Read by QxMD icon Read


Seong-Hwan Park, Mira Yu, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
NSAID-activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) is a prognostic indicator of chronic inflammatory diseases and aggressive tumors. Among the stress sentinels in response to infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) or other pathogenic E. coli, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative stress-regulated transcription factor, was prominently increased and assessed for its involvement in NAG-1-mediated pathogenic cellular responses. NAG-1 expression was transcriptionally upregulated by CHOP, which promoted chemokine production through stained NF-κB activation...
October 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Mirjam Duijvestijn, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Nancy Schuurman, Wim Schijf, Jaap A Wagenaar, Herman Egberink
Laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. The presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. Faecal samples from puppies with (n=113) and without (n=56) acute diarrhoea were collected and screened for Canine Parvovirus (CPV), Canine Coronavirus (CCoV), Salmonella spp...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiaoye Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Peijie Shi, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes foodborne infectious diseases and food poisoning. Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) is the major toxin found in almost all enteropathogenic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. However, little is known about the cellular response after Nhe triggered pore formation on cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that Nhe induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase and provoked apoptosis in Vero cells, most likely associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and death receptor pathways...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Martin Aepfelbacher, Manuel Wolters
Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Yersinia include Y. pestis-the agent of plaque-and two enteropathogens, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis. These pathogens have developed an array of virulence factors aimed at manipulating Rho GTP-binding proteins and the actin cytoskeleton in host cells to cross the intestinal barrier and suppress the immune system. Yersinia virulence factors include outer membrane proteins triggering cell invasion by binding to integrins, effector proteins injected into host cells to manipulate Rho protein functions and a Rho protein-activating exotoxin...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Catherine Daniel, Marie Titecat, Sabine Poiret, Delphine Cayet, Denise Boutillier, Michel Simonet, Jean-Claude Sirard, Nadine Lemaître, Florent Sebbane
BACKGROUND: Pseudotuberculosis is an infection caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and is considered to be a significant problem in veterinary medicine. We previously found that intranasal administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that secretes the low-calcium response V (LcrV) antigen from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Ll-LcrV) confers protection against a lethal Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immunological basis of this LcrV-elicited protective response and at determining the duration of vaccine-induced immunity...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Seong-Hwan Park, Juil Kim, Dongwook Kim, Yuseok Moon
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model...
October 10, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Dominic J Pollard, Joanna C Young, Valentina Covarelli, Silvia Herrera-León, Thomas R Connor, Maria Fookes, Danielle Walker, Aurora Echeita, Nicholas R Thomson, Cedric N Berger, Gad Frankel
Salmonella spp. utilize type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate effectors into the cytosol of mammalian host cells, subverting cell signaling and facilitating the onset of gastroenteritis. In this study we compared a draft genome assembly of S. enterica subsp. salamae strain 3588/07 (S. salamae) against the genomes of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 and S. bongori strain 12419. S. salamae encode the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1; SPI-2 and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) T3SSs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Mithila Ferdous, Anna M D Kooistra-Smid, Kai Zhou, John W A Rossen, Alexander W Friedrich
Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157 that do not produce Shiga toxin and do not possess flagellar antigen H7 are of diverse H serotypes. In this study, the antibiotic resistance properties, genotype of a set of virulence associated genes and the phylogenetic background of E. coli O157:non-H7 groups were compared. Whole genome sequencing was performed on fourteen O157:non-H7 isolates collected in the STEC-ID-net study. The genomes were compared with E. coli O157 genomes and a typical Enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) genome downloaded from NCBI...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel Humphreys, Vikash Singh, Vassilis Koronakis
To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Xingguang Lin, Jialong Yang, Jinli Wang, Hongxiang Huang, Hong-Xia Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Shang Wang, Yun Pan, Yu-Rong Qiu, Gregory A Taylor, Bruce A Vallance, Jimin Gao, Xiao-Ping Zhong
T-cells play an important role in promoting mucosal immunity against pathogens, but the mechanistic basis for their homeostasis in the intestine is still poorly understood. We report here that T-cell-specific deletion of mTOR results in dramatically decreased CD4 and CD8 T-cell numbers in the lamina propria of both small and large intestines under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. These defects result in defective host resistance against a murine enteropathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, leading to the death of the animals...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr, Maha Kamal Gohar, Amal Hassan Atta
Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
Zongmin Du, Xiaoyi Wang
Various types of animal models of plague have been developed, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates. Studies have indicated that rodent and nonhuman primate models of pneumonic plague closely resemble the human disease and that the pathologic changes that occur during bubonic plague are very similar in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this section, the pathological changes caused by Y. pestis in different animal models are described. The bacterium Y. pestis causes deadly plague, whereas the other two closely related enteropathogenic Yersinia species merely cause limited gastrointestinal manifestations...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
L Wang, H Nakamura, E Kage-Nakadai, Y Hara-Kudo, Y Nishikawa
AIM: This study assessed whether multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. METHODS AND RESULTS: MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lynda Medjkouh, Abderezak Tamendjari, Rita C Alves, Mariana Araújo, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Bactrocera oleae, an olive fruit fly, is a major olive pest in Algeria. In this study, olives of two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Métidja) with different degrees of infestation by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real %) were analysed. The influence of this pest on individual phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-FLD) and antioxidant profiles was ascertained. The antibacterial activity against 8 human enteropathogenic bacteria was also assessed. The results show that Rougette de Métidja, the cultivar with higher drupe size, was attacked to a greater degree than Limli, and the B...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Pamela Vazquez-Gutierrez, Tomas de Wouters, Julia Werder, Christophe Chassard, Christophe Lacroix
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rowan R Thomas, Heather J L Brooks, Rory O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhoeal and extraintestinal disease. Due to lack of EPEC screening and use of Sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar in faecal screening, the true prevalence of EPEC and non-O157 STEC in New Zealand diarrhoeal cases is unknown. METHODS: Diarrhoeic stools sourced from Dunedin hospital were pre-enriched, DNA extracted with Chelex-100 resin and screened using a multiplex TaqMan quantitative PCR assay amplifying stx1, sxt2 and EPEC (eae) gene markers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Youlian Zhou, Huiting Chen, Hanchang He, Yanlei Du, Jiaqi Hu, Yingfei Li, Yuyuan Li, Yongjian Zhou, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jie Liu, James A Platts-Mills, Jane Juma, Furqan Kabir, Joseph Nkeze, Catherine Okoi, Darwin J Operario, Jashim Uddin, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Pedro L Alonso, Martin Antonio, Stephen M Becker, William C Blackwelder, Robert F Breiman, Abu S G Faruque, Barry Fields, Jean Gratz, Rashidul Haque, Anowar Hossain, M Jahangir Hossain, Sheikh Jarju, Farah Qamar, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Brenda Kwambana, Inacio Mandomando, Timothy L McMurry, Caroline Ochieng, John B Ochieng, Melvin Ochieng, Clayton Onyango, Sandra Panchalingam, Adil Kalam, Fatima Aziz, Shahida Qureshi, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, James H Roberts, Debasish Saha, Samba O Sow, Suzanne E Stroup, Dipika Sur, Boubou Tamboura, Mami Taniuchi, Sharon M Tennant, Deanna Toema, Yukun Wu, Anita Zaidi, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Eric R Houpt
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). METHODS: GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"