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glucose metabolism and fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620410/transcriptome-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-induced-by-low-and-high-potassium-levels-provides-insight-into-fruit-sugar-metabolism-of-pear
#1
Changwei Shen, Jie Wang, Xiaoqian Shi, Yalong Kang, Changyan Xie, Lirun Peng, Caixia Dong, Qirong Shen, Yangchun Xu
Potassium (K) deficiency is a common abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth of fruit and thus reduce crop yields. Little research has been conducted on pear transcriptional changes under low and high K conditions. Here, we performed an experiment with 7-year-old pot-grown "Huangguan" pear trees treated with low, Control or high K levels (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g·K2O/kg soil, respectively) during fruit enlargement and mature stages. We identified 36,444 transcripts from leaves and fruit using transcriptome sequencing technology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575154/effects-of-propylene-glycol-or-elevated-lh-during-follicle-development-on-ovulation-fertilization-and-early-embryo-development
#2
Katherine S Hackbart, Robb W Bender, Paulo D Carvalho, Lais M Vieira, Ana R Dresch, Jerry N Guenther, Hidir Gencoglu, Anibal B Nascimento, Randy D Shaver, Milo C Wiltbank
Seventeen non-lactating Holstein cows were superovulated in a Latin-square designed experiment to determine effects of increased propylene glycol (PROP) and LH during antral follicle development on ovarian function, fertilization, and early embryo quality. PROP was orally drenched every 4 h for 7d to induce hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic changes. LH concentrations were altered by increasing LH (3-fold) during last 2 d of superovulation. Treatment groups were: 1) Control-oral drenching with water plus low-LH preparation; 2) HLH-water plus high-LH preparation; 3) PROP-drenching with PROP plus low-LH; 4) PROP/HLH-PROP plus high-LH...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571659/gut-microbiota-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-diabetes-epidemic
#3
REVIEW
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Mithieux Gilles, Krishnan Swaminathan, Subbiah Ramasamy
Diabetes is rapidly emerging as one of the biggest health concerns worldwide, with profound implications for disability, mortality, and costs. This suddenly escalating rate of diabetes correlates with global industrialization and the production of plastics, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, electronic waste, and food additives that release endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the environment and the food chain. Emerging evidence indicates an association between exposure of EDCs and diabetes. In humans, these chemicals are also metabolized by the gut microbiota and thereby their toxicodynamics are altered...
May 29, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535836/season-of-birth-is-associated-with-first-lactation-milk-yield-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#4
M Van Eetvelde, M M Kamal, L Vandaele, G Opsomer
The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511935/bile-acids-and-male-fertility-from-mouse-to-human
#5
REVIEW
Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors namely the Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXRα) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1(GPBAR1; TGR5). Here we review the reports highlighting the impacts of bile acids on testicular physiology and on male reproductive functions...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475193/metabolomic-profiling-and-biochemical-evaluation-of-the-follicular-fluid-of-endometriosis-patients
#6
Santonastaso Marianna, Pucciarelli Alessia, Costantini Susan, Caprio Francesca, Sorice Angela, Capone Francesca, Natella Antonella, Iardino Patrizia, Colacurci Nicola, Chiosi Emilio
Diseases are complex systems that can be studied through the integration of data derived from different disciplines to obtain a global and reliable picture of the biological phenomenon under investigation. Based on the recent observations that the metabolomics profiling of follicular fluids reflects the ovarian microenvironment of women and that endometriosis represents an example of complex diseases, clearly diagnosed by laparoscopy, we thought that the follicular fluids of endometriosis patients can represent a study model to evaluate the possibility of integrating data obtained by different approaches...
June 1, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462079/loss-of-hepatic-deptor-alters-the-metabolic-transition-to-fasting
#7
Alexandre Caron, Mathilde Mouchiroud, Nicolas Gautier, Sébastien M Labbé, Romain Villot, Laurie Turcotte, Blandine Secco, Guillaume Lamoureux, Michael Shum, Yves Gélinas, André Marette, Denis Richard, David M Sabatini, Mathieu Laplante
OBJECTIVE: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions into distinct protein complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) that regulates growth and metabolism. DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is part of these complexes and is known to reduce their activity. Whether DEPTOR loss affects metabolism and organismal growth in vivo has never been tested. METHODS: We have generated a conditional transgenic mouse allowing the tissue-specific deletion of DEPTOR...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458903/using-kisspeptin-to-assess-gnrh-function-in-an-unusual-case-of-primary-amenorrhoea
#8
S Vimalesvaran, S Narayanaswamy, L Yang, J K Prague, A Buckley, A D Miras, S Franks, K Meeran, W S Dhillo
SUMMARY: Primary amenorrhoea is defined as the failure to commence menstruation by the age of 15 years, in the presence of normal secondary sexual development. The potential causes of primary amenorrhoea extend from structural to chromosomal abnormalities. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of secondary amenorrhoea but an uncommon cause of primary amenorrhoea. An early and prompt diagnosis of PCOS is important, as up to 30% of these women are predisposed to glucose intolerance and obesity, with the subgroup of women presenting with primary amenorrhoea and PCOS displaying a higher incidence of metabolic dysfunction...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407789/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-a-schistosoma-japonicum-insulin-like-peptide
#9
Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus, Pengfei Cai, Wei Hu, Hong You
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that insulin receptors in schistosomes, triggered by host insulin, play an important role in parasite growth, development and fecundity by regulating glucose metabolism. However, limited information is available on the recently identified endogenous insulin-like peptide (ILP) in blood flukes. RESULTS: We isolated ILPs from Schistosoma japonicum (SjILP) and S. recognised (SmILP) and present results of their molecular and structural analysis...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344405/biochemical-components-of-seminal-plasma-and-their-correlation-to-the-fresh-seminal-characteristics-in-marwari-stallions-and-poitou-jacks
#10
Thirumala Rao Talluri, Gorakh Mal, Sanjay Kumar Ravi
AIM: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323106/implications-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-cultured-human-sertoli-cells-glycolytic-and-oxidative-profile
#11
Tânia R Dias, Marco G Alves, Joaquina Silva, Alberto Barros, Mário Sousa, Susana Casal, Branca M Silva, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells are crucial for the success of spermatogenesis, which is the biological process that ensures male fertility. These cells present high metabolic rates, being often subjected to high oxidative stress levels that, if uncontrolled, may compromise male fertility. Since the most abundant tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has demonstrated a potent preventive activity against oxidative stress, we have evaluated its effect at concentrations of 5 and 50μM, on the metabolism, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative profile of human Sertoli cells (hSCs)...
March 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295644/effect-of-vitrification-on-the-mrna-transcriptome-of-bovine-oocytes
#12
N Wang, C-Y Li, H-B Zhu, H-S Hao, H-Y Wang, C-L Yan, S-J Zhao, W-H Du, D Wang, Y Liu, Y-W Pang, X-M Zhao
Vitrification has been shown to decrease the developmental capacity of mammalian oocytes, and this is closely associated with the abnormal mRNA expressions of vitrified oocytes. However, the effect of vitrification on transcriptional machinery of oocytes examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has yet to be defined. In the present study, the mRNA transcriptomes of fresh and vitrified bovine oocytes were analysed by Smart-seq2 with the differently expressed genes determined by DEseq2 (an adjusted p-value of .05 and a minimum fold change of 2)...
March 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268040/long-term-liquid-storage-and-reproductive-evaluation-of-an-innovative-boar-semen-extender-formula12-%C3%A2-containing-a-non-reducing-disaccharide-and-an-enzymatic-agent
#13
Carla Bresciani, Annalisa Bianchera, Ruggero Bettini, Annamaria Buschini, Laura Marchi, Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Alberto Sabbioni, Federico Righi, Claudio Mazzoni, Enrico Parmigiani
There are no reports of saccharolytic enzymes being used in the preparation of formulations for animal semen extenders. In the present study, the use of an innovative semen extender (Formula12(®)) in the long-term liquid storage of boar semen at 17°C was evaluated. The formulation included use of a disaccharide (sucrose) as the energy source precursor coupled to an enzymatic agent (invertase). The innovative extender was evaluated and compared in vitro to a commercial extender (Vitasem LD(®)) for the following variables: Total Motility (TM), Forward Progressive Motility (FPM), sperm morphology, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and chromatin instability...
February 24, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236849/should-metformin-be-included-in-fertility-treatment-of-pcos-patients
#14
Jigal Haas, Yaakov Bentov
Metformin, a drug developed for the treatment of patients with type II diabetes, has become commonly prescribed medication for PCOS patients. Initially, metformin was prescribed for patients with impaired glucose tolerance at the pre conception period, however more recently its use was expanded to many of the PCOS patients and for the whole duration of pregnancy. Several studies examining the effects of Metformin during pregnancy reported a lower pregnancy loss, reduced gestational diabetes and no increased risk for birth defects, however, several more recent studies also raised concerns about its safe use...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217809/-generation-and-phenotype-analysis-of-zebrafish-mutations-of-obesity-related-genes-lepr-and-mc4r
#15
Fei Fei, Shao-Yang Sun, Yu-Xiao Yao, Xu Wang
Obesity has become a severe public health problem across the world, and seriously affects the health and life quality of human beings. Here we generated lepr and mc4r mutant zebrafish via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, and performed morphological and functional characterizations of those mutants. We observed that there was no significant phenotypic difference between homozygous mutants and wild-type controls before 2.5 months post-fertilization (mpf). However, the adult lepr(-/-) and mc4r(-/-) individuals displayed increased food intake, heavier weight, and higher body fat percentage, the characteristics of obesity phenotypes...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211621/changes-in-sugar-content-and-related-enzyme-activities-in-table-grape-vitis-vinifera-l-in-response-to-foliar-selenium-fertilizer
#16
Shuaimeng Zhu, Yinli Liang, Xiaojuan An, Fanchao Kong, Dekai Gao, Hongfei Yin
BACKGROUND: Spraying Se fertilizer is an effective way for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated. RESULTS: Acid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194157/comparative-phosphoproteomic-analysis-under-high-nitrogen-fertilizer-reveals-central-phosphoproteins-promoting-wheat-grain-starch-and-protein-synthesis
#17
Shoumin Zhen, Xiong Deng, Ming Zhang, Gengrui Zhu, Dongwen Lv, Yaping Wang, Dong Zhu, Yueming Yan
Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient important for plant growth and development. It also strongly influences starch and protein synthesis, closely related to grain yield and quality. We performed the first comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of developing wheat grains in response to high-N fertilizer. Physiological and biochemical analyses showed that application of high-N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in leaf length and area, chlorophyll content, the activity of key enzymes in leaves such as nitrate reductase (NR), and in grains such as sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SuSy), and ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194156/integrated-management-strategies-increase-cottonseed-oil-and-protein-production-the-key-role-of-carbohydrate-metabolism
#18
Hongkun Yang, Xinyue Zhang, Binglin Chen, Yali Meng, Youhua Wang, Wenqing Zhao, Zhiguo Zhou
Cottonseed, oil, and protein, as the by-products of cotton production, have the potential to provide commodities to meet the increasing demand of renewable bio-fuels and ruminant feed. An increase in crop yield per unit area requires high-yielding cultivar management with an economic nitrogen (N) rate, an optimal N application schedule, high-yielding plant populations and strong seedlings. Whether the integration of these agronomic practices into a coherent management system can increase the productivity of cotton fiber, embryo oil and protein requires experimental elucidation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#19
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161095/environmental-obesogen-tributyltin-chloride-leads-to-abnormal-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-function-by-disruption-in-kisspeptin-leptin-signaling-in-female-rats
#20
Gabriela C Sena, Leandro C Freitas-Lima, Eduardo Merlo, Priscila L Podratz, Julia F P de Araújo, Poliane A A Brandão, Maria T W D Carneiro, Marina C Zicker, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Christina M Takiya, Carolina M de Lemos Barbosa, Marcelo M Morales, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Ian V Silva, Jones B Graceli
Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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