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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908415/iodine-in-the-feed-of-cows-and-in-the-milk-with-a-view-to-the-consumer-s-iodine-supply
#1
Friedrich Schöne, Kathrin Spörl, Matthias Leiterer
Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905218/optimization-of-the-malting-process-for-nutritional-improvement-of-finger-millet-and-amaranth-flours-in-the-infant-weaning-food-industry
#2
Sara Najdi Hejazi, Valérie Orsat
Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904391/non-alcoholic-beverages-from-fermented-cereals-with-increased-oligosaccharide-content
#3
Loreta Basinskiene, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Maija Tenkanen, Tomas Makaravicius, Elena Bartkiene
The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903321/impact-of-fat-source-and-dietary-fibers-on-feed-intake-plasma-metabolites-litter-gain-and-the-yield-and-composition-of-milk-in-sows
#4
U Krogh, T S Bruun, J Poulsen, P K Theil
Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900587/phylogenetic-analysis-of-wheat-dwarf-virus-isolates-from-iran
#5
Mohamad Hamed Ghodoum Parizipour, Jörg Schubert, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia, Alireza Afsharifar, Antje Habekuß, Beilei Wu
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) adversely affects cereal production in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. In this study, sequences of several WDV isolates from Iran which is located in the Fertile Crescent were analyzed. Analysis revealed a new geographic cluster for WDV-Wheat from Iran. Recombination analysis demonstrated the existence of several breakpoints in different regions of the viral genome. Data analysis demonstrated that WDV-Barley has an older history and lower diversity than WDV-Wheat. Sequence analysis identified a rare occasion of a co-infection of wheat with WDV-Wheat and WDV-Barley...
November 30, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900493/mining-the-cicer-arietinum-genome-for-the-mildew-locus-o-mlo-gene-family-and-comparative-evolutionary-analysis-of-the-mlo-genes-from-medicago-truncatula-and-some-other-plant-species
#6
Reena Deshmukh, V K Singh, Brahma Deo Singh
The mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is ubiquitous in land plants. Some members of this gene family are involved in negative regulation of powdery mildew resistance, while others are involved in several other biological functions. Mlo proteins have characteristic seven transmembrane domains and a calmodulin-binding domain at their C-termini, and are associated with plasma membrane. The Mlo gene family has been studied in several economically important cereals, but little information is available on this gene family in the important legumes, Medicago truncatula Gaertn...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898840/one-hour-portable-chamber-methane-measurements-are-repeatable-and-provide-useful-information-on-feed-intake-and-efficiency
#7
D L Robinson, M Cameron, A J Donaldson, S Dominik, V H Oddy
Feed intake (FI), live weight (LW), and ADG were recorded over 31 d in ninety-six 12-month-old ewes (progeny of 4 sires) given ad libitum access to chaffed lucerne/cereal hay. Methane (CH) and CO emissions of each ewe were measured for 40 to 60 min in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) and in respiration chambers (RC) over 22 h. Testing in RC increased the variability of FI on the test day and depressed the amount eaten from an average of 1,384 to 1,062 g/d; FI depression increased by 0.63 ± 0.24 percentage points for every kilogram of additional LW...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#8
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898823/genome-wide-association-studies-of-grain-yield-components-in-diverse-sorghum-germplasm
#9
Richard E Boyles, Elizabeth A Cooper, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, Bradley L Rauh, Geoffrey P Morris, Stephen Kresovich
Grain yield and its primary determinants, grain number and weight, are important traits in cereal crops that have been well studied; however, the genetic basis of and interactions between these traits remain poorly understood. Characterization of grain yield per primary panicle (YPP), grain number per primary panicle (GNP), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) in sorghum [ (L.) Moench], a hardy C cereal with a genome size of ∼730 Mb, was implemented in a diversity panel containing 390 accessions. These accessions were genotyped to obtain 268,830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898766/genomic-regions-influencing-seminal-root-traits-in-barley
#10
Hannah Robinson, Lee Hickey, Cecile Richard, Emma Mace, Alison Kelly, Andrew Borrell, Jerome Franckowiak, Glen Fox
Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898755/examining-the-transcriptional-response-in-wheat-near-isogenic-lines-to-infection-and-deoxynivalenol-treatment
#11
Anna N Hofstad, Thomas Nussbaumer, Eduard Akhunov, Sanghyun Shin, Karl G Kugler, H Corby Kistler, Klaus F X Mayer, Gary J Muehlbauer
head blight (FHB) is a disease caused predominantly by the fungal pathogen that affects wheat and other small-grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulate during infection and increase pathogen virulence and decrease grain quality. The locus on wheat chromosome 3BS confers Type II resistance to FHB and resistance to the spread of infection on the spike and has been associated with resistance to DON accumulation...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896913/nausea-and-vomiting-in-early-pregnancy-effects-on-food-intake-and-diet-quality
#12
Sarah R Crozier, Hazel M Inskip, Keith M Godfrey, Cyrus Cooper, Sian M Robinson
Experiences of nausea and/or vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) vary greatly, but the paucity of studies with pre-pregnancy dietary data mean that little is known about the effects of NVP on diet. Using an administered food frequency questionnaire, diet was assessed before pregnancy and at 11 and 34 weeks' gestation in 2270 participants in a UK birth cohort study (Southampton Women's Survey). Experience of NVP in early pregnancy was graded as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Participants reported their level of food consumption as more, the same, or less than before pregnancy...
November 29, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896443/dietary-sources-of-sugars-in-adolescents-diet-the-helena-study
#13
M I Mesana, A Hilbig, O Androutsos, M Cuenca-García, J Dallongeville, I Huybrechts, S De Henauw, K Widhalm, A Kafatos, E Nova, A Marcos, M González-Gross, D Molnar, F Gottrand, L A Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. METHODS: Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Total sugars intake (137...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896421/multiple-behavioral-factors-are-associated-with-occurrence-of-large-flat-colorectal-polyps
#14
Tianzuo Zhan, Felix Hahn, Thomas Hielscher, Asmé Bilge, Jürgen Grüger, Jürgen Weers, Johannes Betge, Timo Gaiser, Georg Kähler, Matthias P Ebert, Sebastian Belle
PURPOSE: The prevalence of advanced dysplasia and synchronous lesions is particularly high in patients with large, flat colorectal polyps. However, the impact of lifestyle on the development of such polyps is poorly investigated. Hence, this study aims to identify associations between behavioral factors and the occurrence of large, flat colorectal polyps. METHODS: Behavioral factors were retrospectively analyzed in patients with large, flat polyps and control patients with at most one diminutive polyp...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895208/diurnal-solar-energy-conversion-and-photoprotection-in-rice-canopies
#15
Katherine Georgina Meacham, Xavier Sirault, W Paul Quick, Susanne von Caemmerer, Robert T Furbank
Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photo-protection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of Oryza sativa in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891144/a-developmental-and-molecular-view-of-formation-of-auxin-induced-nodule-like-structures-in-land-plants
#16
Ryan Hiltenbrand, Jacklyn Thomas, Hannah McCarthy, Karl J Dykema, Ashley Spurr, Hamilton Newhart, Mary E Winn, Arijit Mukherjee
Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#17
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
November 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889153/metagenomics-reveals-flavour-metabolic-network-of-cereal-vinegar-microbiota
#18
Lin-Huan Wu, Zhen-Ming Lu, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Zong-Min Wang, Yong-Jian Yu, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu
Multispecies microbial community formed through centuries of repeated batch acetic acid fermentation (AAF) is crucial for the flavour quality of traditional vinegar produced from cereals. However, the metabolism to generate and/or formulate the essential flavours by the multispecies microbial community is hardly understood. Here we used metagenomic approach to clarify in situ metabolic network of key microbes responsible for flavour synthesis of a typical cereal vinegar, Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, produced by solid-state fermentation...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889145/potential-probiotic-pichia-kudriavzevii-strains-and-their-ability-to-enhance-folate-content-of-traditional-cereal-based-african-fermented-food
#19
Anna Greppi, Fabien Saubade, Cristian Botta, Christèle Humblot, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Luca Cocolin
With the aim of selecting starter cultures with interesting probiotic potential and with the ability to produce folate in a food matrix, yeast strains isolated from fermented cereal-based African foods were investigated. A total of 93 yeast strains were screened for their tolerance to pH 2 and 0.3% of bile salts. Pichia kudriavzevii isolates gave the best results. Selected P. kudriavzevii strains were tested for survival to the simulated human digestion and for adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Moreover, presence of folate biosynthesis genes was verified and production of extra and intra-cellular folate determined during growth in culture medium...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#20
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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