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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545209/the-footprint-of-marginal-agriculture-in-the-mediterranean-mountain-landscape-an-analysis-of-the-central-spanish-pyrenees
#1
T Lasanta, E Nadal-Romero, M P Errea
Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543415/the-anatomy-of-research-scandals
#2
Carl Elliott
For the past two years, I have taught a seminar on medical research scandals. The syllabus looks like a highlight reel of exploitation and abuse: children fed plutonium-laced breakfast cereal, prisoners dosed with the active ingredient in Agent Orange, mental patients given psychedelic drugs and massive electroconvulsive therapy before being sent into curare-induced paralysis and a coma. I designed the seminar to crush the idealism of future physicians by illuminating the dark patterns that research scandals typically follow...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543033/cereal-bars-produced-with-banana-peel-flour-evaluation-of-acceptability-and-sensory-profile
#3
Vania Silva Carvalho, Ana Carolina Conti-Silva
BACKGROUND: A Mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. RESULTS: Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538925/diet-and-body-fat-in-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#4
Bruna Celestino Schneider, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Silvana Paiva Orlandi, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção
Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies)...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538658/seed-coating-increases-seed-moisture-uptake-and-restricts-embryonic-oxygen-availability-in-germinating-cereal-seeds
#5
Linda Gorim, Folkard Asch
Seed coating is a technology to improve germination and homogenize stand establishment. Although coating often results in lower germination rates, seeds that do germinate grow more vigorously and show strongly reduced respiratory losses during reserve mobilization. We hypothesize that the higher mobilization efficiency is due to a shift in the enzymatic cleavage of sucrose from invertase to sucrose synthase in the embryonic tissue caused by a reduced oxygen availability induced by oversaturation with water caused by the coating during early germination...
May 24, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536116/dietary-intake-of-fibre-and-risk-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-two-us-prospective-cohorts
#6
Zhaoli Dai, Jingbo Niu, Yuqing Zhang, Paul Jacques, David T Felson
OBJECTIVES: Dietary fibre reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fibre intake and risk of knee OA. METHODS: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study (Framingham) of 1268 persons. Dietary intake of fibre was estimated at baseline, and incident radiographic OA (ROA) and symptomatic OA (SxOA) were followed annually until 48 months in OAI and assessed 9 years later in Framingham...
May 23, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535838/are-sainfoin-or-protein-supplements-alternatives-to-control-small-strongyle-infection-in-horses
#7
C Collas, G Sallé, B Dumont, J Cabaret, J Cortet, W Martin-Rosset, L Wimel, G Fleurance
The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd)...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535743/acceptability-of-complementary-foods-that-incorporate-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-among-infants-and-their-caregivers
#8
Laurene Boateng, Ruth Nyarko, Matilda Asante, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
BACKGROUND: Moringa Oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is a nutrient-rich and readily available food resource that has the potential to improve the micronutrient quality of complementary foods in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acceptability of complementary foods fortified with MLP. METHODS: Moringa Oleifera leaf powder was fed to infants either as part of a cereal-legume complementary food blend (MCL-35 g) or by sprinkling as a food supplement (MS-5 g) on infant's usual foods...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535420/evolutionary-changes-in-defensive-specialized-metabolism-in-the-genus-hordeum
#9
Naoki Ube, Miho Nishizaka, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Kotomi Ueno, Shin Taketa, Atsushi Ishihara
Plants have developed defensive specialized metabolites over the course of evolution. In the genus Hordeum, which includes the important cereal crop barley, specialized metabolites such as hordatines, benzoxazinones, and gramine have been identified. Hordeum species are classified into four clades, H, Xu, Xa, and I. The presence or absence of defensive specialized metabolites was analyzed in representative Hordeum species that included all of the four clades. In the H clade, Hordeum vulgare accumulated hordatines but not benzoxazinones, whereas H...
May 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535353/broad-specificity-immunoassay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-ochratoxins-a-b-and-c-in-millet-and-maize
#10
Yaqiong Zhang, Lanteng Wang, Xing Shen, Xiaoqun Wei, Xinan Huang, Yingju Liu, Xiulan Sun, Zhanhui Wang, Yuanming Sun, Zhenlin Xu, Sergei Alexandrovich Eremin, Hongtao Lei
Ochratoxins A, B and C (OTA, OTB and OTC) can be found in cereals and feeds, the simultaneous detection of these ochratoxins holds a great need in food safety. In this study, four antibodies raised from two ochrotoxin haptens and two coating antigens were compared, and then a sensitive and broad-specificity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the simultaneous determination of three ochratoxins, where the detection limits were 0.005, 0.001 and 0.001 ng/mL for OTA, OTB and OTC, respectively, and recoveries of three ochratoxins were between 84...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533017/morphological-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-porous-starches-obtained-from-different-botanical-sources-and-amylolytic-enzymes
#11
Yaiza Benavent-Gil, Cristina M Rosell
Porous starches might offer an attractive alternative as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, morphology and physicochemical properties of starches must be understood before exploring their applications. Objective was to study the action of different amylolytic enzymes for producing porous starches. Wheat, rice, potato and cassava starches were treated with Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Morphological characteristics, chemical composition, adsorptive capacity and pasting/thermal properties were assessed...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531805/troxerutin-txn-potentiated-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-treatment-of-human-gastric-cancer-through-suppressing-stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-bcl-2-signaling-pathways
#12
Gui-Yun Xu, Xiao-Jun Tang
Gastric cancer still presents a significant problem for public health worldwide. Troxerutin (TXN), a flavonoid present in tea, coffee, cereal grains, and a variety of fruits and vegetables, exhibits various pharmacological and biological activities in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the ability of TXN to reverse the in vitro and in vivo drug resistance of human gastric cancer cells, which were resistant to treatment of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-Fu is a pyrimidine analog, which is widely used in the treatment of cancers...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531455/effect-of-serving-size-and-addition-of-sugar-on-the-glycemic-response-elicited-by-oatmeal-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#13
Thomas M S Wolever, B Jan-Willem van Klinken, Susan E Spruill, Alexandra L Jenkins, YiFang Chu, Laura Harkness
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to determine the impact of serving size and addition of sucrose on the glycemic response elicited by oatmeal. METHODS: We studied 38 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age 40 ± 12 yr, BMI 26.4 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) on 8 separate days using a randomized, cross-over design. Capillary blood-glucose responses over 2hr after consuming 30, 40 and 60 g Classic Quaker Quick Oats (18, 24 and 36 g available-carbohydrate [avCHO], respectively) and 30 g Oats plus 9 g sucrose (27 g avCHO) were compared with those after avCHO-matched servings of Cream of Rice cereal (Control) (22, 29, 44 and 33 g cereal, respectively)...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531168/a-novel-millet-based-probiotic-fermented-food-for-the-developing-world
#14
Elisa Di Stefano, Jessica White, Shannon Seney, Sharareh Hekmat, Tim McDowell, Mark Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530606/effects-of-chemical-composition-and-baking-on-in-vitro-digestibility-of-proteins-in-breads-made-from-selected-gluten-containing-and-gluten-free-flours
#15
Tong Wu, Cheryl Taylor, Thomas Nebl, Ken Ng, Louise E Bennett
Breads prepared from cereal grains are a dietary staple, providing a significant proportion of daily energy, but not necessarily of dietary protein. However, good digestibility of proteins in bread is important to avoid potential immunogenic effects of undigested peptides, including for those gluten-intolerant. Four gluten-containing (white wheat, wholemeal wheat, spelt and rye) and four gluten-free (chick pea, lupin, buckwheat, amaranth) flours were used to make yeast-leavened breads standardized for protein...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529518/genetic-variability-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-correlation-and-gge-biplot-analysis-for-grain-iron-and-zinc-concentration-and-other-agronomic-traits-in-ril-population-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench
#16
Rahul M Phuke, Kotla Anuradha, Kommineni Radhika, Farzana Jabeen, Ghanta Anuradha, Thatikunta Ramesh, K Hariprasanna, Shivaji P Mehtre, Santosh P Deshpande, Gaddameedi Anil, Roma R Das, Abhishek Rathore, Tom Hash, Belum V S Reddy, Are Ashok Kumar
The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghum is a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529514/two-rab5-homologs-are-essential-for-the-development-and-pathogenicity-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#17
Cheng D Yang, Xie Dang, Hua W Zheng, Xiao F Chen, Xiao L Lin, Dong M Zhang, Yakubu S Abubakar, Xin Chen, Guodong Lu, Zonghua Wang, Guangpu Li, Jie Zhou
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528088/effects-of-structural-and-textural-properties-of-brittle-cereal-foams-on-mechanisms-of-oral-breakdown-and-in-vitro-starch-digestibility
#18
Syed Ariful Alam, Saara Pentikäinen, Johanna Närväinen, Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Kaisa Poutanen, Nesli Sozer
Structural and textural properties as well as the dietary fibre content of solid cereal foams influence the oral breakdown of structure, bolus formation and digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate how structural differences of solid cereal foams (puffs vs. flakes) affect in vivo chewing and in vitro starch digestion. Four extruded puffs and flakes were produced from endosperm rye flour by extrusion processing without or with 10% rye bran (RB) addition. Extruded puffs and flakes were masticated by fifteen healthy females and the process was monitored using electromyography...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527745/early-life-protein-intake-food-sources-correlates-and-tracking-across-the-first-5-years-of-life
#19
Karen J Campbell, Gavin Abbott, Miaobing Zheng, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: High consumption of protein has been associated with accelerated growth and adiposity in early childhood. OBJECTIVE: To describe intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein in young children. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT). Dietary data were collected using three 24-hour dietary recalls at ages 9 and 18 months as well as 3.5 and 5 years. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: First-time mothers and their child (n=542) participated in an 18-month intervention to prevent childhood obesity and the cohort was followed-up with no intervention when children were aged 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526589/a-rapid-salmonella-detection-method-involving-thermophilic-helicase-dependent-amplification-and-a-lateral-flow-assay
#20
Xin-Jun Du, Tian-Jiao Zhou, Ping Li, Shuo Wang
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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