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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353315/whole-grain-intakes-in-irish-adults-findings-from-the-national-adults-nutrition-survey-nans
#1
Clare B O'Donovan, Niamh F Devlin, Maria Buffini, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Michael J Gibney, Anne P Nugent, Breige A McNulty
PURPOSE: Observational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. METHODS: Whole grain intakes were calculated in a nationally representative sample of 1500 Irish adults using data from the most recent national food survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS)...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352819/dietary-fibre-intake-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Parvin Mirmiran, Emad Yuzbashian, Golaleh Asghari, Shaghayegh Sarverzadeh, Fereidoun Azizi
The purpose of this study was primarily to evaluate the association of total fibre intake with the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also evaluated the association of dietary fibre from fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes with the incidence of CKD in a population-based prospective study. We followed up 1630 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study for 6·1 years, who were initially free of CKD. Baseline diet was assessed by a valid and reliable FFQ. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated, using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2...
January 21, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352173/maize-chlorotic-mottle-virus-exhibits-low-divergence-between-differentiated-regional-sub-populations
#3
Luke Braidwood, Diego F Quito-Avila, Darlene Cabanas, Alberto Bressan, Anne Wangai, David C Baulcombe
Maize chlorotic mottle virus has been rapidly spreading around the globe over the past decade. The interactions of maize chlorotic mottle virus with Potyviridae viruses causes an aggressive synergistic viral condition - maize lethal necrosis, which can cause total yield loss. Maize production in sub-Saharan Africa, where it is the most important cereal, is threatened by the arrival of maize lethal necrosis. We obtained maize chlorotic mottle virus genome sequences from across East Africa and for the first time from Ecuador and Hawaii, and constructed a phylogeny which highlights the similarity of Chinese to African isolates, and Ecuadorian to Hawaiian isolates...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350768/diet-affects-gut-microbiota-and-modulates-hospitalization-risk-differentially-in-an-international-cirrhosis-cohort
#4
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Ramazan Idilman, Leila Mabudian, Matthew Hood, Andrew Fagan, Dilara Turan, Melanie B White, Fatih Karakaya, Jessica Wang, Rengül Atalay, Phillip B Hylemon, Edith A Gavis, Robert Brown, Leroy R Thacker, Chathur Acharya, Douglas M Heuman, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
The relative ranking of cirrhosis-related deaths differs between high/middle-income countries. Gut microbiome is affected in cirrhosis and related to diet. Our aim was to determine the effect of differing dietary habits on gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Outpatient compensated/decompensated cirrhotics and controls from Turkey and USA underwent dietary and stool microbiota analysis. Cirrhotics were followed till 90-day hospitalizations. Shannon diversity and multi-variable determinants (Cox and binary logistic) of microbial diversity and hospitalizations were studied within/between groups...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#5
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348633/contrasting-patterns-of-prehistoric-human-diet-and-subsistence-in-northernmost-europe
#6
Mirva Pääkkönen, Auli Bläuer, Bjørnar Olsen, Richard P Evershed, Henrik Asplund
Current archaeological evidence indicates the transition from hunting-fishing-gathering to agriculture in Northern Europe was a gradual process. This transition was especially complex in the prehistoric North Fennoscandian landscape where the high latitude posed a challenge to both domestic animal breeding and cereal cultivation. The conditions varied, the coastal dwellers had access to rich marine resources and enjoyed a milder climate due to the Gulf Stream, while those living in the inland Boreal forest zone faced longer and colder winters and less diversity in animal and plant resources...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348510/genome-and-secretome-analysis-of-pochonia-chlamydosporia-provide-new-insight-into-egg-parasitic-mechanisms
#7
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347867/the-mediterranean-diet-its-definition-and-evaluation-of-a-priori-dietary-indexes-in-primary-cardiovascular-prevention
#8
Annunziata D'Alessandro, Giovanni De Pergola
We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347866/effects-of-cereal-bar-containing-polydextrose-on-subjective-feelings-of-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-adults-over-15-d
#9
Marcela Martinelli, Emilia Hick, Florencia Walz, Silvina R Drago
The effects of 15 d polydextrose (16.7 g) consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite feelings were investigated. Overweight adults consumed a polydextrose-bar or a control-bar matched in energy content as a midmorning snack for 15 consecutive days in a single-blind, randomised, crossover design. The two 15-d intervention periods were separated by a 15-d washout period. On the day 1 and the day 15 of each intervention period, energy intake (primary outcome) and appetite feelings (secondary outcome) were assessed...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346623/a-large-scale-field-study-of-bacterial-communities-in-cereal-aphid-populations-across-morocco
#10
Samir Fakhour, Jérôme Ambroise, François Renoz, Vincent Foray, Jean-Luc Gala, Thierry Hance
Insects are frequently associated with bacteria that can have significant ecological and evolutionary impacts on their hosts. To date, few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors to microbiome composition of aphids. The current work assessed the diversity of bacterial communities of five cereal aphid species (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Sipha maydis and Diuraphis noxia) collected across Morocco and covering a wide range of environmental conditions. We aimed to test whether symbiont combinations are host or environment specific...
January 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345608/food-choices-to-meet-nutrient-recommendations-for-the-adult-brazilian-population-based-on-the-linear-programming-approach
#11
Quenia Dos Santos, Rosely Sichieri, Nicole Darmon, Matthieu Maillot, Eliseu Verly-Junior
OBJECTIVE: To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %. SETTING: Brazil. SUBJECTS: Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008-2009...
January 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345567/proteomic-analysis-of-vernalization-responsive-proteins-in-winter-wheat-jing841
#12
Yalan Feng, Beibei Kong, Jun Zhang, Xianni Chen, Jiale Yuan, Xingwang Tang, Chao Ma
Vernalization is one of the pivotal ways for plants to flower. As one of the major cereal crops, wheat is widely planted in the world. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to analyze the changes in protein expression profiles in responding to vernalization in leaves of wheat seedling before (0d) and after (30d) of vernalization. The results indicated that among the 68 differentially expressed proteins that were successfully identified under vernalization, 36 were up-regulated whereas 32 were down-regulated at 0 d, respectively...
January 17, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343882/can-productivity-and-profitability-be-enhanced-in-intensively-managed-cereal-systems-while-reducing-the-environmental-footprint-of-production-assessing-sustainable-intensification-options-in-the-breadbasket-of-india
#13
Virender Kumar, Hanuman S Jat, Parbodh C Sharma, Balwinder-Singh, Mahesh K Gathala, Ram K Malik, Baldev R Kamboj, Arvind K Yadav, Jagdish K Ladha, Anitha Raman, D K Sharma, Andrew McDonald
In the most productive area of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in Northwest India where high yields of rice and wheat are commonplace, a medium-term cropping system trial was conducted in Haryana State. The goal of the study was to identify integrated management options for further improving productivity and profitability while rationalizing resource use and reducing environmental externalities (i.e., "sustainable intensification", SI) by drawing on the principles of diversification, precision management, and conservation agriculture...
January 15, 2018: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343517/early-infant-diet-and-islet-autoimmunity-in-the-teddy-study
#14
Ulla Uusitalo, Hye-Seung Lee, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Kendra Vehik, Jimin Yang, Sandra Hummel, Katherine Silvis, Åke Lernmark, Marian Rewers, William Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Olli Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey Krischer, Suvi M Virtanen, Jill M Norris
OBJECTIVE: To examine duration of breastfeeding and timing of complementary foods and risk of islet autoimmunity (IA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The TEDDY study prospectively follows 8,676 children with increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the U.S., Finland, Germany, and Sweden. This study included 7,563 children with at least 9 months of follow-up. Blood samples were collected every 3 months from birth to evaluate IA, defined as persistent, confirmed positive insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase, or insulinoma antigen-2...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342984/amaranthus-caudatus-stimulates-insulin-secretion-in-goto-kakizaki-rats-a-model-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#15
Silvia Zambrana, Lena C E Lundqvist, Virginia Veliz, Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina, Eduardo Gonzales, Claes-Göran Östenson
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342075/enrichment-and-identification-of-the-most-abundant-zinc-binding-proteins-in-developing-barley-grains-by-zinc-imac-capture-and-nano-lc-ms-ms
#16
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#17
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337657/the-prevalence-of-deoxynivalenol-and-its-derivatives-in-the-spring-wheat-grain-from-different-agricultural-production-systems-in-lithuania
#18
Sigita Janaviciene, Audrone Mankeviciene, Skaidre Suproniene, Yuliia Kochiieru, Ilona Keriene
Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON)...
January 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334718/-diet-and-nutrition-interventions-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Z Y Yang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, with rising trend over the years. Dietary nutrient intake (protein, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, zinc, selenium and inositol et al.), dietary pattern and probiotics may be related to GDM occurrence. Dietary factors are modifiable factors for preventing GDM. The study reviewed the roles of these dietary factors in preventing GDM. Results showed that plant-based dietary pattern may lower the risk of GDM and dietary pattern characterized with high animal protein, high fat and low carbohydrate may increase the risk of GDM...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332283/markers-of-developmentally-regulated-programmed-cell-death-and-their-analysis-in-cereal-seeds
#20
Fernando Domínguez, Francisco Javier Cejudo
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a key process for the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms, which is characterized by well-defined morphological and biochemical features. These include chromatin condensation, DNA degradation and nuclear fragmentation, with nucleases and proteases playing a relevant function in these processes. In this chapter we describe methods routinely used for the analysis of hallmarks of developmentally regulated PCD in cereal seed tissues, which are based on agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, in situ staining of DNA fragmentation, and cell-free assays of relevant enzymatic activities...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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