September 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932390/newest-data-on-fluoroquinolone-resistance-mechanism-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#13
Tingting Qin, Huimin Qian, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Lu Zhou, Chen Dong, Bing Gu, Xiang Huo
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and related presence of mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among Shigella flexneri isolates obtained from Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: A total of 400 Shigella flexneri clinical isolates collected during 2012-2015 were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the disc-diffusion method...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885918/travelers-diarrhea-an-update-on-the-incidence-etiology-and-risk-in-military-deployments-and-similar-travel-populations
#14
Chad K Porter, Scott Olson, Alexis Hall, Mark S Riddle
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has historically been a common illness among visitors to developing nations. Although recent studies indicate decreasing incidence of TD among short-term travelers, a systematic review of illness among long-term travelers, including deployed military personnel, has not been conducted in more than 10 years. We conducted a literature search of studies published between 2005 and 2015 that evaluated TD in populations of deployed military personnel or similar long-term travelers (travel ≥1 month) to developing nations...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735965/safety-profile-and-immunologic-responses-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-administered-intramuscularly-intradermally-and-intranasally-results-from-two-parallel-randomized-phase-1-clinical-studies-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-in-europe
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Odile Launay, David J M Lewis, Alessandra Anemona, Pierre Loulergue, Jo Leahy, Antonella Silvia Sciré, Anaïs Maugard, Elisa Marchetti, Stefano Zancan, Zhiming Huo, Simona Rondini, Rachid Marhaba, Oretta Finco, Laura B Martin, Jochen Auerbach, Daniel Cohen, Allan Saul, Christiane Gerke, Audino Podda
BACKGROUND: Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. METHODS: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665628/incidence-of-shigella-intestinal-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#16
Valerie F Williams, Shauna Stahlman, Gi-Taik Oh
During 2007-2016, there were 428 incident cases of Shigella infection among active component service members, with an overall crude incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs). Compared to their respective counterparts, overall incidence rates were highest among females, non-Hispanic black service members, those aged 35-39 years, members of the Army, and those in military healthcare occupations. With the exception of 2015, the annual incidence rates of shigellosis from 2007 through 2016 were relatively stable...
June 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643490/characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-of-shigella-flexneri-isolates-with-fosfomycin-resistance-from-patients-in-china
#17
Yanyan Liu, Yue Cheng, Haifei Yang, Lifen Hu, Jun Cheng, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li
BACKGROUND: The emergence of fosfomycin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes is a serious threat to public health and a new challenge in shigellosis treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify fosfomycin resistance and characterize β-lactamase genes in fos-carrying isolates of Shigella flexneri from patients in China. METHODS: A total of 263 S. flexneri isolates were collected from 34 hospitals in the Anhui Province of China during September 2012-September 2015 and screened for fosA3, fosA, and fosC2 by PCR amplification and sequencing...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591819/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-cases-of-diarrhoeal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2015
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zahra Sadouki, Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Marie A Chattaway, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Neil Woodford, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins
Objectives: Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. Methods: WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Results: Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
September 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575304/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-and-post-introduction-etiology-of-diarrhea-requiring-hospital-admission-in-haydom-tanzania-a-rural-african-setting
#20
James A Platts-Mills, Caroline Amour, Jean Gratz, Rosemary Nshama, Thomas Walongo, Buliga Mujaga, Athanasia Maro, Timothy L McMurry, Jie Liu, Estomih Mduma, Eric R Houpt
Background: No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on January 1, 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a qPCR-based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital. Methods: We obtained data on admissions among children under 5 years to Haydom Lutheran Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, and estimated the impact of vaccine introduction on all-cause diarrhea admissions...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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