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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221839/a-limited-survey-of-aflatoxins-and-zearalenone-in-feed-and-feed-ingredients-from-pakistan
#1
Shahzad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Sonia Nisar, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Selamat Jinap, Noeen Malik
This work presents current information on the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) and zearalenone (ZEN) in feed and feed ingredients from Punjab, Pakistan. The 105 samples tested were concentrated feed, i.e., cotton seed meal (18 samples) and soybean meal (14), and feed ingredients, i.e., crushed corn (17), crushed wheat (15), barley (17). and poultry feed (24). Samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. Analysis revealed that 69 of 105 samples were contaminated with AFs, and the highest mean concentrations of AFB1 (6...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221792/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-germinating-barley-under-ga-and-aba-treatments
#2
Yuqing Huang, Shengguan Cai, Jianbin Zeng, Dezhi Wu, Guoping Zhang
The degradation of starch in barley grains is a primary step of beer production. The addition of appropriate amount of GA promotes the production of fermentable sugars, beneficial to brewing industry. However, the response of proteomics in germinating barley to GA and ABA treatments is not thoroughly understood. In this study, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomics analysis was performed to illustrate the change of proteins in Tibetan wild barley XZ72 and XZ95 under GA and ABA treatments during germination...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219468/in-situ-and-in-vitro-ruminal-starch-degradation-of-grains-from-different-rye-triticale-and-barley-genotypes
#3
J Krieg, N Seifried, H Steingass, M Rodehutscord
In recent years, advances in plant breeding were achieved, which potentially led to modified nutritional values of cereal grains. The present study was conducted in order to obtain a broad overview of ruminal digestion kinetics of rye, triticale and barley grains, and to highlight differences between the grain species. In total, 20 genotypes of each grain species were investigated using in situ and in vitro methods. Samples were ground (2 mm), weighed into polyester bags, and incubated in situ 1 to 48 h in three ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219413/effect-of-waxy-barley-kirarimochi-consumption-on-bowel-movements-of-late-stage-elderly-residents-at-roken-nursing-home
#4
Keiko Taniguchi, Kozo Komae, Asuka Takahashi, Toji Yoshioka, Yoshiaki Sone
BACKGROUND: It is very important for the late-stage elderly to have the least stressful bowel movements for maintaining a good quality of life. It is generally accepted that consuming adequate dietary fiber is a promising method for the prevention and management of stressful bowel movements such as those during constipation. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term consumption of waxy barley, which is high in dietary fiber, on the bowel movements of the late-stage elderly living at Roken nursing home (a geriatric health services facility), Japan...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218865/occurrence-of-ochratoxin-a-in-infant-foods-in-the-united-states
#5
Jack Cappozzo, Lauren Jackson, Hyun Jung Lee, Wei Zhou, Fadwa Al-Taher, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Dojin Ryu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a possible human carcinogen and occurs frequently in cereal grain, soy, and other agricultural commodities. Infants and young children may be more susceptible to contaminants than adults because of their lower body weight, higher metabolic rate, reduced ability to detoxify food toxicants, and more restricted diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and levels of OTA in infant formula and infant cereal products available in the U.S. market. In the present study, 98 powdered infant formula (milk- and soy-based) samples and 155 infant cereal (barley-, rice-, oat-, wheat-, and mixed grain-based) products were collected from different retail locations in the United States over a 2-year period...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214728/lipid-signalling-mediated-by-pld-pa-modulates-proline-and-h2o2-levels-in-barley-seedlings-exposed-to-short-and-long-term-chilling-stress
#6
Micaela Peppino Margutti, Matias Reyna, María Verónica Meringer, Graciela E Racagni, Ana Laura Villasuso
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0-180 min) or long-term (24-36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213323/growth-inhibition-and-efficiency-of-the-antioxidant-system-in-spring-barley-and-common-radish-grown-on-soil-polluted-ionic-liquids-with-iodide-anions
#7
Robert Biczak, Martyna Śnioszek, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Barbara Pawłowska
Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute a huge group of substances that are increasingly common in the commercial use. This situation may lead to the contamination of the soil environment which being the basic of plants vegetation. This paper presents the effect of four ILs with I(-) anion on the growth and development of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers) and changes in metabolism of the plants. Seedlings of spring barley and common radish cultivated on soil with increasing ILs concentration exhibited typical phytotoxicity symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213299/anaerobic-digestion-of-lignocellulosic-biomasses-pretreated-with-ceriporiopsis-subvermispora
#8
X Liu, S Hiligsmann, R Gourdon, R Bayard
Fungal pretreatment by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora of two forest residues (hazel and acacia branches) and two agricultural lignocellulosic residues (barley straw and sugarcane bagasse) were studied as a pretreatment to improve their subsequent anaerobic digestion for methane production. Biomass samples were grinded to 2 ranges of particle sizes (<4 or 1 mm), autoclaved, inoculated with two strains of C. subvermispora (ATCC 90467 and ATCC 96608) and incubated at 28 °C for 28 days. The effects of fungal pretreatment were assessed by analyzing the samples before and after incubations for dry solids mass, biochemical composition, bio-methane production (BMP) and availability of cellulose to hydrolysis...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212860/comparative-structure-function-characterization-of-the-saposin-like-domains-from-potato-barley-cardoon-and-arabidopsis-aspartic-proteases
#9
Brian C Bryksa, Douglas A Grahame, Rickey Y Yada
The present study characterized the aspartic protease saposin-like domains of four plant species, Solanum tuberosum (potato), Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon; artichoke thistle) and Arabidopsis thaliana, in terms of bilayer disruption and fusion, and structure pH-dependence. Comparison of the recombinant saposin-like domains revealed that each induced leakage of bilayer vesicles composed of a simple phospholipid mixture with relative rates Arabidopsis>barley>cardoon>potato...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212314/a-gin4-like-protein-kinase-gil1-involvement-in-hyphal-growth-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#10
Dan Yu, Shijie Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jin-Rong Xu, Zachary Schultzhaus, Qiaojun Jin
Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208765/synthesis-of-mono-and-di-glucosides-of-zearalenone-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-zearalenol-by-recombinant-barley-glucosyltransferase-hvugt14077
#11
Herbert Michlmayr, Elisabeth Varga, Francesca Lupi, Alexandra Malachová, Christian Hametner, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s(-1)·mM(-1)) with ZEN...
February 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204911/selection-of-transformation-efficient-barley-genotypes-based-on-tfa-transformation-amenability-haplotype-and-higher-resolution-mapping-of-the-tfa-loci
#12
Hiroshi Hisano, Brigid Meints, Matthew J Moscou, Luis Cistue, Begoña Echávarri, Kazuhiro Sato, Patrick M Hayes
The genetic substitution of transformation amenability alleles from 'Golden Promise' can facilitate the development of transformation-efficient lines from recalcitrant barley cultivars. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) cv. 'Golden Promise' is one of the most useful and well-studied cultivars for genetic manipulation. In a previous report, we identified several transformation amenability (TFA) loci responsible for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the F2 generation of immature embryos, derived from 'Haruna Nijo' × 'Golden Promise,' as explants...
February 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201933/determination-and-prediction-of-the-digestible-and-metabolisable-energy-content-of-barley-for-growing-pigs-based-on-chemical-composition
#13
Hongliang Wang, Meng Shi, Xiao Xu, Long Pan, Xiaokang Ma, Ping Li, Xiangshu Piao
This experiment was conducted to define the sources of variation determining the energy content of barley and to develop a practical method to predict the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content of individual barley samples. The 19 barley samples used in this study were diverse varieties grown in different regions. The feeding experiment used 57 barrows (initial body weight 31.5 ± 3.2 kg) and was conducted over two consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomised design...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199682/waxy-and-non-waxy-barley-cultivars-exhibit-differences-in-the-targeting-and-catalytic-activity-of-gbss1a
#14
Kim H Hebelstrup, Morten Munch Nielsen, Massimiliano Carciofi, Olga Andrzejczak, Shahnoor Sultana Shaik, Andreas Blennow, Monica M Palcic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196092/characterization-of-cereal-%C3%AE-glucan-extracts-from-oat-and-barley-and-quantification-of-proteinaceous-matter
#15
Claudia Zielke, Ondrej Kosik, Marie-Louise Ainalem, Alison Lovegrove, Anna Stradner, Lars Nilsson
An extraction method for mixed-linkage β-glucan from oat and barley was developed in order to minimize the effect of extraction on the β-glucan structure. β-Glucan were characterized in terms of molecular size and molar mass distributions using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multiangle light scattering (MALS), differential refractive index (dRI) and fluorescence (FL) detection. The carbohydrate composition of the extracts was analysed using polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192204/analysis-of-plant-udp-arabinopyranose-mutase-uam-role-of-divalent-metals-and-structure-prediction
#16
Jijin R A Kuttiyatveetil, David A R Sanders
UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM) is a plant enzyme which interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap; a six-membered sugar) to UDP-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf; a five-membered sugar). Plant mutases belong to a small gene family called Reversibly Glycosylated Proteins (RGPs). So far, UAM has been identified in Oryza sativa (Rice), Arabidopsis thaliana and Hordeum vulgare (Barley). The enzyme requires divalent metal ions for catalytic activity. Here, the divalent metal ion dependency of UAMs from O. sativa (rice) and A...
February 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184981/association-mapping-utilizing-diverse-barley-lines-reveals-net-form-net-blotch-seedling-resistance-susceptibility-loci
#17
Jonathan K Richards, Timothy L Friesen, Robert S Brueggeman
A diverse collection of barley lines was phenotyped with three North American Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates and association analyses detected 78 significant marker-trait associations at 16 genomic loci. Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resistance and susceptibility...
February 9, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177401/response-of-soil-mesofauna-to-long-term-application-of-feedlot-manure-on-irrigated-cropland
#18
Jim J Miller, Jeff P Battigelli, Bruce W Beasley, Craig F Drury
Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley ()...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177389/predicting-fecal-nutrient-concentrations-and-digestibilities-and-growth-performance-in-feedlot-cattle-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#19
L J Jancewicz, G B Penner, M L Swift, C L Waldner, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin, T A McAllister
Fecal nutrients and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were predicted using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of feces collected from the pen floor or the rectum of feedlot cattle in 2 studies, and pen floor samples were assessed for their ability to predict NE, ADG, and G:F. In study 1, 160 crossbred beef steers in 16 pens (4 pens per treatment) were fed dry-rolled barley or wheat (89% of diet DM) processed at 2 levels. Study 2 utilized 160 crossbred beef steers in 20 pens (5 pens per treatment) that were fed dryrolled barley with 4 levels of barley silage (0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% of diet DM)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177386/defining-risk-for-low-reticuloruminal-ph-during-the-diet-transition-period-in-a-commercial-feedlot-in-western-canada
#20
B I Wiese, S Hendrick, J G Campbell, J J McKinnon, K A Beauchemin, T A McAllister, G B Penner
The objective of the current study was to measure reticuloruminal pH in cattle in a commercial feedlot setting to determine the incidence and extent of low reticuloruminal pH for steers and heifers as they transition to a high-concentrate finishing diet. Reticuloruminal pH was measured in 16 "mixed breed" steers (4 steers/pen with 4 pens) and 16 "mixed breed" heifers (4 heifers/pen with 4 pens) housed in commercial feedlot pens, with 227 ± 13 and 249 ± 6 cattle/pen cohort steers and heifers, respectively, for the diet transition period...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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