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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341983/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-united-states-a-case-control-study
#1
Aamer Imdad, Monique A Foster, Junaid Iqbal, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Daniel C Payne, Chengxian Zhang, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children; however, there is limited information available on the epidemiology, phylogenetics, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility of DEC in children in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of DEC among children with and without acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee. METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC with polymerase chain reaction from stool samples...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327263/proton-pump-inhibitors-increase-the-susceptibility-of-mice-to-oral-infection-with-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#2
Eiichiro Yasutomi, Namiko Hoshi, Soichiro Adachi, Takafumi Otsuka, Lingling Kong, Yuna Ku, Haruka Yamairi, Jun Inoue, Tsukasa Ishida, Daisuke Watanabe, Makoto Ooi, Masaru Yoshida, Tomoya Tsukimi, Shinji Fukuda, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications. Side effects including an increased risk of intestinal infections have been reported. It is assumed that PPIs can increase susceptibility to enteropathogens; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here in this study, we explored whether Lansoprazole (Laz), one of the PPIs, increases the susceptibility to enteropathogens, and further investigated the mechanism of it. METHODS: Mice were administered Laz intraperitoneally once daily and orally infected with Citrobacter rodentium (C...
January 11, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320233/antibacterial-activities-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-and-chemical-sanitizers-directly-on-green-leaves-contaminated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#3
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319340/denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-polymerase-chain-reaction-comparison-of-chitosan-effects-on-anaerobic-cultures-of-broiler-cecal-bacteria-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#4
Michael Hume, Muhammad Umar Sohail
Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0...
January 10, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318125/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-food-handlers-of-bandar-abbas-southern-iran
#5
Mehrgan Heydari-Hengami, Yaghoob Hamedi, Majid Najafi-Asl, Khojasteh Sharifi-Sarasiabi
Background: Food handlers play a significant role in the dissemination and transmission of enteropathogenic microorganisms, including intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in food handlers of Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 800 stool samples were randomly collected in a period of 6 months from Jun to Nov 2015. The diagnosis was made on direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Trichrome stained slides...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307130/pathotyping-of-diarrhoeagenic-cattle-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-in-the-province-of-tehran-iran
#6
Hamid Staji, Pietro Badagliacca, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Federica Lopes, Mariangela Iorio, Alfreda Tonelli, Luc Masson
An oligonucleotide DNA microarray targeting 348 virulence factors and genetic markers was used in the pathotyping, serotyping and phylogrouping of 51 Escherichia coli strains isolated from faecal samples. The samples were collected from diarrhoeic 1 to 30 days old calves located at 14 farms in the Tehran province, Iran. Positive microarray signals for genes encoding the Locus of Enterocyte E acement (LEE), the Type III Secretion System (TTSS), and the absence of EPEC adherence factor (EAF) permitted the pathotyping of 25 strains as atypical Enteropathogenic (aEPEC) or Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301877/draft-genome-sequences-of-enterohemorrhagic-and-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-alpacas-in-peru
#7
Lenin Maturrano, Marjorie Aleman, Dennis Carhuaricra, Jorge Maximiliano, Juan Siuce, Luis Luna, Raul Rosadio
The draft genome sequences of two strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from alpacas in Peru, are reported here. ECA1 has been determined to be a strain of enterohemorrhagic E. coli and ECB1 a strain of enteropathogenic E. coli These pathogens are responsible for hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and diarrhea in different mammals, respectively.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299895/community-acquired-escherichia-coli-enteritis-in-korean-children-the-clinical-application-of-a-stool-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay
#8
Youie Kim, Hyo Jin Kim, Sooyeon Lim, Kil Seong Bae, Seung Beom Han, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang, Gook Jae Shin, Gun Dong Lee, Yeon Joon Park
BACKGROUND: Although Escherichia coli is a common cause of bacterial enteritis in Korea, reports on community-acquired E. coli enteritis in Korean children are scarce. This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and pathotype distribution of community-acquired E. coli enteritis diagnosed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in Korean children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of children aged 18 years or less who were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis by the attending physician between 2013 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280544/low-prevalence-of-the-gang-of-seven-and-absence-of-the-o80-h2-serotypes-amongst-shigatoxigenic-and-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-stec-and-epec-in-intestinal-contents-of-healthy-cattle-at-two-slaughterhouses-in-belgium-2014
#9
D Thiry, K De Rauw, S Takaki, J-N Duprez, A Iguchi, D Piérard, N Korsak, J G Mainil
AIMS: The purpose of this survey was to estimate the respective prevalence of the "gang of seven" and "non-gang of seven" serotypes of Shigatoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and to identify the O80:H2 serotype in 245 intestinal contents collected at two slaughterhouses in Belgium in 2014. METHODS AND RESULTS: After overnight enrichment growth the 69 intestinal contents testing positive with PCR targeting the eae, stx1 and stx2 genes were inoculated onto four agar media...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277965/novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-sepl-mediated-control-of-effector-secretion-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Meztlli O Gaytán, Julia Monjarás Feria, Eduardo Soto, Norma Espinosa, Julia M Benítez, Dimitris Georgellis, Bertha González-Pedrajo
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) are virulence determinants employed by several pathogenic bacteria as molecular syringes to inject effector proteins into host cells. Diarrhea-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract. T3S is a highly coordinated process that ensures hierarchical delivery of three classes of substrates: early (inner rod and needle subunits), middle (translocators), and late (effectors). Translocation of effectors is triggered upon host-cell contact in response to different environmental cues, such as calcium levels...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274467/the-incidence-of-clostridioides-difficile-and-clostridium-perfringens-netf-positive-strains-in-diarrheic-dogs
#11
Amanda Nadia Diniz, Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Maja Rupnik, Vicki Adams, Thomas L Stent, Julian I Rood, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens...
December 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261025/free-ranging-synanthropic-birds-ardea-alba-and-columba-livia-domestica-as-carriers-of-salmonella-spp-and-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-the-vicinity-of-an-urban-zoo
#12
Mirela C V de Oliveira, Beatriz Q Camargo, Marcos P V Cunha, Andre Becker Saidenberg, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana P G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria I Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259078/astrovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-8-countries
#13
Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Saba Rouhani, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Dinesh Mondal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, James Platts-Mills, Amidou Samie, Furqan Kabir, Aldo Lima, Sudhir Babji, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Carl J Mason, Adil Kalam, Pascal Bessong, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Ila Lima, Rakhi Ramdass, Lawrence H Moulton, Dennis Lang, Ajila George, Anita K M Zaidi, Gagandeep Kang, Eric R Houpt, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Astroviruses are important drivers of viral gastroenteritis but remain understudied in community settings and low- and middle-income countries. We present data from 8 countries with high prevalence of diarrhea and undernutrition to describe astrovirus epidemiology and assess evidence for protective immunity among children 0 to 2 years of age. METHODS: We used 25 898 surveillance stools and 7077 diarrheal stools contributed by 2082 children for enteropathogen testing, and longitudinal statistical analysis to describe incidence, risk factors, and protective immunity...
December 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250802/occurrence-of-enteropathogenic-bacteria-in-birds-of-prey-in-italy
#14
Antonio Gargiulo, Alessandro Fioretti, Tamara Pasqualina Russo, Lorena Varriale, Loredana Rampa, Silvia Paone, Luigi Maria De Luca Bossa, Pasquale Raia, Ludovico Dipineto
The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in birds of prey carcasses in Southern Italy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 33.1% (49/148) for Campylobacter spp...
December 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246842/a-helicase-containing-module-defines-a-family-of-pcd630-like-plasmids-in-clostridium-difficile
#15
Wiep Klaas Smits, J Scott Weese, Adam P Roberts, Céline Harmanus, Bastian Hornung
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive and sporulating enteropathogen that is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Even though a large number of genomes of this species have been sequenced, only a few plasmids have been described in the literature. Here, we use a combination of in silico analyses and laboratory experiments to show that plasmids are common in C. difficile. We focus on a group of plasmids that share similarity with the plasmid pCD630, from the reference strain 630. The family of pCD630-like plasmids is defined by the presence of a conserved putative helicase that is likely part of the plasmid replicon...
December 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243991/zoonotic-agents-in-feral-pigeons-columba-livia-from-costa-rica-possible-improvements-to-diminish-contagion-risks
#16
Ana María Torres-Mejía, César Rodríguez, Francisco Duarte, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Fernando Esperón, Kinndle Blanco-Peña
Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24...
December 15, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237834/structural-basis-for-the-inhibition-of-host-gene-expression-by-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-nsp1
#17
Zhou Shen, Gang Ye, Feng Deng, Gang Wang, Min Cui, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao, Zhen F Fu, Guiqing Peng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the pork industry. The non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) is a characteristic feature of Alpha- and Beltacoronaviruses, which exhibits both functional conservation and mechanistic diversity in inhibiting host gene expression and antiviral responses. However, the detailed structure and molecular mechanisms underlying the Alphacoronavirus nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression remain unclear. Here, we report the first full-length crystal structure of Alphacoronavirus nsp1 from PEDV...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233495/antibacterial-resistance-patterns-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-children
#18
Pejman Karami, Hassan Bazmamoun, Iraj Sedighi, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial resistance patterns of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from Iranian children and to investigate its genetic patterns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 192 non-repeats EPEC isolates were collected from stool samples of the children with and without diarrhoea. The EPEC strains were isolated from 1355 stool specimens obtained from 247 children with diarrhoea (0-10 years old; mean age, 5...
December 7, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#19
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230814/nigella-sativa-l-as-an-alternative-antibiotic-feed-supplement-and-effect-on-growth-performance-in-weanling-pigs
#20
Branko T Petrujkić, Ross C Beier, Haiqi He, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Michael E Hume, Tawni L Crippen, Roger B Harvey, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Nigella sativa L. (NS) is a plant containing bioactive constituents like thymoquinone. Extracts of NS improve performance and reduce enteropathogen colonization in poultry and small ruminants but studies with swine are lacking. In two different studies oral administration of NS extracts at doses equivalent to 0, 1.5 and 4.5 g extract kg-1 diet was assessed on piglet performance and intestinal carriage of wildtype Escherichia coli and Campylobacter, and Salmonella Typhimurium...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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