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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899415/role-of-chemokine-receptors-and-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-mucosal-inflammation-and-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Neeraja Kulkarni, Manisha Pathak, Girdhari Lal
The intestinal epithelial lining is a very dynamic interface, where multiple interactions occur with the external world. The intestinal epithelial barrier is continuously exposed to a huge load of commensal microorganisms, food-borne antigens, as well as invading enteropathogens. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and underlying immune cells are the main players in maintaining the delicate balance between gut tolerance and inflammation. IECs deferentially express the variety of chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these receptor-ligand interactions not only mediate the infiltration and activation of immune cells but also switch on the survival cascades in IECs...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893961/the-genetics-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-virulence
#3
Jaclyn S Pearson, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Elizabeth L Hartland
In many parts of the world, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of death in children with diarrhea. Much of what we know about the pathogenesis of EPEC infections is based on the study of one or two prototypic strains that have provided deep insight into the precise mechanisms by which EPEC colonizes the intestine, evades host immunity, and spreads from person to person. In some cases, defining the biochemical activity of the host-interacting effector proteins from these prototypic strains has led to the discovery of novel post-translational protein modifications and new understandings of biology and host-pathogen interactions...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890970/enterococcus-faecium-hdrsef1-protects-the-intestinal-epithelium-and-attenuates-etec-induced-il-8-secretion-in-enterocytes
#4
Zhongyuan Tian, Xiaofang Liu, Ran Dai, Yuncai Xiao, Xiliang Wang, Dingren Bi, Deshi Shi
The probiotic Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 (Ef1) has been shown to have positive effects on piglet diarrhoea, but the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, using the IPEC-J2 cell line to mimic intestinal epithelial cells and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88ac as a representative intestinal pathogen, the mechanism underlying Ef1 protection against an enteropathogen was investigated. The results demonstrated that Ef1 was effective in displacing K88ac from the IPEC-J2 cell layer. Moreover, Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant (S-Ef1) modulate IL-8 released by IPEC-J2 cells...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881825/effects-of-a-gut-pathobiont-in-a-gnotobiotic-mouse-model-of-childhood-undernutrition
#5
Vitas E Wagner, Neelendu Dey, Janaki Guruge, Ansel Hsiao, Philip P Ahern, Nicholas P Semenkovich, Laura V Blanton, Jiye Cheng, Nicholas Griffin, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Olga Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, William Petri, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jeffrey I Gordon
To model how interactions among enteropathogens and gut microbial community members contribute to undernutrition, we colonized gnotobiotic mice fed representative Bangladeshi diets with sequenced bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of two 24-month-old Bangladeshi children: one healthy and the other underweight. The undernourished donor's bacterial collection contained an enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strain (ETBF), whereas the healthy donor's bacterial collection contained two nontoxigenic strains of B...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881419/oral-administration-of-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-goblet-cell-function-in-newly-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#6
Wei Zhang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Dong Zhou, Qiong Wu, Dan Song, Johan Dicksved, Jiu-Feng Wang
: Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to MUC4 resistant piglets for 1 week before the F4-expressing ETEC strain (F4(+) ETEC) challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. BLS-mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium and Sporobacter populations...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872242/systematic-analysis-of-two-component-systems-in-citrobacter-rodentium-reveals-positive-and-negative-roles-in-virulence
#7
Jenny-Lee Thomassin, Jean-Mathieu Leclerc, Natalia Giannakopoulou, Lei Zhu, Kristiana Salmon, Andrea Portt, France Daigle, Hervé Le Moual, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen used to model intestinal infections caused by the human diarrheal pathogens enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli During infection bacteria use two-component systems (TCSs) to detect changing environmental cues within the host, allowing for rapid adaptation by altering the expression of specific genes. In this study, 26 TCSs were identified in C. rodentium and qPCR analysis showed that they are all expressed during murine infection. These TCSs were individually deleted and the in vitro and in vivo effects were analyzed to determine the functional consequences...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#8
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872237/flagellin-mediated-protection-against-intestinal-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection-does-not-require-interleukin-22
#9
Rémi Porte, Laurye Van Maele, Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Benoit Foligné, Laure Dumoutier, Julien Tabareau, Delphine Cayet, Pierre Gosset, Nicolas Jonckheere, Isabelle Van Seuningen, A José Chabalgoity, Michel Simonet, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Jean-Claude Sirard, Christophe Carnoy
Signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs), the main receptors in innate immunity, is essential for the defense of mucosal surfaces. It was previously shown that systemic TLR5 stimulation by bacterial flagellin induces an immediate, transient interleukin-22 (IL-22)-dependent antimicrobial response to bacterial or viral infections of the mucosa. This process was dependent on the activation of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of flagellin treatment in a murine model of oral infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (an invasive, Gram-negative, enteropathogenic bacterium that targets the small intestine)...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871241/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-associated-risk-factors-of-shigella-and-salmonella-among-food-handlers-in-arba-minch-university-south-ethiopia
#10
Mohammedaman Mama, Getaneh Alemu
BACKGROUND: The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864920/design-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-type-iii-secretion-system-atpase-escn-from-enteropathogenic-eecherichia-coli
#11
Lukasz Bzdzion, Hanna Krezel, Karol Wrzeszcz, Irmina Grzegorek, Katarzyna Nowinska, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Wieslaw Swietnicki
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen using type III secretion system for delivery of proteins directly into the human host. The system contains a single ATPase, EscN, which is essential for uncoupling of proteins from their complexes with chaperones before the delivery. The structure of EscN ATPase (PDB code: 2obm) was used to screen computationally for small molecule inhibitors blocking its active site. Two lead candidates were examined but only one, Compound 54, was selected for further optimization...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859745/prevalence-of-enteropathogens-in-dogs-attending-3-regional-dog-parks-in-northern-california
#12
K L Hascall, P H Kass, J Saksen, A Ahlmann, A V Scorza, M R Lappin, S L Marks
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of infection with enteropathogens and zoonotic Giardia strains in dogs attending dog parks in Northern California and to compare results of fecal flotation procedures performed at a commercial and university parasitology laboratory...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846243/bacterially-associated-transcriptional-remodelling-in-a-distinct-genomic-subtype-of-colorectal-cancer-provides-a-plausible-molecular-basis-for-disease-development
#13
Katie S Lennard, Ryan W Goosen, Jonathan M Blackburn
The relevance of specific microbial colonisation to colorectal cancer (CRC) disease pathogenesis is increasingly recognised, but our understanding of possible underlying molecular mechanisms that may link colonisation to disease in vivo remains limited. Here, we investigate the relationships between the most commonly studied CRC-associated bacteria (Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, pks+ Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium spp., afaC+ E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis & Enteropathogenic E. coli) and altered transcriptomic and methylation profiles of CRC patients, in order to gain insight into the potential contribution of these bacteria in the aetiopathogenesis of CRC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845198/hyaluronan-35kda-treatment-protects-mice-from-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-and-induces-epithelial-tight-junction-protein-zo-1-in-vivo
#14
Yeojung Kim, Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Craig R Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E...
November 11, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836844/season-specific-occurrence-of-potentially-pathogenic-vibrio-spp-on-the-southern-coast-of-south-korea
#15
Doris Y W Di, Anna Lee, Jeonghwan Jang, Dukki Han, Hor-Gil Hur
: Vibrio species are widely distributed in warm estuarine and coastal environments, and they can infect humans through the consumption of raw and mishandled contaminated seafood. In this study, we aimed to isolate and observe the distribution of enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. from environments of the southern coast of South Korea over a season cycle. A total of 10,983 Vibrio spp. were obtained from tidal water and mud samples over a one-year period from five sampling sites along the southern west coast of South Korea...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836380/colistin-use-and-colistin-resistance-in-bacteria-from-animals
#16
Isabelle Kempf, Eric Jouy, Claire Chauvin
Colistin has been used in veterinary medicine for decades, mainly for the prevention and treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, data regarding colistin resistance in bacteria from animals and food of animal origin are relatively scarce, partly because there are methodological difficulties hampering the analysis of susceptibility to colistin. Most data regarding clinical isolates are related to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The resistance percentages are sometimes high for pathogenic strains, and the mcr-1 gene has been detected in pathogenic E...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835998/a-proteomic-approach-to-the-development-of-diva-elisa-distinguishing-pigs-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium-and-pigs-vaccinated-with-a-salmonella-typhimurium-based-inactivated-vaccine
#17
Jan Gebauer, Hana Kudlackova, Marcel Kosina, Kamil Kovarcik, Radek Tesarik, Alena Osvaldova, Martin Faldyna, Jan Matiasovic
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the most common enteropathogenic bacteria found in pigs in Europe. In our previous work, we demonstrated the protective effects in suckling piglets when their dams had been vaccinated with an S. Typhimurium-based inactivated vaccine. This study is focused on a procedure leading to serological discrimination between vaccinated and infected pigs. As we supposed, distinct environment during natural infection and in bacterial cultures used for vaccine preparation led to a slightly different spectrum of expressed S...
November 11, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826737/gwas-analysis-of-qtl-for-enteric-septicemia-of-catfish-and-their-involved-genes-suggest-evolutionary-conservation-of-a-molecular-mechanism-of-disease-resistance
#18
Tao Zhou, Shikai Liu, Xin Geng, Yulin Jin, Chen Jiang, Lisui Bao, Jun Yao, Yu Zhang, Jiaren Zhang, Luyang Sun, Xiaozhu Wang, Ning Li, Suxu Tan, Zhanjiang Liu
Disease problems cause major economic losses for the aquaculture industries. In catfish, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the leading disease problem, causing tens of millions of dollars of annual economic losses. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against ESC using an interspecific hybrid system. Five hundred fish were used in the analysis and 192 phenotypic extremes were used for genotyping with the catfish 250K SNP arrays...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826029/cytolethal-distending-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h43-strain-t22-represents-a-novel-evolutionary-lineage-within-the-o157-serogroup
#19
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7/NM strains are significant foodborne pathogens intensively studied, while other sero- and pathotypes of the O157 serogroup only began to receive more attention. Here we report the first genome sequence of a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT-V) producing E. coli O157:H43 strain (T22) isolated from cattle. The genome consists of a 4.9Mb chromosome assembled into three contigs and one plasmid of 82.4kb. Comparative genomic investigations conducted with the core genomes of representative E...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821805/association-of-oncogenic-bacteria-with-colorectal-cancer-in-south-china
#20
Youlian Zhou, Hanchang He, Haoming Xu, Yingfei Li, Zhiming Li, Yanlei Du, Jie He, Yongjian Zhou, Hong Wang, Yuqiang Nie
To quantify Fusobacterium spp., Enterococcus faecalis (E.faecalis), Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their possible association with CRC clinicopathogical features, we collected the resected tumors and adjacent normal tissues (N) from 97 CRC patients. 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were also recruited. Real-time PCR was used for bacterial quantification. The median abundance ofFusobacterium spp.(p < 0...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
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