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Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Doreen Baumann, Helen Salia, Lilo Greune, Stephanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Zina M Uckeley, Gad Frankel, Marianne Guenot, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) subvert host cell signaling pathways by injecting effector proteins via a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS). The T3SS-dependent EspB protein is a multi-functional effector protein, which contributes to adherence and translocator pore formation and after injection exhibits several intracellular activities. In addition, EspB is also secreted into the environment. Effects of secreted EspB have not been reported thus far. As a surrogate for secreted EspB we employed recombinant EspB (rEspB) derived from the prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 and investigated the interactions of the purified protein with different human epithelial and immune cells including monocytic THP-1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, U-937, epithelial T84, Caco-2, and HeLa cells...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Azucena Mora, Francisco Javier García-Peña, María Pilar Alonso, Susana Pedraza-Diaz, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Daniel Garcia-Parraga, Cecilia López, Susana Viso, Ghizlane Dahbi, Juan Marzoa, Martin J Sergeant, Vanesa García, Jorge Blanco
There is growing concern about the spreading of human microorganisms in relatively untouched ecosystems such as the Antarctic region. For this reason, three pinniped species (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina and Arctocephalus gazella) from the west coast of the Antartic Peninsula were analysed for the presence of Escherichia spp. with the recovery of 158 E. coli and three E. albertii isolates. From those, 23 harboured different eae variants (α1, β1, β2, ε1, θ1, κ, ο), including a bfpA-positive isolate (O49:H10-A-ST206, eae-k) classified as typical enteropathogenic E...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Maikova, Johann Peltier, Pierre Boudry, Eliane Hajnsdorf, Nicolas Kint, Marc Monot, Isabelle Poquet, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile, a major human enteropathogen, must cope with foreign DNA invaders and multiple stress factors inside the host. We have recently provided an experimental evidence of defensive function of the C. difficile CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system important for its survival within phage-rich gut communities. Here, we describe the identification of type I toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems with the first functional antisense RNAs in this pathogen...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhimin Du, Ki Hyung Kim, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Şiran Keske, Burak Zabun, Kahraman Aksoy, Füsun Can, Erhan Palaoğlu, Önder Ergönül
Background: We aimed to detect the etiological agents of acute diarrhea by molecular gastrointestinal pathogen test (MGPT) and to assess its impact on antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). Methods: This is a prospective, observational study and was conducted between 1 January 2015 and 30 June 2017. We included consequent patients, who had acute diarrhea. At the end of 2015, we implemented ASP in acute diarrhea and we compared the outcomes in pre-ASP and post-ASP. An FDA-cleared multiplexed gastrointestinal PCR panel system, BioFire filmArray (Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT) which detects twenty pathogens in stool was used...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Cameron S Runte, Umang Jain, Landon J Getz, Sabrina Secord, Asaomi Kuwae, Akio Abe, Jason J LeBlanc, Andrew W Stadnyk, James B Kaper, Anne-Marie Hansen, Nikhil A Thomas
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) use a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) for injection of effectors into host cells and intestinal colonization. Here, we demonstrate that the multicargo chaperone CesT has two strictly conserved tyrosine phosphosites, Y152 and Y153, that regulate differential effector secretion in EPEC. Conservative substitution of both tyrosine residues to phenylalanine strongly attenuated EPEC type 3 effector injection into host cells, and limited Tir effector mediated intimate adherence during infection...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Qun Li, Hong Wang, Yanmei Xu, Xiangning Bai, Jianping Wang, Zhengdong Zhang, Xiang Liu, Yimao Miao, Ling Zhang, Xinqiong Li, Nianli Zou, Guodong Yan, Xi Chen, Jie Zhang, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Jianguo Xu, Juan Li, Yanwen Xiong
Escherichia albertii is an emerging member of the Enterobacteriaceae causing human and animal enteric infections. Antimicrobial resistance among enteropathogens has been reported to be increasing in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in E. albertii isolated from Zigong city, Sichuan province, China. The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The highest prevalence was tetracycline resistance with a rate of 62...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ximena Blanco Crivelli, María P Bonino, Paula Von Wernich Castillo, Armando Navarro, Osvaldo Degregorio, Adriana Bentancor
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are pathovars of E. coli that impact human health by causing childhood diseases. In this work, 118 synanthropic rodents of the genus Rattus from Buenos Aires, Argentina were evaluated as EPEC and STEC carriers. Rectal swab samples from captured animals were evaluated by conventional PCR to detect the presence of the eae , stx 1, stx 2, and rfb O157 genes. Twenty-one isolates were obtained (17 EPEC isolates from seven animals and four STEC isolates from the same animal)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Domonkos Sváb, Linda Falgenhauer, Manfred Rohde, Judit Szabó, Trinad Chakraborty, István Tóth
During recent years, interest in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has increased, particularly for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella strains among them. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of 12 novel T5-like bacteriophages from confiscated food samples. All bacterophages effectively lysed E. coli K-12 strains and were able to infect pathogenic E. coli strains representing enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) pathotypes, Shigella dysenteriae, S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mosab A Adam, Ji Wang, Khalid-A Enan, Hongwei Shen, Hao Wang, Abdel R El Hussein, Azza B Musa, Isam M Khidir, Xuejun Ma
Diarrheal disease is a major public health problem for children in developing countries. Knowledge of etiology that causes diarrheal illness is essential to implement public health measures to prevent and control this disease. Published studies regarding the situation of childhood diarrhea in Sudan is scanty. This study aims to investigate viral and bacterial etiology and related clinical and epidemiological factors in children with acute diarrhea in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 437 fecal samples were collected from hospitalized children <5 years old with acute diarrhea, viral and bacterial pathogens were investigated by using two-tube multiplex RT-PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anand Prakash Singh, Swati Sharma, Kirti Pagarware, Rafay Anwar Siraji, Imran Ansari, Anupam Mandal, Pangertoshi Walling, Saima Aijaz
Enteropathogenic E. coli infection is characterized by rapid onset of diarrhea but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. EPEC targets the tight junctions which selectively regulate the permeability of charged and uncharged molecules. Cooperative actions of the EPEC effectors EspF and Map have been reported to mediate tight junction disruption. To analyze the individual contributions of EspF and Map, we generated in vitro models where EspF and Map, derived from the EPEC strain E2348/69, were constitutively expressed in epithelial cells...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Madhumanti Halder, Subham Mookerjee, Prasenjit Batabyal, Anup Palit
Diarrhoea remains a global public health enigma raising deep concerns for the health planners since contaminated potable water often spoils the community health structure. We hereby report a 6-year odd continuing outbreak surveillance report based on potable water indices, during which 264 water samples were screened from different districts of West Bengal, India. Samples were analysed for the presence of different enteropathogenic bacterial species by conventional molecular tools and their sensitivity to antibiotics...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Laurie Pinaud, Philippe J Sansonetti, Armelle Phalipon
Microbial pathogens possess a diversity of weapons that disrupt host homeostasis and immune defenses, thus resulting in the establishment of infection. The best-characterized system mediating bacterial protein delivery into target eukaryotic cells is the type III secretion system (T3SS) expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, including the human enteric pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic/enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC). The emerging global view is that these T3SS-bearing pathogens share similarities in their ability to target key cellular pathways such as the cell cytoskeleton, trafficking, cell death/survival, and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Jun Li, Lu Jiang, Yanwu Zhang, Qiang Guo, Shichou Han
Solenopsis invicta (Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a species that has invaded China in recent years. Currently, S. invicta is mainly controlled by chemical treatment, though long-term use of chemical pesticides can cause serious environmental pollution. In this study, a microbial insecticide formulated for the control of S. invicta was screened for laboratory toxicity and field efficacy. The co-toxicity coefficients (CTCs) of the combination of Beauveria bassiana and thiacloprid at various mass ratios were 356...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chenyang Li, Greta Gölz, Thomas Alter, Andrea Barac, Stefan Hertwig, Carolin Riedel
Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic enteropathogenic bacterium that can cause acute gastroenteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis. Although Y. enterocolitica is common in animals, food, and the environment, the reservoirs and transmission routes of this pathogen are still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in seafood in Germany, because only limited data are available on that topic. Seafood samples were purchased from retail shops in Berlin, Germany and examined for the presence of Y...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Elodie Barbau-Piednoir, Sarah Denayer, Nadine Botteldoorn, Katelijne Dierick, Sigrid C J De Keersmaecker, Nancy H Roosens
A detection and discrimination system for five Escherichia coli pathotypes, based on a combination of 13 SYBR® Green qPCR, has been developed, i.e., combinatory SYBR® Green qPCR screening system for pathogenic E. coli (CoSYPS Path E. coli). It allows the discrimination on isolates and the screening of potential presence in food of the following pathotypes of E. coli: shigatoxigenic (STEC) (including enterohemorrhagic (EHEC)), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroaggregative (EAggEC), enteroaggregative shigatoxigenic (EAggSTEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC) E...
February 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Krishna Kant Sharma, Deepti Singh, Surender Rawat
Laccase in Cryptococcus neoformans is covalently linked to the carbohydrate moiety of the cell wall, which allows it to get access to the different substrates for catalyzing their oxidation and therefore plays a vital role in the virulence. The laccase gene (3.0 kb) from C. neoformans serotype D was amplified, cloned and sequenced for protein modeling, docking and simulation studies. The three dimensional homology models of laccase protein from C. neoformans and other pathogenic gut bacteria were docked with selected biomolecules like prostaglandins (PG), membrane phospholipids, neurotransmitters (serotonin) using GOLD software...
February 3, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Anna Nilsson, Astrid Skarp, Cecilia Johansson, René Kaden, Lars Engstrand, Hilpi Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important bacterial enteropathogens. Poultry is the best-known reservoir for Campylobacter infection but natural bodies of water have also been shown to be important pathways for transmission. Campylobacter can survive in cold water but most of the studies have focused on C. jejuni only. In this paper, we take a closer look at the biology and water survival strategies of C. coli. Eight C. coli isolates cultivated from raw (incoming) surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized using whole-genome sequencing and phenotypical assays...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Sarah E Kralicek, Mai Nguyen, Ki-Jong Rhee, Rocio Tapia, Gail Hecht
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a foodborne pathogen that uses a type III secretion system to translocate effector molecules into host intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) subverting several host cell processes and signaling cascades. Interestingly, EPEC infection induces only modest intestinal inflammation in the host. The homologous EPEC effector proteins, NleH1 and NleH2, suppress the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and apoptosis in vitro. Increased apoptosis and activation of NF-κB and MAP kinases (MAPK) contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
February 2, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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