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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931467/clinical-features-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-identified-by-fecal-gastrointestinal-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-patients-with-cancer-and-diarrhea
#1
Andrew W Chao, Micah Bhatti, Herbert L DuPont, James P Nataro, Lily G Carlin, Pablo C Okhuysen
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes with differing epidemiology and clinical features, are known causes of disease with worldwide occurrence. At a major cancer center in the U.S., we studied patients with cancer and diarrhea for whom a GI Biofire FilmArray multiplex GI panel (BFM) was performed. An enteropathogen was identified in 382 of 2017 (19%) samples distributed across 311 patients. Of these, 60/311(19%) were positive for DEC. Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) 29/60 (48%) or with a hematologic malignancy 17/60 (28%) accounted for the majority of DEC cases...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919687/presence-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-the-central-region-of-argentina
#2
Fernando A Bessone, Gabriela Bessone, Sebastián Marini, María B Conde, Fabrisio E Alustiza, Gustavo Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED) is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively). Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production. AIM: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919674/prevalence-of-enteropathogens-and-their-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-in-puppies-with-hemorrhagic-gastroenteritis
#3
A Kokila Priya, M Balagangatharathilagar, D Chandrasekaran, M Parthiban, S Prathaban
AIM: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906580/comparison-of-one-commercial-and-two-in-house-taqman-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-enteropathogenic-enterotoxigenic-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#4
Andreas Hahn, Marc Luetgehetmann, Olfert Landt, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
OBJECTIVE: Enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC) are among the most frequent causes of diarrhea during travel or on military deployments. Cost efficient and reliable real-time multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays are desirable for surveillance or point prevalence studies in remote and resource-limited tropical settings. We compared one commercial PCR kit and two in-house assays without using a gold standard to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each assay...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906319/enteroaggregative-e-coli-subclinical-infection-and-co-infections-and-impaired-child-growth-in-the-mal-ed-cohort-study
#5
Aldo A M Lima, Alberto M Soares, José Q S Filho, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Noélia L Lima, Cláudia B Abreu, Francisco S Junior, Rosa M S Mota, William K-Y Pan, Christopher Troeger, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Herlice N Vera, Mara M G Prata, Ben McCormick, Monica McGrath, Elizabeth Rogawski, Eric Houpt, James Platts-Mills, Jean Gratz, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, Sudhir Babji, Gangadeep Kang, Qureshi Shahida, Sadia Shakoor, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Rashidul Haque, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Erling Svensen, Margaret Kosek, Pablo Penataro Yori, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Shrestha Jasmin, Carl Mason, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first six months of life on child growth. METHODS: Non-diarrheal samples from 1,684 children across eight Multisite Birth Cohort Study, Malnutrition and Enteric Diseases (MAL-ED) sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were tested monthly; over 90% of children were followed-up twice weekly for the first six months of life...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901907/isolates-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-l-reuteri-display-greater-antiproliferative-and-antipathogenic-activity-than-other-lactobacillus-isolates
#6
Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Morteza Eshaghi, Mahdi Rohani, Maryam Esghaei, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad R Pourshafie, Malihe Talebi
PURPOSE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been associated with many beneficial effects in human digestive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate such effect, including attachment, antiproliferation and anti-pathogenic/antibacterial/antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from healthy humans. METHODOLOGY: Thirteen isolates, obtained from fecal samples of healthy individuals, were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 and the cell proliferation kit II (XTT) assay were used for examination of the Lactobacillus adherence and antiproliferative activity, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900429/plasma-derived-polyreactive-secretory-like-iga-and-igm-opsonizing-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-reduces-invasion-and-gut-tissue-inflammation-through-agglutination
#7
Gilles Bioley, Justine Monnerat, Marius Lötscher, Cédric Vonarburg, Adrian Zuercher, Blaise Corthésy
Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. While vaccination requires that a proper combination of antigen, adjuvant, and delivery route is defined to elicit protective immunity at mucosae, oral delivery of directly active antibody preparations, referred to as passive immunization, sounds like a valuable alternative. Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888816/the-repeat-structure-of-two-paralogous-genes-yersinia-ruckeri-invasin-yrinv-and-a-y-ruckeri-invasin-like-molecule-yrilm-sheds-light-on-the-evolution-of-adhesive-capacities-of-a-fish-pathogen
#8
Agnieszka Wrobel, Claudio Ottoni, Jack C Leo, Snorre Gulla, Dirk Linke
Inverse autotransporters comprise the recently identified type Ve secretion system and are exemplified by intimin from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and invasin from enteropathogenic Yersiniae. These proteins share a common domain architecture and promote bacterial adhesion to host cells. Here, we identified and characterized two putative inverse autotransporter genes in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri NVH_3758, namely yrInv (for Y. ruckeri invasin) and yrIlm (for Y. ruckeri invasin-like molecule)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887208/proteomic-comparison-of-three-clinical-diarrhoeagenic-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-grown-on-chromagar%C3%A2-stec-media
#9
John Bosco Kalule, Suereta Fortuin, Bridget Calder, Lourens Robberts, Karen H Keddy, Andrew Nel, Shaun Garnett, Mark Nicol, Digby F Warner, Nelson C Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are key diarrhoea-causing foodborne pathogens. We used proteomics to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance protein profiles of three clinical pathogenic E. coli isolates (two EPEC [one resistant to ciprofloxacin] and one STEC) cultured on CHROMagar™STEC solid media after minimal laboratory passage. We identified 4767 unique peptides from 1630 protein group across all three clinical E. coli strains...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885918/travelers-diarrhea-an-update-on-the-incidence-etiology-and-risk-in-military-deployments-and-similar-travel-populations
#10
Chad K Porter, Scott Olson, Alexis Hall, Mark S Riddle
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) has historically been a common illness among visitors to developing nations. Although recent studies indicate decreasing incidence of TD among short-term travelers, a systematic review of illness among long-term travelers, including deployed military personnel, has not been conducted in more than 10 years. We conducted a literature search of studies published between 2005 and 2015 that evaluated TD in populations of deployed military personnel or similar long-term travelers (travel ≥1 month) to developing nations...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885460/potential-diarrheal-pathogens-common-also-in-healthy-children-in-angola
#11
Tuula Pelkonen, Mauro Dias Dos Santos, Irmeli Roine, Elisabete Dos Anjos, César Freitas, Heikki Peltola, Sanna Laakso, Juha Kirveskari
BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1,500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. METHODS: 194 stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The median age of children was 10...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883979/review-chronic-and-persistent-diarrhea-with-a-focus-in-the-returning-traveler
#12
REVIEW
Christopher A Duplessis, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Chad K Porter
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea is a common malady afflicting up to 50% of travelers after a 2-week travel period. An appreciable percentage of these cases will become persistent or chronic. We summarized the published literature reporting persistent/chronic diarrhea in travelers elucidating current understanding of disease incidence, etiology and regional variability. METHODS: We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Cochrane database of clinical trials) from 1990 to 2015 using the following terms: "chronic or persistent diarrh* and (returning) travel* or enteropathogen, GeoSentinel, and travel-associated infection...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875940/subversion-of-macrophage-functions-by-bacterial-protein-toxins-and-effectors
#13
Muyang Wan, Yan Zhou, Yongqun Zhu
Macrophages represent one of the first lines of host immune defenses against the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. Many receptors, immune signaling pathways and cellular processes in macrophages, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, phagocytosis, autophagy and programmed cell death, are involved in combating the infection of bacterial pathogens. For efficient colonization in the host, bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse mechanisms to interfere with macrophage functions to evade host defenses...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862189/typical-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-diarrhoea-their-role-as-carrier-in-children-under-five
#14
Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V G Ramachandran, Dheeraj Shah, Rumpa Saha, Sajad Ahmad Dar, Arvind Rai
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is responsible for a large number of cases of infantile diarrhoea in developing countries, causing failure in treatment with consequent health burden and resulting in a large number of deaths every year. This study was undertaken to determine the proportion of typical and atypical EPEC in under five children with diarrhoea and controls, their function as a carriage and to identify virulent genes associated with them...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861396/the-role-of-ompr-in-the-expression-of-genes-of-the-kdgr-regulon-involved-in-the-uptake-and-depolymerization-of-oligogalacturonides-in-yersinia-enterocolitica
#15
Marta Nieckarz, Adrianna Raczkowska, Karolina Jaworska, Ewa Stefańska, Karolina Skorek, Dorota Stosio, Katarzyna Brzostek
Oligogalacturonide (OGA)-specific porins of the KdgM family have previously been identified and characterized in enterobacterial plant pathogens. We found that deletion of the gene encoding response regulator OmpR causes the porin KdgM2 to become one of the most abundant proteins in the outer membrane of the human enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Reporter gene fusion and real-time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of kdgM2 is repressed by OmpR. We also found that kdgM2 expression is subject to negative regulation by KdgR, a specific repressor of genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of pectin derivatives in plant pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860194/the-bacterial-arginine-glycosyltransferase-effector-nleb-preferentially-modifies-fas-associated-death-domain-protein-fadd
#16
Nichollas E Scott, Cristina Giogha, Georgina L Pollock, Catherine L Kennedy, Andrew I Webb, Nicholas A Williamson, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
The inhibition of host innate immunity pathways is essential for the persistence of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Citrobacter rodentium during mammalian infections. To subvert these pathways and suppress the antimicrobial response, A/E pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SS) to introduce effectors targeting key signaling pathways in host cells. One such effector is the arginine glycosyltransferase NleB1 (NleBCR in C. rodentium) that modifies conserved arginine residues in death domain-containing host proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), thereby blocking extrinsic apoptosis signaling...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855919/case-control-pilot-study-on-acute-diarrheal-disease-in-a-geographically-defined-pediatric-population-in-a-middle-income-country
#17
Ana E Farfán-García, Chengxian Zhang, Aamer Imdad, Monica Y Arias-Guerrero, Nayibe T Sánchez-Alvarez, Rikhil Shah, Junaid Iqbal, Maria E Tamborski, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Understanding of the etiology of ADD is lacking in most low and middle income countries because reference laboratories detect limited number of pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility to conduct a comprehensive case-control study to survey diarrheal pathogens among children with and without moderate-to-severe ADD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microbiology and molecular-based techniques were used to detect viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854667/effect-of-dietary-nucleosides-and-yeast-extracts-on-composition-and-metabolic-activity-of-infant-gut-microbiota-in-polyferms-colonic-fermentation-models
#18
Eun-Hee Doo, Christophe Chassard, Clarissa Schwab, Christophe Lacroix
Nucleotides (NT) and nucleosides (NS) are added to infant formula to mimic the content of breast milk, but little is known about their impact on infant gut microbiota. In this study, we tested the effect of NS and of yeast extracts (YE) with different NT content using PolyFermS continuous fermentation models mimicking formula-fed, healthy and enteropathogen-contaminated infant gut microbiota. Microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formation and gene expression were determined. NS, and to a larger extend YE modulated microbiota composition and increased metabolic activity in both models...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840936/effects-of-static-magnetic-fields-on-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#19
María A Quiñones-Peña, Gustavo Tavizon, José L Puente, Claudia Martínez-Anaya, Ulises Hernández-Chiñas, Carlos A Eslava
This study reports the effects of exposing cells of the prototypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 to static magnetic fields (SMF) of varying intensities to observe their capacity to autoaggregate and the effect on cell adherence. The results showed that bacteria exposure over the course of 5 min to an intensity of 53 mT reduced autoaggregation by 28%. However, with intensities of up to 100 mT with the same exposure time, bacteria autoaggregation was reduced by approximately 50%; and after 30 min at the same intensity, it was indistinguishable from that observed in a non-autoaggregative strain...
August 25, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838152/etiology-of-severe-acute-watery-diarrhea-in-children-in-the-global-rotavirus-surveillance-network-using-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Darwin J Operario, James A Platts-Mills, Sandrama Nadan, Nicola Page, Mapaseka Seheri, Jeffrey Mphahlele, Ira Praharaj, Gagandeep Kang, Irene T Araujo, Jose Paulo G Leite, Daniel Cowley, Sarah Thomas, Carl D Kirkwood, Francis Dennis, George Armah, Jason M Mwenda, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Gloria Rey, Varja Grabovac, Chipo Berejena, Chibumbya J Simwaka, Jeannine Uwimana, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Isidore J O Bonkoungou, Sheriffo Jagne, Enyonam Tsolenyanu, Amadou Diop, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Sam-Aliyah Borbor, Jie Liu, Timothy McMurry, Benjamin Lopman, Umesh Parashar, John Gentsch, A Duncan Steele, Adam Cohen, Fatima Serhan, Eric R Houpt
Background: The etiology of acute watery diarrhea remains poorly characterized, particularly after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Methods: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for multiple enteropathogens on 878 acute watery diarrheal stools sampled from 14643 episodes captured by surveillance of children <5 years of age during 2013-2014 from 16 countries. We used previously developed models of the association between pathogen quantity and diarrhea to calculate pathogen-specific weighted attributable fractions (AFs)...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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