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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792943/the-development-of-a-screening-protocol-for-salmonella-spp-and-enteropathogenic-yersinia-spp-in-samples-from-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-also-generating-mlva-data-for-y-enterocolitica-and-y-pseudotuberculosis
#1
Axel Sannö, Magdalena Jacobson, Sandra Sterner, Susanne Thisted-Lambertz, Anna Aspán
Salmonellosis and yersiniosis are notifiable human diseases that are commonly associated with contaminated food. Domestic pigs as well as wild boars and other wild-life have been identified as reservoirs of these bacteria. Methods for cultivation and molecular epidemiological investigations of Salmonella spp. are well established, however, cultivation of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is time- consuming and the commonly used method for molecular epidemiological investigations, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, lack in discriminatory power...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790584/effects-of-psidium-guajava-leaf-extract-on-secretion-systems-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#2
Noboru Nakasone, Yasunori Ogura, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Giichi Takaesu, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells...
May 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786169/bangladeshi-children-with-acute-diarrhea-show-fecal-microbiomes-with-increased-streptococcus-abundance-irrespective-of-diarrhea-etiology
#3
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778753/sm22-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-actin-rich-structures-generated-during-bacterial-infections
#4
Michael Dominic Chua, Kevin Jay Hipolito, Onisukomen Benny Singerr, Julian Solway, Julian Andrew Guttman
The host actin cytoskeleton is utilized by an assortment of pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause disease in their hosts. Two prominently studied actin-hijacking bacteria are enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. EPEC form actin-rich pedestals atop its host cells to move across the intestinal epithelia, while Listeria monocytogenes generate branched actin networks arranged as actin clouds around the bacteria and as comet tails for propulsion within and amongst their host cells...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772522/bariatric-surgery-drives-major-rearrangements-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-including-the-biofilm-composition
#5
Giuseppina Campisciano, Carolina Cason, Silvia Palmisano, Michela Giuricin, Alessia Rizzardi, Lory Saveria Croce, Nicolo De Manzini, Manola Comar
The intestinal microbiota disequilibrium has been associated with obesity, while the role of the gut mucosal biofilms in this pathology is still unknown. We analysed the changes in the intestinal microbiota of obese patients after bariatric surgery with the aim of disclosing the rearrangement of the biofilm configuration. Although the bariatric surgery drives major rearrangements of the gut microbiota, obese patients maintain the Prevotella enterotype before and after surgery, as shown by normal weight patients, with an increase of Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis ...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#6
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762495/role-of-sdia-on-biofilm-formation-by-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#7
Hebert F Culler, Samuel C F Couto, Juliana S Higa, Renato M Ruiz, Min J Yang, Vanessa Bueris, Marcia R Franzolin, Marcelo P Sircili
Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are capable to form biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces, regardless of the adherence pattern displayed. Several E. coli mechanisms are regulated by Quorum sensing (QS), including virulence factors and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing is a signaling system that confers bacteria with the ability to respond to chemical molecules known as autoinducers. Suppressor of division inhibitor (SdiA) is a QS receptor present in atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) that detects acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) type autoinducers...
May 15, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760102/broad-receptor-engagement-of-an-emerging-global-coronavirus-may-potentiate-its-diverse-cross-species-transmissibility
#8
Wentao Li, Ruben J G Hulswit, Scott P Kenney, Ivy Widjaja, Kwonil Jung, Moyasar A Alhamo, Brenda van Dieren, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Linda J Saif, Berend-Jan Bosch
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), identified in 2012, is a common enteropathogen of swine with worldwide distribution. The source and evolutionary history of this virus is, however, unknown. PDCoV belongs to the Deltacoronavirus genus that comprises predominantly avian CoV. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PDCoV originated relatively recently from a host-switching event between birds and mammals. Insight into receptor engagement by PDCoV may shed light into such an exceptional phenomenon. Here we report that PDCoV employs host aminopeptidase N (APN) as an entry receptor and interacts with APN via domain B of its spike (S) protein...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748413/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-o145-environmental-strains
#9
Michelle Qiu Carter, Antares Pham
Escherichia coli O145 strains RM14715 and RM14723 were isolated from wildlife feces near a leafy greens-growing region in Yuma, Arizona. Both strains carry a distinct genotype compared with the E. coli O145 strains isolated from Salinas Valley, California. Here we report complete genome sequences and annotations of RM14715 and RM14723.
May 10, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#10
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739319/characterization-of-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-resistance-to-sanitizers-of-a-range-of-e-coli-o26-pathotypes-from-clinical-cases-and-cattle-in-australia
#11
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation...
May 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738574/prevalence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-upper-oconee-watershed-in-northeast-georgia
#12
Sohyun Cho, Lari M Hiott, John B Barrett, Elizabeth A McMillan, Sandra L House, Shaheen B Humayoun, Eric S Adams, Charlene R Jackson, Jonathan G Frye
Surface waters are important sources of water for drinking, industrial, agricultural, and recreational uses; hence, contamination of water by fecal, pathogenic, or antimicrobial resistant (AR) bacteria is a major environmental and public health concern. However, very little data is available on prevalence of these bacteria in surface water throughout a watershed. This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli present in the Upper Oconee Watershed, a mixed-use watershed in Athens, GA, USA for potential pathogenicity and AR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726683/deciphering-the-mechanical-properties-of-type-iii-secretion-system-espa-protein-by-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#13
Hila Nadler, Lihi Shaulov, Yossi Blitsman, Moran Mordechai, Jurgen Jopp, Neta Sal-Man, Ronen Berkovich
Bacterial type III secretion systems inject virulence factors by bacterial pathogens into host-cells during bacterial infection. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, this system contains an external filament, formed by a self-oligomerizing protein called E. coli secreted protein A (EspA). The EspA filament penetrates the thick viscous mucus layer to facilitate the attachment of the bacteria to the gut-epithelium. To do that, the EspA filament requires noteworthy mechanical endurance considering the mechanical shear stresses found within the intestinal tract...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723122/antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-enterohemorrhagic-and-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-of-serotypes-o157-h7-o26-h11-o103-h2-o111-h8-o145-h28-compared-to-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-same-adult-cattle
#14
Maryse Michèle Um, Hubert Brugère, Monique Kérourédan, Eric Oswald, Delphine Bibbal
The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance profiles of top five enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) to E. coli isolated from the fecal flora of the same adult cattle. Previous prevalence studies had led to the isolation by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of 39 EHEC and 80 EPEC. Seven EHEC were resistant (17.9%), and six were multidrug resistant (MDR) (15.4%). None of the top five EHEC was resistant to azithromycin. Nine EPEC O26:H11 (11.3%) were resistant...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719449/up-regulation-of-nhe8-by-somatostatin-ameliorates-the-diarrhea-symptom-in-infectious-colitis-mice-model
#15
Xuelian Lei, Lin Cai, Xiao Li, Hua Xu, Chong Geng, Chunhui Wang
Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) have been shown to be involved in regulating cell volume and maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Pooled evidences have suggested that loss of Na+ /H+ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8) impairs intestinal mucosa. Whether NHE8 participates in the pathology of infectious colitis is still unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that somatostatin (SST) could stimulate the expression of intestinal NHE8 so as to facilitate Na+ absorption under normal condition. This study further explored whether NHE8 participates in the pathological processes of infectious colitis and the effects of SST on intestinal NHE8 expression in the setting of infectious colitis...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718129/giardia-cryptosporidium-quik-chek%C3%A2-assay-is-more-specific-than-qpcr-for-rapid-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-infants-in-bangladesh
#16
Mamun Kabir, Emtiaz Ahmed, Biplob Hossain, Masud Alam, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Mami Taniuchi, Carol A Gilchrist, Eric R Houpt, A S G Faruque, William A Petri, Rashidul Haque
Background: Cryptosporidiumis a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Current modes of cryptosporidiosis diagnosis involve procedures which are costly and require both a well-equipped laboratory and technical expertise. Therefore, a cost effective, user friendly and rapid method for point-of-care detection of Cryptosporidium species in fecal samples is desirable. Methodology: A total of 832 diarrheal stool specimens collected from 200 children aged below two years were tested by Giardia/Cryptosporidium QUIK CHEK®, ELISA and qPCR to compare the performance of the individual techniques...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715482/pgrp-lb-homolog-acts-as-a-negative-modulator-of-immunity-in-maintaining-the-gut-microbe-symbiosis-of-red-palm-weevil-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier
#17
Bishnu Dawadi, Xinghong Wang, Rong Xiao, Abrar Muhammad, Youming Hou, Zhanghong Shi
Many notorious insect pests live in the symbiotic associations with gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms underlying how they host their gut microbiota are unknown. Most gut bacteria can release peptidoglycan (PGN) which is an important antigen to activate the immune response. Therefore, how to keep the appropriate gut immune intensity to host commensals while to efficiently remove enteropathogens is vital for insect health. This study is aimed at elucidating the roles of an amidase PGRP, Rf PGRP-LB, in maintaining the gut-microbe symbiosis of Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier...
April 28, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702315/enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-is-the-predominant-diarrheagenic-e-coli-pathotype-among-irrigation-water-and-food-sources-in-south-africa
#18
Matthew Aijuka, Araceli E Santiago, Jorge A Girón, James P Nataro, Elna M Buys
Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702254/despite-antibiotic-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhoea-pathogens-are-found-in-stools-from-half-of-travellers-at-return
#19
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Among visitors to the (sub)tropics, 20-50% contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and 5-30% take antibiotics. While shortening the duration of illness, antimicrobials predispose to acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, liberal use is no longer advocated. Although antibiotics kill pathogens, no data support the view that they could prevent post-infectious sequelae. We investigated how antibiotic use for TD abroad impacts the pathogen findings at return. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We revisited 456 travellers' clinical data and stool pathogens examined by qPCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli...
April 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698692/development-of-a-flow-cytometry-based-assay-to-determine-the-invasion-of-enteropathogenic-yersiniae-into-c2bbe1-cells
#20
Michael Böhringer, Alexander Rakin, Heinrich Neubauer, Lisa D Sprague
A rapid method was developed to determine the invasion frequency of enteropathogenic Yersinia into intestinal C2BBe1 cells by means of flow cytometry. Bacteria are labelled with a thiol-cleavable amine-reactive biotin and subsequently incubated with the fluorochrome-labelled biotin-ligand neutravidin. After infection of the intestinal cells with the labelled bacteria, the neutravidin-coupled fluorochrome is detached by breaking up the linker through reduction of the disulphide. Despite reduced adhesion and invasion frequencies of the labelled bacteria into C2BBe1 cells this procedure offers the basis for the development of a fast single-step staining protocol for the recovery of invading bacteria in in a host-pathogen system for further transcriptome or proteome analysis...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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