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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#1
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333177/amelioration-of-citrobacter-rodentium-proliferation-in-early-stage-of-infection-in-mice-by-pre-treatment-with-lactobacillus-brevis-kb290-and-verification-using-in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging
#2
Naoko Waki, Yuki Kuwabara, Yuko Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Hiroyuki Koide, Naoto Oku, Norio Ohashi
Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) has become a useful tool for monitoring bacterial infections in real time. Citrobacter rodentium and its BLI are widely used as a murine model of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 against C. rodentium infection by the BLI approach. First, we examined several solutions for making the suspension of bioluminescent C. rodentium for an oral inoculation to establish a stable intestinal infection...
November 10, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332937/yersinia-spp-in-wild-rodents-and-shrews-in-finland
#3
Suvi Joutsen, Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios, Heikki Henttonen, Jukka Niemimaa, Liina Voutilainen, Eva R Kallio, Heikki Helle, Hannu Korkeala, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa
Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid...
March 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330478/higher-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-a-epec-bacterial-loads-in-children-with-diarrhea-are-associated-with-pcr-detection-of-the-ehec-factor-for-adherence-1-lymphocyte-inhibitory-factor-a-efa1-lifa-gene
#4
Robert Slinger, Kimberley Lau, Michael Slinger, Ioana Moldovan, Francis Chan
BACKGROUND: Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (t-EPEC) are known to cause diarrhea in children but it is uncertain whether atypical EPEC (a-EPEC) do, since a-EPEC lack the bundle-forming pilus (bfp) gene that encodes a key adherence factor in t-EPEC. In culture-based studies of a-EPEC, the presence of another adherence factor, called EHEC factor for adherence/lymphocyte activation inhibitor (efa1/lifA), was strongly associated with diarrhea. Since a-EPEC culture is not feasible in clinical laboratories, we designed an efa1/lifA quantitative PCR assay and examined whether the presence of efa1/lifA was associated with higher a-EPEC bacterial loads in pediatric diarrheal stool samples...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329174/ccr7-deficiency-modulates-t-cell-response-and-increases-susceptibility-to-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection
#5
Joern Pezoldt, Fabio Pisano, Wiebke Heine, Maria Pasztoi, Maik Rosenheinrich, Aaron M Nuss, Marina C Pils, Immo Prinz, Reinhold Förster, Jochen Huehn, Petra Dersch
Background: To successfully limit pathogen dissemination an immunological link between the entry tissue of the pathogen and the underlying secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) needs to be established to prime adaptive immune responses. Here, the prerequisite of CCR7 to mount host immune responses within SLOs during gastrointestinal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection to limit pathogen spread was investigated. Methods: Survival, bacterial dissemination, intestinal and systemic pathology of wild type (WT) and CCR7-/- mice were assessed and correlated to the presence of immune cell subsets and cytokine responses throughout the course of infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326812/evaluation-of-reticulated-gelatin-hibiscus-propolis-against-intestinal-commensal-species-commonly-associated-with-urinary-tract-infections
#6
Maïwenn Olier, Soraya Sekkal, Cherryl Harkat, Hélène Eutamene, Vassilia Theodorou
AIM: Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. METHODS: Animals received orally (with supplemental Na2CO3): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle...
March 3, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325837/threonine-eliminylation-by-bacterial-phosphothreonine-lyases-rapidly-causes-crosslinking-of-mapk-in-live-cells
#7
Benoit M Meijer, Suk Min Jang, Ida C Guerrera, Cerina Chhuon, Joanna Lipecka, Caroline Reisacher, Françoise Baleux, Philippe Sansonetti, Christian Muchardt, Laurence Arbibe
Old long-lived proteins contain dehydroalanine (Dha) and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb), two amino acids engendered by dehydration of serines and threonines respectively. While these residues have a suspected role in protein crosslink and aggregation, their direct implication has yet to be determined. Here, we have taken advantage of the ability of the enteropathogen Shigella to convert the phosphothreonine residue of the pT-X-pY consensus sequence of ERK and p38 into Dhb, and followed the impact of dehydration on the fate of the two MAPKs...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325675/placental-and-colostral-transfer-of-antibodies-reactive-with-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-intimins-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-or-%C3%AE
#8
Silvia P N Altman, Milene Tino-De-Franco, Cristiane B Carbonare, Patricia Palmeira, Solange B Carbonare
OBJECTIVE: Intimins are protein adhesins of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) capable of inducing attachment and effacement lesions in enterocytes. Anti-intimin antibodies are important for the protection from EPEC and EHEC infections because these antibodies inhibit bacterial adhesion and impair the initial step of the pathogenesis. We studied the transfer of maternal anti-intimin antibodies from healthy Brazilian mothers to their newborns through the placenta and colostrum...
March 19, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323855/etiology-of-acute-diarrhea-in-the-elderly-in-china-a-six-year-observational-study
#9
Zike Zhang, Shengjie Lai, Jianxing Yu, Qibin Geng, Wanqi Yang, Yu Chen, Jianguo Wu, Huaiqi Jing, Weizhong Yang, Zhongjie Li
Acute diarrhea leads to a substantial disease burden among the elderly worldwide. However, in the context of increasingly aging trend in China, the prevalence of etiological agents among elderly diarrheal patients was undetermined. This study aimed to explore the major enteropathogens of acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years in China, and also the epidemiological features of the pathogens. Demographic and clinical data for acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years were collected from 213 participating hospitals from 2009 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#10
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302076/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-pathogenicity-islands-and-other-expec-virulence-genes-may-contribute-to-the-genome-variability-of-enteroinvasive-e-coli
#11
Laís Cristina da Silva, Ana Carolina de Mello Santos, Rosa Maria Silva
BACKGROUND: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) may be the causative agent of part of those million cases of diarrhea illness reported worldwide every year and attributable to Shigella. That is because both enteropathogens have many common characteristics that difficult their identification either by traditional microbiological methods or by molecular tools used in the clinical laboratory settings. While Shigella has been extensively studied, EIEC remains barely characterized at the molecular level...
March 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298258/susceptibility-to-rifaximin-and-other-antimicrobials-of-bacteria-isolated-in-patients-with-acute-gastrointestinal-infections-in-southeast-mexico
#12
O Novoa-Farias, A C Frati-Munari, M A Peredo, S Flores-Juárez, O Novoa-García, J Galicia-Tapia, C E Romero-Carpio
INTRODUCTION: Enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in Mexico City have shown a high rate of resistance to different antibiotics, with the exception of rifaximin (RIF). RIF is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that reaches high fecal concentrations (≈ 8,000μg/g). Susceptibility to antimicrobials can vary in different geographic regions. AIM: To study the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in patients with acute diarrhea in the southeastern region of Mexico...
March 12, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292660/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-profiles-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-different-retail-foods
#13
Lili Wang, Hiromi Nakamura, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yukiko Hara-Kudo, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281197/wild-birds-and-urban-pigeons-as-reservoirs-for-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-with-zoonotic-potential
#14
Clarissa A Borges, Marita V Cardozo, Livia G Beraldo, Elisabete S Oliveira, Renato P Maluta, Kaline B Barboza, Karin Werther, Fernando A Ávila
In order to describe the role of wild birds and pigeons in the transmission of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to humans and other animals, samples were collected from cloacae and oropharynx of free-living wild birds and free-living pigeons. Two STEC (0.8%) and five EPEC strains (2.0%) were isolated from wild birds and four EPEC strains (2.0%) were recovered from pigeons. Serogroups, sequence types (STs) and virulence genes, such as saa, iha, lpfA O113, ehxA, espA, nleB and nleE, detected in this study had already been implicated in human and animal diseases...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264759/environmental-enteropathy-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-peruvian-children
#15
G O Lee, M Paredes Olortegui, M Siguas Salas, P Peñataro Yori, D Rengifo Trigoso, P Kosek, M L Mispireta, R Oberhelman, L E Caulfield, M N Kosek
Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a syndrome of altered small intestine structure and function hypothesized to be common among individuals lacking access to improved water and sanitation. There are plausible biological mechanisms, both inflammatory and non-inflammatory, by which EE may alter the cardiometabolic profile. Here, we test the hypothesis that EE is associated with the cardiometabolic profile among young children living in an environment of intense enteropathogen exposure. In total, 156 children participating in the Peruvian cohort of a multicenter study on childhood infectious diseases, growth and development were contacted at 3-5 years of age...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261222/u-omp19-from-brucella-abortus-is-a-useful-adjuvant-for-vaccine-formulations-against-salmonella-infection-in-mice
#16
Gabriela S Risso, Marianela V Carabajal, Laura A Bruno, Andrés E Ibañez, Lorena M Coria, Karina A Pasquevich, Seung-Joo Lee, Stephen J McSorley, Gabriel Briones, Juliana Cassataro
Most pathogens infect through mucosal surfaces, and parenteral immunization typically fails to induce effective immune responses at these sites. Development of oral-administered vaccines capable of inducing mucosal as well as systemic immunity while bypassing the issues of antigen degradation and immune tolerance could be crucial for the control of enteropathogens. This study demonstrates that U-Omp19, a bacterial protease inhibitor with immunostimulatory features, coadministered with Salmonella antigens by the oral route, enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250121/porcine-deltacoronavirus-nsp5-antagonizes-type-i-interferon-signaling-by-cleaving-stat2
#17
Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Junwei Zhou, Ting Pan, Jiyao Chen, Yuting Yang, Mengting Lv, Xu Ye, Guiqing Peng, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus. The first outbreak of PDCoV was announced from the United States in 2014, followed by reports in Asia. The nonstructural protein nsp5 is a 3C-like protease of coronavirus and our previous study showed that PDCoV nsp5 inhibits type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that PDCoV nsp5 significantly inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), suggesting that PDCoV nsp5 also suppresses IFN signaling...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239369/plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-associated-with-langsdorffia-hypogaea-rhizosphere-host-biological-interface-a-neglected-model-of-bacterial-prospection
#18
Érica B Felestrino, Iara F Santiago, Luana da Silva Freitas, Luiz H Rosa, Sérvio P Ribeiro, Leandro M Moreira
Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#19
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231471/pathogenic-potential-and-virulence-genotypes-of-intestinal-and-faecal-isolates-of-porcine-post-weaning-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#20
Anna Malik, Béla Nagy, Renáta Kugler, Ama Szmolka
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are frequent causes of diarrhoea in infants and in young mammals by inducing attaching effacing (AE) lesions of the intestinal epithelium. EPEC bacteria have also been implicated in cases of porcine post-weaning diarrhoea but their pathogenicity for conventional weaned pigs remains less elucidated. This present study investigates differences in pathogenic potential and virulence genotypes of intestinal and faecal isolates of EPEC from newly-weaned pigs. For this we inoculated ligated ileal loops of four weeks old weaned pigs to assess EPEC adherence to enterocytes by histology and immunohistology...
February 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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