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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546830/antibiotic-resistance-serogroups-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-with-diarrhea-in-qinghai-plateau-china
#1
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Shucheng Huang, Fazul Nabi, Houqiang Luo, Yanfang Lan, Jiakui Li
BACKGROUND: Ruminants serve as one of the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection with E. coli, a foodborne enteropathogen, can lead to asymptomatic infections that can cause life-threatening complications in humans. Therefore, from a clinical and human health perspective, it is important to know which virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in E. coli strains in yaks with diarrheic infections. METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-two rectal swabs were collected from diarrheic yaks in Qinghai Plateau, China...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546486/draft-genome-sequences-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-o103-strains-isolated-from-feces-of-feedlot-cattle
#2
Lance W Noll, Jay N Worley, Xun Yang, Pragathi B Shridhar, Jianfa Bai, Jianghong Meng, Doina Caragea, T G Nagaraja
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) pathotype represents a minor proportion of E. coli O103 strains shed in the feces of feedlot cattle. The draft genome sequences of 13 strains of EPEC O103 are reported here. The availability of the genome sequences will help in the assessment of genetic diversity and virulence potential of bovine EPEC O103.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543032/influence-of-different-wild-garlic-allium-ursinum-extracts-on-the-gastrointestinal-system-spasmolytic-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-properties
#3
Dragana R Pavlović, Milica Veljković, Nikola M Stojanović, Marija Gočmanac-Ignjatović, Tatjana Mihailov-Krstev, Suzana Branković, Dušan Sokolović, Mirjana Marčetić, Niko Radulović, Mirjana Radenković
OBJECTIVES: As there are no previous studies of the European wild-garlic (Allium ursinum) effects on the gastrointestinal system, despite its traditional applications in gastrointestinal disorders' treatment and regular use in the human diet, we have quantified and compared spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its different leaf extracts. METHODS: Wild-garlic extracts were tested for spasmolytic activity on isolated rat ileum, antimicrobial activity on selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by microdilution method and antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical-scavenging assay...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539715/antiprotozoal-antibacterial-and-antidiarrheal-properties-from-the-flowers-of-chiranthodendron-pentadactylon-and-isolated-flavonoids
#4
Fernando Calzada, Teresa Juárez, Normand García-Hernández, Miguel Valdes, Oscar Ávila, Lilian Yepez Mulia, Claudia Velázquez
BACKGROUND: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532806/a-molecular-survey-for-selected-viral-enteropathogens-revealed-a-limited-role-of-canine-circovirus-in-the-development-of-canine-acute-gastroenteritis
#5
Giulia Dowgier, Eleonora Lorusso, Nicola Decaro, Costantina Desario, Viviana Mari, Maria Stella Lucente, Gianvito Lanave, Canio Buonavoglia, Gabriella Elia
Canine circovirus (CanineCV) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. Based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of CanineCV with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). A total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and 67 controls randomly recruited among healthy dogs or patients presenting without enteric signs were screened by a panel of real-time (RT-)PCR assays for CanineCV, CPV, CCoV and CDV...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522607/nleb-ssek-effectors-from-citrobacter-rodentium-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-display-distinct-differences-in-host-substrate-specificity
#6
Samir El Qaidi, Kangming Chen, Adnan Halim, Lina Siukstaite, Christian Rueter, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Henrik Clausen, Philip R Hardwidge
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like apparatus called a type III secretion system to inject virulence factors into host cells. Some of these effectors are enzymes that modify host proteins to subvert their normal functions. NleB is a glycosyltransferase that modifies host proteins with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to inhibit antibacterial and inflammatory host responses. NleB is conserved among the attaching/effacing pathogens enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521001/etiology-of-travellers-diarrhea
#7
Z D Jiang, H L DuPont
Eleven published studies of the etiology of travellers' diarrhea (TD) were reviewed define the etiology of TD and to exam newly developed technology such as Real-Time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify multiple pathogens in one assay to define the cause of TD. Using PCR methods bacterial pathogens were found in 72% of patients acquiring diarrhea in Latin America and in 80% in travellers with illness acquired in Southeast Asia). In these studies, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (42% in Latin America and 28% in Southeast Asia)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520997/resistant-pathogens-as-causes-of-traveller-s-diarrhea-globally-and-impact-s-on-treatment-failure-and-recommendations
#8
David R Tribble
Background: : Diarrhea is a frequent clinical syndrome affecting international travellers. Bacterial etiologic agents have a long history of emergent antimicrobial resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Current approaches applying first-line antimicrobial therapy are being challenged by increasingly resistant organisms. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and clinical evidence of antibiotic resistance among enteropathogens causing traveller's diarrhea and the subsequent impact on current treatment recommendations...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505295/phylogenetic-distribution-of-tir-cytoskeleton-coupling-protein-tccp-and-tccp2-genes-in-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Fernando H Martins, Roberto Nepomuceno, Roxane M F Piazza, Waldir P Elias
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector Tir to induce actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. While some EPEC require tyrosine phosphorylation (Y-P) of Tir to trigger actin assembling, certain strains whose Tir is not tyrosine phosphorylated utilize the T3SS effector Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (TccP/TccP2) for efficient actin polymerization. The presence of tccP/tccP2 in typical EPEC belonging to distinct evolutionary lineages is well established but, in contrast, little is known about the distribution of these genes in atypical EPEC (aEPEC) showing distinct phylogenetic background...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495777/complete-annotated-genome-sequences-of-two-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-and-one-atypical-enteropathogenic-e-coli-strain-isolated-from-naturally-colonized-cattle-of-german-origin
#10
Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Christian Berens, Stefanie A Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important zoonotic enteric pathogens with the main reservoir in cattle. Here, we present the genomes of two STEC strains and one atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strain from cattle origin, obtained during a longitudinal study in German cattle herds.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494085/atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-aepec-in-children-under-five-years-old-with-diarrhea-in-quito-ecuador
#11
Francisco X Mora, Rolando X Avilés-Reyes, Laura Guerrero-Latorre, Esteban Fernández-Moreira
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remain one the most important pathogens infecting children and they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhea worldwide. In this study, we have isolated EPEC from 94 stool samples of children under five years old with diarrheal illness in the area of Quito (Ecuador), and we have determined the occurrence of the two subtypes of EPEC, typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical (aEPEC), by PCR amplification of the genes eae (attaching and effacing) and bfp (bundle- forming pilus)...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491244/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-frequency-in-khuzestan-province-of-iran
#12
Atieh Darbandi, Parviz Owlia, Saeid Bouzari, Horieh Saderi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that causes diarrhea. Studies showed that diarrheagenic E. coli such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains are among the most frequent causative agents in acute diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of DEC pathotypes in Khuzestan province...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475152/prevalence-of-rotavirus-genogroup-a-and-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-bassaseachic-falls-national-park-surface-waters-in-chihuahua-mexico
#13
Ma Carmen E Delgado-Gardea, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Aurora Mendieta-Mendoza, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Juan Francisco Contreras-Cordero, Gilberto Erosa-de la Vega, María Concepción Pérez-Recoder, Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen González-Horta, Rocío Infante-Ramírez
In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474475/what-happened-to-koch-s-postulates-in-diarrhea
#14
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890 Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfill to qualify as an etiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, we analyzed data on diarrhea etiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468055/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-among-diarrhea-outpatients-in-china-2012-2015
#15
Z K Zhang, S J Lai, J X Yu, W Q Yang, X Wang, H Q Jing, Z J Li, W Z Yang
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia (E.) coli (DEC) among diarrhea outpatients in China. Methods: Diarrhea surveillance program was conducted in outpatient and emergency departments from 170 hospitals that under the sentinel programs in 27 provinces, from 2012-2015. Clinical and epidemiological data regarding diarrhea patients were collected, with fecal specimens sampled and tested for DEC in 92 network-connected laboratories. Results: Among all the 46 721 diarrhea cases, 7...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465427/extra-extracellular-effector-delivery-into-host-cells-via-the-type-3-secretion-system
#16
Melissa M Kendall
The type three secretion system (T3SS) is critical for the virulence of diverse bacterial pathogens. Pathogens use the T3SS to deliver effector proteins into host cells and manipulate host signaling pathways. The prevailing mechanism is that effectors translocate from inside the T3SS directly into the host cell. Recent studies reveal an alternative mechanism of effector translocation, in which an effector protein located outside the bacterial cell relies on the T3SS for delivery into host cells. Tejeda-Dominguez et al...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452685/interactions-of-giardia-sp-with-the-intestinal-barrier-epithelium-mucus-and-microbiota
#17
Thibault Allain, Christina B Amat, Jean-Paul Motta, Anna Manko, André G Buret
Understanding how intestinal enteropathogens cause acute and chronic alterations has direct animal and human health perspectives. Significant advances have been made on this field by studies focusing on the dynamic crosstalk between the intestinal protozoan parasite model Giardia duodenalis and the host intestinal mucosa. The concept of intestinal barrier function is of the highest importance in the context of many gastrointestinal diseases such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451521/t3ss-independent-uptake-of-the-short-trip-toxin-related-recombinant-nlec-effector-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-leads-to-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-cleavage
#18
Anne-Sophie Stolle, Stefanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Jürgen Schmitz, Lena Lüken, Maj Frankenberg, Christian Rüter, M Alexander Schmidt
Effector proteins secreted by the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bacteria have been shown to precisely modulate important signaling cascades of the host for the benefit of the pathogens. Among others, the non-LEE encoded T3SS effector protein NleC of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a Zn-dependent metalloprotease and suppresses innate immune responses by directly targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Many pathogenic bacteria release potent bacterial toxins of the A-B type, which-in contrast to the direct cytoplasmic injection of T3SS effector proteins-are released first into the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451440/microbiological-screenings-for-infection-control-in-unaccompanied-minor-refugees-the-german-armed-forces-medical-service-s-experience
#19
Winfried Maaßen, Dorothea Wiemer, Claudia Frey, Christina Kreuzberg, Egbert Tannich, Rebecca Hinz, Andreas Wille, Andreas Fritsch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
BACKGROUND: The German Military Medical Service contributed to the medical screening of unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) coming to Germany in 2014 and 2015. In this study, a broad range of diagnostic procedures was applied to identify microorganisms with clinical or public health significance. Previously, those tests had only been used to screen soldiers returning from tropical deployments. This instance is the first time the approach has been studied in a humanitarian context. METHODS: The offered screenings included blood cell counts, hepatitis B serology and microscopy of the stool to look for protozoa and worm eggs as well as PCR from stool samples targeting pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and helminths...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449706/chemical-and-pathogen-induced-inflammation-disrupt-the-murine-intestinal-microbiome
#20
Mikayla A Borton, Anice Sabag-Daigle, Jikang Wu, Lindsey M Solden, Bridget S O'Banion, Rebecca A Daly, Richard A Wolfe, Juan F Gonzalez, Vicki H Wysocki, Brian M M Ahmer, Kelly C Wrighton
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is one of the most significant food-borne pathogens to affect humans and agriculture. While it is well documented that Salmonella infection triggers host inflammation, the impacts on the gut environment are largely unknown. A CBA/J mouse model was used to evaluate intestinal responses to Salmonella-induced inflammation. In parallel, we evaluated chemically induced inflammation by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and a non-inflammation control. We profiled gut microbial diversity by sequencing 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes from fecal and cecal samples...
April 27, 2017: Microbiome
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