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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151781/molecular-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-in-diarrheal-children-from-low-socioeconomic-status-communities-in-bihar-india-emergence-of-the-ctx-m-type
#1
Abhishek Mandal, Abhishek Sengupta, Ajay Kumar, Utpal K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Pradeep Das, Sushmita Das
Background: Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in India, but the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in Bihar remains elusive. In this study, we determine and characterize ESBL-producing E coli pathotypes among hospitalized diarrheal preschool children living in low socioeconomic level communities in Bihar, India. Materials and methods: The stool samples were collected everyday throughout the year for 2 consecutive years...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148397/evolutionary-context-of-non-sorbitol-fermenting-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o55-h7
#2
Kyle Schutz, Lauren A Cowley, Sharif Shaaban, Anne Carroll, Eleanor McNamara, David L Gally, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman
In July 2014, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 in England involved 31 patients, 13 (42%) of whom had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with publicly available sequences of E. coli O55:H7 and O157:H7. A core-genome phylogeny of the evolutionary history of the STEC O55:H7 outbreak strain revealed that the most parsimonious model was a progenitor enteropathogenic O55:H7 sorbitol-fermenting strain, lysogenized by a Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-encoding phage, followed by loss of the ability to ferment sorbitol because of a non-sense mutation in srlA...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148394/enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-o80-h2-in-young-calves-with-diarrhea-belgium
#3
Damien Thiry, Marc Saulmont, Shino Takaki, Klara De Rauw, Jean-Noël Duprez, Atsushi Iguchi, Denis Piérard, Jacques G Mainil
Serogroup O80 was detected in 40% of 104 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from calves with diarrhea from 42 farms in Belgium during 2008‒2015. These isolates harbored the eae-ξ and fliCH2 genes, similar to the O80 attaching-effacing Shigatoxigenic E. coli isolates found in humans in France. This strain might be emerging.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146903/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammasome-activity-in-innate-immune-cells
#4
Pamela P Lee, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Nayani Pramanik, Andrea Sirianni, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Elizabeth Rivers, Alessia Cavazza, Gerben Bouma, Dale Moulding, Kjell Hultenby, Lisa S Westerberg, Michael Hollinshead, Yu-Lung Lau, Siobhan O Burns, Serge Mostowy, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Adrian J Thrasher
Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function. In a model of sterile inflammation utilizing TLR4 ligation followed by ATP or nigericin treatment, inflammasome activation is enhanced in monocytes from WAS patients and in WAS-knockout mouse dendritic cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142104/constraints-on-lateral-gene-transfer-in-promoting-fimbrial-usher-protein-diversity-and-function
#5
Christopher J Stubenrauch, Gordon Dougan, Trevor Lithgow, Eva Heinz
Fimbriae are long, adhesive structures widespread throughout members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are multimeric extrusions, which are moved out of the bacterial cell through an integral outer membrane protein called usher. The complex folding mechanics of the usher protein were recently revealed to be catalysed by the membrane-embedded translocation and assembly module (TAM). Here, we examine the diversity of usher proteins across a wide range of extraintestinal (ExPEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli, and further focus on a so far undescribed chaperone-usher system, with this usher referred to as UshC...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135055/the-modulatory-role-of-cytokines-il-4-and-il-17-in-the-functional-activity-of-phagocytes-in-diabetic-pregnant-women
#6
Danny L G Fagundes, Eduardo L França, Michelangelo B Gonzatti, Marilza V C Rugde, Iracema M P Calderon, Adenilda C Honorio-França
The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca(2+) release...
November 14, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#7
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study employing modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116292/first-isolation-report-of-arcobacter-cryaerophilus-from-a-human-diarrhea-sample-in-costa-rica
#8
Karol Barboza, Zaida Cubillo, Eduardo Castro, Mauricio Redondo-Solano, Heriberto Fernández-Jaramillo, María Laura Arias Echandi
Arcobacter cryaerophilus is an emerging enteropathogen and potential zoonotic agent transmitted by food and water. In Costa Rica, this bacterium has not been associated with cases of human gastroenteritis, even though it has been isolated from farm animals, especially poultry. This paper reports the first isolation of A. cryaerophilus from a human case of bloody watery diarrhea and the virulence genes associated with this isolate.
November 6, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116002/ice-associated-norovirus-outbreak-predominantly-caused-by-gii-17-in-taiwan-2015
#9
Hao-Yuan Cheng, Min-Nan Hung, Wan-Chin Chen, Yi-Chun Lo, Ying-Shih Su, Hsin-Yi Wei, Meng-Yu Chen, Yen-Chang Tuan, Hui-Chen Lin, Hsu-Yang Lin, Tsung-Yen Liu, Yu-Ying Wang, Fang-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND: On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109154/hierarchical-protein-targeting-and-secretion-is-controlled-by-an-affinity-switch-in-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#10
Athina G Portaliou, Konstantinos C Tsolis, Maria S Loos, Vassileia Balabanidou, Josep Rayo, Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Valerie F Crepin, Gad Frankel, Charalampos G Kalodimos, Spyridoula Karamanou, Anastassios Economou
Type III secretion (T3S), a protein export pathway common to Gram-negative pathogens, comprises a trans-envelope syringe, the injectisome, with a cytoplasm-facing translocase channel. Exported substrates are chaperone-delivered to the translocase, EscV in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross it in strict hierarchical manner, for example, first "translocators", then "effectors". We dissected T3S substrate targeting and hierarchical switching by reconstituting them in vitro using inverted inner membrane vesicles...
November 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106325/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-with-high-rate-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-production-two-predominant-etiological-agents-of-acute-diarrhea-in-shiraz-iran
#11
Maneli Aminshahidi, Amir Arastehfar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Esmayil Arman, Fereshteh Fani
This study was conducted to find the etiology of acute diarrhea in Iranian children and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The pathogenic bacteria were recovered from 110/269 (40.9%) diarrheal fecal samples with the following profiles: the most predominant pathogen was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (43.6%), comprising enteroaggregative E. coli (23.6%), enteropathogenic E. coli (10.9%), enteroinvasive E. coli (5.5%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (3.6%); Shigella spp. (37.3%), Salmonella spp...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#12
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102116/secretion-of-the-shiga-toxin-b-subunit-stx1b-via-an-autotransporter-protein-optimizes-the-protective-immune-response-to-the-antigen-expressed-in-an-attenuated-e-coli-repec-e22%C3%AE-ler-vaccine-strain
#13
Wyatt Byrd, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, Prashanth Setty, Chengru Zhu, Edgar C Boedeker
We previously developed attenuated rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli (rEPEC) strains which are effective oral vaccines against their parent pathogens by deleting ler, a global regulator of virulence genes. To use these strains as orally administered vectors to deliver other antigens we incorporated the B subunit of shiga-like toxin 1(Stx1) into the passenger domain of the autotransporter EspP expressed on a plasmid. Native EspP enters the periplasm where its passenger domain is exported to the bacterial surface through an outer membrane channel formed by its translocator domain, then cleaved and secreted...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093106/a-gastrointestinal-pcr-panel-improves-clinical-management-and-lowers-healthcare-costs
#14
Stacy G Beal, Elizabeth E Tremblay, Steven Toffel, Lymaries Velez, Kenneth H Rand
Conventional methods for identification of gastrointestinal pathogens are time consuming, expensive, and have limited sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical impact of a comprehensive molecular test, the BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel which tests for many of the most common agents of infectious diarrhea in approximately one hour. Patients with stool cultures submitted were tested on the GI Panel (n=241) and were compared with control patients (n=594) from the year prior...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091261/the-mouse-model-of-infection-with-citrobacter-rodentium
#15
Nicolas Bouladoux, Oliver J Harrison, Yasmine Belkaid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine mucosal pathogen used as a model to elucidate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of infection with two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). C. rodentium infection provides an excellent model to study different aspects of host-pathogen interaction in the gut, including intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis, mucosal healing and epithelial repair, the induction of mucosal immune responses, and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens...
November 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084270/attaching-and-effacing-a-e-lesion-formation-by-enteropathogenic-e-coli-on-human-intestinal-mucosa-is-dependent-on-non-lee-effectors
#16
Massiel Cepeda-Molero, Cedric N Berger, Alistair D S Walsham, Samuel J Ellis, Simon Wemyss-Holden, Stephanie Schüller, Gad Frankel, Luis Ángel Fernández
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic pediatric diarrhea. The hallmark of EPEC infection is the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. Formation of A/E lesions is mediated by genes located on the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encode the adhesin intimin, a type III secretion system (T3SS) and six effectors, including the essential translocated intimin receptor (Tir). Seventeen additional effectors are encoded by genes located outside the LEE, in insertion elements and prophages...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080422/development-of-a-rapid-immunochromatographic-assay-to-detect-contamination-of-raw-oysters-with-enteropathogenic-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#17
Junko Sakata, Taro Yonekita, Kentaro Kawatsu
Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are major virulence factors of enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TDH and TRH are bacterial exotoxins, and their presence in culture medium serves as a specific marker for detecting this significant pathogen. Here, we developed and evaluated an immunochromatographic assay (TDH/TRH-ICA) to simultaneously or individually detect TDH and TRH. The TDH/TRH-ICA detected TDH in all broth cultures of 47 V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying tdh...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077972/characterization-and-evaluation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-candidates-for-intestinal-epithelial-permeability-and-salmonella-typhimurium-colonization-in-neonatal-turkey-poults
#18
Y Yang, J D Latorre, B Khatri, Y M Kown, B W Kong, K D Teague, L E Graham, A D Wolfenden, B D Mahaffey, M Baxter, X Hernandez-Velasco, R Merino-Guzman, B M Hargis, G Tellez
The present study evaluated the microbiological properties of three probiotic candidate strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (128; 131; CE11_2), their effect on intestinal epithelial permeability, and their ability to reduce intestinal colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) individually or as a batch culture in neonatal turkey poults. Isolates were characterized morphologically and identified using 16S rRNA sequence analyses. Each isolate was evaluated for tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic NaCl concentrations, and bile salts in broth medium...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077065/glycomacropeptide-reduces-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier-dysfunction-and-adhesion-of-entero-hemorrhagic-and-entero-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#19
Shane Feeney, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Michelle Kilcoyne, Lokesh Joshi, Rita Hickey
In recent years, the potential of glycosylated food components to positively influence health has received considerable attention. Milk is a rich source of biologically active glycoconjugates which are associated with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-adhesion, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic properties. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is the C-terminal portion of kappa-casein that is released from whey during cheese-making by the action of chymosin. Many of the biological properties associated with GMP, such as anti-adhesion, have been linked with the carbohydrate portion of the protein...
October 27, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073348/gut-microbiota-perturbations-in-reactive-arthritis-and-post-infectious-spondyloarthritis
#20
Julia Manasson, Nan Shen, Helga R Garcia Ferrer, Carles Ubeda, Isa Iraheta, Adriana Heguy, Joan M Von Feldt, Luis R Espinoza, Abraham Garcia Kutzbach, Leopoldo N Segal, Alexis Ogdie, Jose C Clemente, Jose U Scher
OBJECTIVE: Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory disorder occurring several weeks after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. HLA-B27 positivity is considered a risk factor, though not necessarily predictive of disease incidence. Among non-genetic factors, the intestinal microbiome may play a role in disease susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota and host gene interactions in ReA and post-infectious spondyloarthritis. METHODS: Adult peripheral spondyloarthritis and control subjects with preceding infections that did not develop arthritis were prospectively recruited from a highly prevalent geographic region...
October 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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