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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448785/a-class-ii-myosin-is-required-for-growth-conidiation-cell-wall-integrity-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#1
Min Guo, Leyong Tan, Xiang Nie, Zhengguang Zhang
In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448537/mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-resistance-to-net-form-net-blotch-pyrenophora-teres-f-teres-in-a-doubled-haploid-norwegian-barley-population
#2
Ronja Wonneberger, Andrea Ficke, Morten Lillemo
Barley net blotch caused by the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora teres is a major barley disease in Norway. It can cause grain shriveling and yield losses, and resistance in currently grown cultivars is insufficient. In this study, a set of 589 polymorphic SNP markers was used to map resistance loci in a population of 109 doubled haploid lines from a cross between the closely related Norwegian cultivars Arve (moderately susceptible) and Lavrans (moderately resistant). Resistance to three net form net blotch (P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448065/construction-of-a-map-based-reference-genome-sequence-for-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#3
Sebastian Beier, Axel Himmelbach, Christian Colmsee, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Qisen Zhang, Lin Li, Micha Bayer, Daniel Bolser, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Paul Kersey, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Uwe Scholz, Nils Stein, Martin Mascher
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. 'Morex' was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C)...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447635/a-chromosome-conformation-capture-ordered-sequence-of-the-barley-genome
#4
Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach, Sebastian Beier, Sven O Twardziok, Thomas Wicker, Volodymyr Radchuk, Christoph Dockter, Pete E Hedley, Joanne Russell, Micha Bayer, Luke Ramsay, Hui Liu, Georg Haberer, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Qisen Zhang, Roberto A Barrero, Lin Li, Stefan Taudien, Marco Groth, Marius Felder, Alex Hastie, Hana Šimková, Helena Staňková, Jan Vrána, Saki Chan, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Rachid Ounit, Steve Wanamaker, Daniel Bolser, Christian Colmsee, Thomas Schmutzer, Lala Aliyeva-Schnorr, Stefano Grasso, Jaakko Tanskanen, Anna Chailyan, Dharanya Sampath, Darren Heavens, Leah Clissold, Sujie Cao, Brett Chapman, Fei Dai, Yong Han, Hua Li, Xuan Li, Chongyun Lin, John K McCooke, Cong Tan, Penghao Wang, Songbo Wang, Shuya Yin, Gaofeng Zhou, Jesse A Poland, Matthew I Bellgard, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Andreas Houben, Jaroslav Doležel, Sarah Ayling, Stefano Lonardi, Paul Kersey, Peter Langridge, Gary J Muehlbauer, Matthew D Clark, Mario Caccamo, Alan H Schulman, Klaus F X Mayer, Matthias Platzer, Timothy J Close, Uwe Scholz, Mats Hansson, Guoping Zhang, Ilka Braumann, Manuel Spannagl, Chengdao Li, Robbie Waugh, Nils Stein
Cereal grasses of the Triticeae tribe have been the major food source in temperate regions since the dawn of agriculture. Their large genomes are characterized by a high content of repetitive elements and large pericentromeric regions that are virtually devoid of meiotic recombination. Here we present a high-quality reference genome assembly for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We use chromosome conformation capture mapping to derive the linear order of sequences across the pericentromeric space and to investigate the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus at megabase resolution...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447630/plant-science-genomic-compartments-in-barley
#5
Beat Keller, Simon G Krattinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447117/a-new-major-effect-qtl-for-waterlogging-tolerance-in-wild-barley-h-spontaneum
#6
Xuechen Zhang, Yun Fan, Sergey Shabala, Anthony Koutoulis, Lana Shabala, Peter Johnson, Hongliang Hu, Meixue Zhou
We report the first study on the unique allele from wild barley that can improve waterlogging tolerance in cultivated barley with a substantially higher contribution to aerenchyma formation. Waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically reduce barley crop yield. Direct selection on waterlogging tolerance in the field is less effective due to its viability to environment. The most effective way of selection is to choose traits that make significant contributions to the overall tolerance and are easy to score...
April 26, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446919/high-nitrogen-supply-induces-physiological-responsiveness-to-long-photoperiod-in-barley
#7
Jian Zeng, Huajin Sheng, Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Yi Wang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Shu Yuan, Yonghong Zhou
Photoperiod and nutrient nitrogen (N) supply influence the growth, development, and productivity of crops. This study examined the physiological, biochemical, and morpho-anatomical traits of NA5 and NA9, two barley cultivars with contrasting photoperiod lengths, under the combined treatment of photoperiod regime and N supply. Under long photoperiod, high N supply decreased net photosynthesis; decreased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a/b; decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; decreased ascorbate, glutathione, soluble protein, and soluble sugar; destroyed mesophyll cell integrity; and increased [Formula: see text], malondialdehyde, and proline in both NA5 and NA9...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446328/combined-gc-and-uhplc-hr-ms-based-metabolomics-to-analyze-durable-anti-fungal-resistance-processes-in-cereals
#8
Rahel Bucher, Daniel Veyel, Lothar Willmitzer, Simon Krattinger, Beat Keller, Laurent Biglera
Introduction of durable resistance genes in crops is an important strategy to prevent yield loss caused by pathogens. The durable multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34 originating from wheat is widely used in breeding, and is functionally transferable to barley and rice. The molecular resistance mechanism of Lr34, encoding for an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter, is not known yet. To understand the molecular function and the defense response of durable disease resistance in cereals, the metabolic response of Lr34 was investigated in, except for the Lr34 gene, genetically identical lines of barley, rice and wheat...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443584/is-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease-possible-without-intestinal-biopsy
#9
Maha Shomaf, Mohammad Rashid, Dana Faydi, Ahmad Halawa
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease, is defined as a state of immune mediated hyper responsiveness to dietary gluten as wheat, barley, or rye in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in tissue damage. It affects approximately 1% of populations worldwide. The diagnosis is done by microscopic examination of small intestinal biopsy, although serologic testing for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and deamidated gliadin peptide can be of great advantage. It has been suggested that duodenal biopsy can be avoided in patients with high levels of tTG antibody since a relationship was found to be present between tTG antibody titers and celiac disease...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443107/virus-based-microrna-silencing-and-overexpressing-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#10
Chao Jian, Ran Han, Qing Chi, Shijuan Wang, Meng Ma, Xiangli Liu, Huixian Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that arise from large RNA precursors with a stem-loop structure and play important roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Although a hundred and nineteen wheat miRNAs have been identified and registered in the miRBase (Release 21.0, June, 2014; http://www.mirbase.org), the functional characterization of these miRNAs in wheat growth and development is lagging due to lack of effective techniques to investigate endogenous miRNA functions in wheat...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441919/si-based-technologies-for-reduction-of-the-pollutant-leaching-from-landfills-and-mine-tails
#11
E Bocharnikova, V Matichenkov, J Jiang, C Yuejin
Monosilicic and polysilicic acids were shown to react with different types of the pollutants. The direction of these reactions can be managed by changing the monosilicic and polysilicic acid concentration in soil or water media. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Si-treated calcium metallurgical slag and battery slag on the As, Se, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Hg mobility and bioavailability in mine tailings (Xikuangshan mine, Hunan, China). The results of column experiment showed that the Si-activated slags reduced leaching of As, Se, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Hg by 12 to 88% and transformed them into plant-unavailable forms...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441038/phytoextraction-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-by-crops-grown-in-a-heavily-manured-dark-brown-chernozem-under-contrasting-soil-moisture-conditions
#12
Ikechukwu Agomoh, Xiying Hao, Francis Zvomuya
Repeated uptake of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. In this greenhouse study, we examined the effectiveness of six 40-day cycles of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale, all grown under two moisture regimes (100% and 50% soil field capacity, SFC), at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha(-1) (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439286/snp-discovery-and-genetic-variation-of-candidate-genes-relevant-to-heat-tolerance-and-agronomic-traits-in-natural-populations-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum
#13
Pengshan Zhao, Jiwei Zhang, Chaoju Qian, Qin Zhou, Xin Zhao, Guoxiong Chen, Xiao-Fei Ma
The extreme stress tolerance and high nutritional value of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum) make it attractive for use as an alternative crop in response to concerns about ongoing climate change and future food security. However, a lack of genetic information hinders understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the morphological and physiological adaptations of sand rice. In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two individuals representing semi-arid [Naiman (NM)] and arid [Shapotou (SPT)] sand rice genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#14
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#15
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434151/cbf2a-cbf4b-genomic-region-copy-numbers-alongside-the-circadian-clock-play-key-regulatory-mechanisms-driving-expression-of-fr-h2-cbfs
#16
Taniya Dhillon, Kengo Morohashi, Eric J Stockinger
The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley 'Nure' and the spring barley 'Trèmois'. 'Nure' harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas 'Trèmois' harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences...
April 22, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431885/safety-of-adding-oats-to-a-gluten-free-diet-for-patients-with-celiac-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-and-observational-studies
#17
María Inés Pinto-Sánchez, Natalia Causada-Calo, Premysl Bercik, Alexander C Ford, Joseph A Murray, David Armstrong, Carol Semrad, Sonia S Kupfer, Armin Alaedini, Paul Moayyedi, Daniel A Leffler, Elena F Verdú, Peter Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their including is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease...
April 18, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#18
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#19
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430019/characterization-of-rph24-a-gene-conferring-adult-plant-resistance-to-puccinia-hordei-in-barley
#20
Laura A Ziems, Lee T Hickey, Gregory J Platz, Jerome D Franckowiak, Peter M Dracatos, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park
We identified Rph24 as a locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) controlling adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei. The locus was previously reported as a quantitative trait locus in barley line ND24260-1 and named qRphND. We crossed ND24260-1 to the leaf-rust-susceptible standard Gus and determined inheritance patterns in the progeny. For the comparative marker frequency analysis (MFA), resistant and susceptible tails of the F2 were genotyped with Diversity Arrays Technology genotyping-by-sequencing (DArT-Seq) markers...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
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