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Shigella and 2015

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591819/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-cases-of-diarrhoeal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2015
#1
Zahra Sadouki, Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Marie A Chattaway, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Neil Woodford, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins
Objectives: Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. Methods: WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Results: Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
June 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575304/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-and-post-introduction-etiology-of-diarrhea-requiring-hospital-admission-in-haydom-tanzania-a-rural-african-setting
#3
James A Platts-Mills, Caroline Amour, Jean Gratz, Rosemary Nshama, Thomas Walongo, Buliga Mujaga, Athanasia Maro, Timothy L McMurry, Jie Liu, Estomih Mduma, Eric R Houpt
Background: No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on January 1, 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a qPCR-based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital. Methods: We obtained data on admissions among children under 5 years to Haydom Lutheran Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, and estimated the impact of vaccine introduction on all-cause diarrhea admissions...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490580/what-is-the-overlap-between-hiv-and-shigellosis-epidemics-in-england-further-evidence-of-msm-transmission
#4
Keerthi Mohan, Matthew Hibbert, Graeme Rooney, Malcolm Canvin, Tristan Childs, Claire Jenkins, Ian Simms, Peter Kirwan, Valerie Delpech, Zheng Yin, Gwenda Hughes, Nigel Field
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that sexual transmission between men has replaced foreign travel as the predominant mode of Shigella transmission in England. However, sexuality and HIV status are not routinely recorded for laboratory-reported Shigella, and the role of HIV in the Shigella epidemic is not well understood. METHODS: The Modular Open Laboratory Information System containing all Shigella cases reported to Public Health England (PHE) and the PHE HIV and AIDS Reporting System holding all adults living with diagnosed HIV in England were matched using a combination of Soundex code, date of birth and gender...
May 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453565/risk-factors-and-outcome-of-shigella-encephalopathy-in-bangladeshi-children
#5
Farzana Afroze, Tahmeed Ahmed, Monira Sarmin, Abu Smsb Shahid, K M Shahunja, Lubaba Shahrin, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
BACKGROUND: Although, Shigella encephalopathy, a serious extra-intestinal complication of shigellosis, significantly increases the risks of death, data are very limited on predicting factors particularly related to electrolyte profiles in children below five years of age with Shigella encephalopathy. Our objective was to determine the clinical as well as laboratory predicting factors and outcome of children with Shigella encephalopathy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this unmatched case-control design, children aged 2-59 months having a positive stool culture for Shigella and who had their serum electrolytes been done from July 2012 to June 2015 were studied...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451440/microbiological-screenings-for-infection-control-in-unaccompanied-minor-refugees-the-german-armed-forces-medical-service-s-experience
#6
Winfried Maaßen, Dorothea Wiemer, Claudia Frey, Christina Kreuzberg, Egbert Tannich, Rebecca Hinz, Andreas Wille, Andreas Fritsch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
BACKGROUND: The German Military Medical Service contributed to the medical screening of unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) coming to Germany in 2014 and 2015. In this study, a broad range of diagnostic procedures was applied to identify microorganisms with clinical or public health significance. Previously, those tests had only been used to screen soldiers returning from tropical deployments. This instance is the first time the approach has been studied in a humanitarian context. METHODS: The offered screenings included blood cell counts, hepatitis B serology and microscopy of the stool to look for protozoa and worm eggs as well as PCR from stool samples targeting pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and helminths...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416464/microbiological-quality-of-water-in-a-city-with-persistent-and-recurrent-waterborne-diseases-under-tropical-sub-rural-conditions-the-case-of-kikwit-city-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#7
Alexis B Nienie, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Amandine Laffite, Patience Ngelinkoto, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Alphonse Matand, Crispin K Mulaji, Emmanuel M Biey, Pius T Mpiana, John Poté
The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405178/utilizing-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-bacterial-panel-to-detect-stool-pathogens-from-rectal-swabs
#8
Barbara DeBurger, Sarah Hanna, Eleanor A Powell, Cindi Ventrola, Joel E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The BD MAX™ Enteric Bacterial Panel (BDM-EBP) is designed and FDA-cleared to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Shiga toxin genes stx1/2 from stool samples. However, rectal swabs, which are not FDA-cleared for clinical testing with the BDM-EBP, are common specimens received from pediatric patients for enteric pathogen testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BDM-EBP to detect stool pathogens from rectal swabs. METHODS: Routine cultures, Shiga toxin testing, and molecular testing with BDM-EBP were performed on 272 sequential rectal swabs collected from August 2015 to December 2015...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373192/a-waterborne-outbreak-of-shigella-sonnei-with-resistance-to-azithromycin-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-china-in-2015
#9
Qiuxia Ma, Xuebin Xu, Ming Luo, Jian Wang, Chaojie Yang, Xiaofeng Hu, Beibei Liang, Fuli Wu, Xiaoxia Yang, Jinyan Wang, Hongbo Liu, Wen Li, Yu Zhong, Peng Li, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song, Yansong Sun
Here, we report for the first time a waterborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei in China in 2015. Eleven multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. sonnei isolates were recovered, showing high resistance to azithromycin and third-generation cephalosporins in particular, due to an mph(A)- and blaCTX-M-14-harboring IncB/O/K/Z group transmissible plasmid of 104,285 kb in size. Our study highlights the potential prevalence of the MDR outbreak of S. sonnei in China and its further dissemination worldwide with the development of globalization...
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222842/antimicrobial-use-for-and-resistance-of-zoonotic-bacteria-recovered-from-nonhuman-primates
#10
Jeffrey Kim, Dondrae J Coble, Gregory W Salyards, Julie K Bower, William J Rinaldi, Gail B Plauche, Gregory G Habing
As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188118/an-11-year-study-of-shigellosis-and-shigella-species-in-taiyuan-china-active-surveillance-epidemic-characteristics-and-molecular-serotyping
#11
Lifeng Zhao, Yanwen Xiong, Dequan Meng, Jiane Guo, Yiping Li, Lirong Liang, Rui Han, Yanqin Wang, Xiaofang Guo, Rui Wang, Ladi Zhang, Li Gao, Jitao Wang
A hospital-based surveillance of shigellosis was conducted in Taiyuan from 2005 to 2015. A total of 2655 stool cultures were collected from patients with diarrhea, 115 were identified as S. flexneri and 107 were S. sonnei. The highest infection rates were found among children under 5 years of age (34.2 %), and during the summer (61.0 %). ​Six serotypes were identified among S. flexneriisolates:1a, 2a, 2b, Xv, X and Y. Serotype 2a and Xv were the dominant serotypes in two periods, 2012-2015 and 2005-2008, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128070/antimicrobial-use-for-and-resistance-of-zoonotic-bacteria-recovered-from-nonhuman-primates
#12
Jeffrey Kim Dondrae J Coble Gregory W Salyards Julie K Bower William J Rinaldi Gail B Plauche And Gregory G Habing
As a growing threat to human and animal health, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a central public-health topic. Largescale surveillance systems, such as the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), are now established to monitor and provide guidance regarding AMR, but comprehensive literature on AMR among NHP is sparse. This study provides data regarding current antimicrobial use strategies and the prevalence of AMR in zoonotic bacteria recovered from NHP within biomedical research institutions...
January 26, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098543/increasing-antibiotic-resistance-in-shigella-spp-from-infected-new-york-city-residents-new-york-usa
#13
Kenya Murray, Vasudha Reddy, John S Kornblum, HaeNa Waechter, Ludwin F Chicaiza, Inessa Rubinstein, Sharon Balter, Sharon K Greene, Sarah L Braunstein, Jennifer L Rakeman, Catherine M Dentinger
Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098533/azithromycin-nonsusceptible-shigella-flexneri-3a-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-taiwan-2015-2016
#14
Ying-Shu Liao, Yen-Yi Liu, Yi-Chun Lo, Chien-Shun Chiou
We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex with men. The bacterial strains belonged to the sublineage A of a recently reported outbreak lineage associated with men who have sex with men, characterized by reduced azithromycin susceptibility and circulation in shigellosis low-risk regions.
February 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028547/recent-outbreaks-of-shigellosis-in-california-caused-by-two-distinct-populations-of-shigella-sonnei-with-either-increased-virulence-or-fluoroquinolone-resistance
#15
Varvara K Kozyreva, Guillaume Jospin, Alexander L Greninger, James P Watt, Jonathan A Eisen, Vishnu Chaturvedi
Shigella sonnei has caused unusually large outbreaks of shigellosis in California in 2014 and 2015. Preliminary data indicated the involvement of two distinct bacterial populations, one from San Diego and San Joaquin (SDi/SJo) and one from the San Francisco (SFr) Bay area. Whole-genome analysis and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 68 outbreak and archival isolates of S. sonnei were performed to investigate the microbiological factors related to these outbreaks. Both SDi/SJo and SFr populations, as well as almost all of the archival S...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965649/the-12-gastrointestinal-pathogens-spectrum-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-a-sentinel-hospital-shenzhen-china
#16
Hongwei Shen, Jinjin Zhang, Yinghui Li, Sirou Xie, Yixiang Jiang, Yanjie Wu, Yuhui Ye, Hong Yang, Haolian Mo, Chaoman Situ, Qinghua Hu
Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931682/fluoroquinolone-consumption-and-resistance-trends-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-other-respiratory-pathogens-ecological-antibiotic-pressure-and-consequences-in-pakistan-2009-2015
#17
S Shakoor, S Tahseen, K Jabeen, R Fatima, F R Malik, A H Rizvi, R Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important anti-tuberculous drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Resistance to FQs leads to fewer options for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), and infection with such strains may also require longer treatment duration. Trends of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are indicators of MTB-resistance evolution. Drivers of such resistance need to be understood and studied to inform preventive strategies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#18
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871241/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-associated-risk-factors-of-shigella-and-salmonella-among-food-handlers-in-arba-minch-university-south-ethiopia
#19
Mohammedaman Mama, Getaneh Alemu
BACKGROUND: The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849049/alterations-in-the-airborne-bacterial-community-during-asian-dust-events-occurring-between-february-and-march-2015-in-south-korea
#20
Seho Cha, Dongwook Lee, Jun Hyeong Jang, Sora Lim, Dahye Yang, Taegun Seo
During Asian dust events, a relatively high concentration of particulate matter is transported by wind from arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, to nearby countries, including China, Korea, and Japan. The dust particles contain various microorganisms, which can affect human health as well as the environmental microbe population. In the current study, we investigated the characteristics of the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events between February and March 2015 in South Korea...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
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