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Shigella and 2015

Anamariela Tijerino Ayala, Hilda María Bolaños Acuña, María Teresa Acuña Calvo, José Luis Vargas Morales, Elena Campos Chacón
Plasmid-mediated AmpC are enzymes belonging to the group of β-lactamases and encoded by bla AmpC genes. Of these enzymes, those known as type CMY-2 are the most frequently reported worldwide. Detection of enterobacteria that produce CMY-2-type plasmid-mediated AmpC is clinically important since the use of β-lactam antibiotics can result in treatment failure. It is also important from a public health standpoint owing to the capacity for conjugative plasmid transfer to other enterobacteria, both within the community and in nosocomial environments...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Anna Bowen, Julian Grass, Amelia Bicknese, Davina Campbell, Jacqueline Hurd, Robert D Kirkcaldy
Shigella spp. cause ≈500,000 illnesses in the United States annually, and resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin is emerging. We investigated associations between transmission route and antimicrobial resistance among US shigellosis clusters reported during 2011-2015. Of 32 clusters, 9 were caused by shigellae resistant to ciprofloxacin (3 clusters), ceftriaxone (2 clusters), or azithromycin (7 clusters); 3 clusters were resistant to >1 of these drugs. We observed resistance to any of these drugs in all 7 clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM) but in only 2 of the other 25 clusters (p<0...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kamonporn Poramathikul, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Sivhour Chiek, Wilawan Oransathid, Sirigade Ruekit, Panida Nobthai, Woradee Lurchachaiwong, Oralak Serichantalergs, Chanthap Lon, Brett Swierczewski
We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options.
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jonas Z Hines, Taylor Pinsent, Kathleen Rees, Jennifer Vines, Anna Bowen, Jacqueline Hurd, Richard F Leman, Katrina Hedberg
In July 2015, Shigella sonnei infections with a specific pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern linked to a multistate outbreak were recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Portland metropolitan area, and an outbreak investigation was initiated. During November 2015, isolates with PFGE patterns indistinguishable from the outbreak strain were identified in cases reported in four women, none of whom had epidemiologic links to other affected persons; however, three reported homelessness...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ankita Das, Mailan Natarajan, Jharna Mandal
Ciprofloxacin resistant Shigella sonnei across the globe have been increasing alarmingly. In order to understand the emergence of S.sonnei with respect to ciprofloxacin resistance in our patient population, the following study was carried out. Of the 184 Shigella sp. Isolated from 2012 to 2015, 34 S.sonnei which were confirmed by standard methods and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16/34 quinolone resistant isolates tested ranged from 4micrograms/ml to 16micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin, from 16 micrograms/ml to 64 micrograms/ml for ofloxacin and from 16micrograms/ml to 64micrograms/ml for levofloxacin...
2016: PloS One
Shun-Xian Zhang, Yong-Ming Zhou, Wen Xu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Shao-Hong Chen, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Wen-Peng Gu, Jian-Wen Yin, Emmanuel Serrano, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a global health problem, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in children. It has been suggested that enteric pathogen co-infections play an important role in gastroenteritis, but most research efforts have only focused on a small range of species belonging to a few pathogen groups. This study aimed to assess the impact of co-infections with a broad range of enteric pathogens on children aged below five years who suffer from acute diarrhea in southwest China...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Timothy J Dallman, Marie A Chattaway, Piers Mook, Gauri Godbole, Paul D Crook, Claire Jenkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
T Georgakopoulou, G Mandilara, K Mellou, K Tryfinopoulou, A Chrisostomou, H Lillakou, C Hadjichristodoulou, A Vatopoulos
Shigellosis is endemic in most developing countries and thus a known risk in refugees and internally displaced persons. In 2015, a massive influx of refugees into Greece, due to the political crisis in the Middle East, led to the development of appropriate conditions for outbreaks of communicable diseases as shigellosis. We present a cluster of 16 shigellosis cases in refugees, detected by the implementation of a syndromic notification system in one transit centre in Athens, between 20 August and 7 October 2015...
August 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Michel Doumith, Gauri Godbole, Philip Ashton, Lesley Larkin, Tim Dallman, Martin Day, Michaela Day, Berit Muller-Pebody, Matthew J Ellington, Elizabeth de Pinna, Alan P Johnson, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: In response to the first report of transmissible colistin resistance mediated by the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from animals and humans in China, we sought to determine its presence in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the UK. METHODS: The PHE archive of whole-genome sequences of isolates from surveillance collections, submissions to reference services and research projects was retrospectively analysed for the presence of mcr-1 using Genefinder...
August 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Katherine Lamba, Jennifer A Nelson, Akiko C Kimura, Alyssa Poe, Joan Collins, Annie S Kao, Laura Cruz, Gregory Inami, Julie Vaishampayan, Alvaro Garza, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Duc J Vugia
Shiga toxins (Stx) are primarily associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S. sonnei isolates for the presence and expression of stx genes, perform DNA subtyping, describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of case-patients, and investigate for sources of infection. During June 2014-April 2015, we identified 56 cases of Stx1-producing S...
April 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sharon M Tennant, A Duncan Steele, Marcela F Pasetti
Infectious diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and of mortality; the burden of disease affects individuals of all ages but particularly young children, especially those living in poor regions where the disease is endemic. It is also a health concern for international travelers to these areas. Experts on vaccines and enteric infections and advocates for global health improvement gathered in Scotland from 8 to 10 July 2015 to discuss recent advances in the assessment and understanding of the burden of enteric diseases and progress in the development and implementation of strategies to prevent these infections...
April 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
C-S Chiou, H Izumiya, M Kawamura, Y-S Liao, Y-S Su, H-H Wu, W-C Chen, Y-C Lo
Ciprofloxacin-resistant shigellosis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been reported in Asia. During 3 March to 6 May 2015, the Notifiable Disease Surveillance System detected nine non-imported Shigella sonnei infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected Taiwanese MSM. We conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation using a 1 : 5 matched case-control study and laboratory characterizations for the isolates. Of the nine patients, four reported engagement in oral-anal sex before illness onset...
April 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Björn Hiller, Veit Hornung
The effector proteins IpaJ and VirA, from the bacterium Shigella flexneri, block the general secretory pathway (GSP) at different stages. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Dobbs et al. (2015) use these proteins as a tool to pinpoint STING trafficking and signaling to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC).
August 12, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Tamara Daniluk, Dorota Rozkiewicz, Maria L Zaremba, Elzbieta Oldak, Malgorzata Sciepuk, Katarzyna Leszczynska
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the main causative agents of community-acquired acute diarrhoea in children using conventional methods and PCR. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 100 children under 5 years of age with acute diarrhoea during the autumn-winter period of 2010-2011. Rotaviruses and adenoviruses were detected by the stool antigen immunoassay, and Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Clostridium difficile, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), and diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli were detected by culture methods and PCR...
August 2015: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Charles Pepe-Ranney, Chantal Koechli, Ruth Potrafka, Cheryl Andam, Erin Eggleston, Ferran Garcia-Pichel, Daniel H Buckley
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are key components of ecosystem productivity in arid lands and they cover a substantial fraction of the terrestrial surface. In particular, BSC N2-fixation contributes significantly to the nitrogen (N) budget of arid land ecosystems. In mature crusts, N2-fixation is largely attributed to heterocystous cyanobacteria; however, early successional crusts possess few N2-fixing cyanobacteria and this suggests that microorganisms other than cyanobacteria mediate N2-fixation during the critical early stages of BSC development...
February 2016: ISME Journal
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Diarrhea is a highly common infection among children, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. After pneumonia, diarrhea remains the second leading cause of neonatal deaths. Numerous viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteric pathogens are associated with diarrhea. With increasing antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens, there is an urgent need for global surveillance of the mutations and resistance genes primarily responsible for resistance to antibiotic treatment. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms are important in this regard as they have a vast potential to be utilized as molecular diagnostics for gene-disease or pharmacogenomics association studies linking genotype to phenotype...
June 2015: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
I Simms, N Field, C Jenkins, T Childs, V L Gilbart, T J Dallman, P Mook, P D Crook, G Hughes
Surveillance data suggest an intensification of the shigellosis epidemic associated with sexual transmissionin men who have sex with men (MSM) in England with separate introductions into the population. In 2014, sexual transmission between MSM might have accounted for 97%, 89%, and 43% of non-travel associated Shigella flexneri 3a and S. flexneri 2a, andS. sonnei diagnoses. Clinicians should sensitively ascertain sexual history for men with enteric infections to facilitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate management...
2015: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Anna Bowen, Jacqueline Hurd, Cora Hoover, Yvette Khachadourian, Elizabeth Traphagen, Emily Harvey, Tanya Libby, Sara Ehlers, Melissa Ongpin, J Corbin Norton, Amelia Bicknese, Akiko Kimura
In December 2014, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease, detected a multistate cluster of Shigella sonnei infections with an uncommon pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. CDC's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) laboratory determined that isolates from this cluster were resistant to ciprofloxacin, the antimicrobial medication recommended to treat adults with shigellosis. To understand the scope of the outbreak and to try to identify its source, CDC and state and local health departments conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations...
April 3, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Shannon J Heine, Olga L Franco-Mahecha, Xiaotong Chen, Shyamal Choudhari, William C Blackwelder, Maarten L van Roosmalen, Kees Leenhouts, Wendy L Picking, Marcela F Pasetti
Shigella spp. are among the enteric pathogens with the highest attributable incidence of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age living in endemic areas. There are no vaccines available to prevent this disease. In this work, we investigated a new Shigella vaccine concept consisting of nonliving, self-adjuvanted, Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLP) displaying Shigella invasion plasmid antigen (Ipa) B and IpaD and examined its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in adult and newborn/infant mice immunized via the nasal route...
August 2015: Immunology and Cell Biology
Prerna Vohra, Garry W Blakely
The Millennium Declaration committed the 193 member states of the United Nations to end poverty by 2015. Despite the efforts of the UN and World Health Organisation, and the G8 commitment to spend a fixed proportion of gross national income on overseas aid, more than 2.6 billion people still lack access to proper sanitation. The absence of effective public health strategies in developing countries results in significant health burdens following gastrointestinal infections. Diarrhoea associated with infections resulting from oral-faecal contamination is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age, primarily in Africa and South Asia...
September 2013: Systems and Synthetic Biology
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