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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324819/impact-of-different-feedstocks-derived-biochar-amendment-with-cadmium-low-uptake-affinity-cultivar-of-pak-choi-brassica-rapa-ssb-chinensis-l-on-phytoavoidation-of-cd-to-reduce-potential-dietary-toxicity
#1
Kiran Yasmin Khan, Barkat Ali, Xiaoqiang Cui, Ying Feng, Xiaoe Yang, Peter Joseph Stoffella
Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2...
March 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319670/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-the-seed-coat-colour-change-in-a-brachypodium-distachyon-mutant-induced-by-gamma-radiation-using-whole-genome-re-sequencing
#2
Man Bo Lee, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a model plant for agriculturally important cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Seed coat colour change from brown-red to yellow was observed in a mutant line (142-3) of B. distachyon, which was induced by chronic gamma radiation. In addition, dwarf phenotypes were observed in each of the lines 142-3, 421-2, and 1376-1. In order to identify causal mutations for the seed coat colour change, the three mutant lines and the wild type were subjected to whole-genome re-sequencing...
March 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318583/effects-of-feeding-hull-less-barley-on-production-performance-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
Y Yang, G Ferreira, C L Teets, B A Corl, W E Thomason, C A Griffey
The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318476/p-and-ca-digestibility-is-increased-in-broiler-diets-supplemented-with-the-high-phytase-highphy-wheat
#4
D Scholey, E Burton, N Morgan, C Sanni, C K Madsen, G Dionisio, H Brinch-Pedersen
Around 70% of total seed phosphorus is represented by phytate which must be hydrolysed to be bioavailable in non-ruminant diets. The limited endogenous phytase activity in non-ruminant animals make it common practice to add an exogenous phytase source to most poultry and pig feeds. The mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) of cereal seeds provides a route for the seeds themselves to contribute to phytate digestion, but MGPA varies considerably between species and most varieties in current use make negligible contributions...
March 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317738/process-induced-formation-of-imidazoles-in-selected-foods
#5
Pascal Mottier, Claudia Mujahid, Adrienne Tarres, Thomas Bessaire, Richard H Stadler
The presence of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI), 2-methylimidazole (2-MEI) and 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in some foods may result from the usage of caramel colorants E150c and E150d as food additives. This study demonstrates that alkylimidazoles are also byproducts formed from natural constituents in foods during thermal processes. A range of heat-processed foods that are known not to contain caramel colorants were analyzed by isotope dilution LC-MS/MS to determine the contamination levels. Highest 4-MEI concentrations (up to 466µg/kg) were observed in roasted barley, roasted malt and cocoa powders, with the concomitant presence of 2-MEI and/or THI in some cases, albeit at significantly lower levels...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315925/fine-mapping-of-the-restorer-gene-rfp3-from-an-iranian-primitive-rye-secale-cereale-l
#6
Bernd Hackauf, Eva Bauer, Viktor Korzun, Thomas Miedaner
A comparative genetics approach allowed to precisely determine the map position of the restorer gene Rfp3 in rye and revealed that Rfp3 and the restorer gene Rfm1 in barley reside at different positions in a syntenic 4RL/6HS segment. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a reliable and striking genetic mechanism for hybrid seed production. Breeding of CMS-based hybrids in cereals requires the use of effective restorer genes as an indispensable pre-requisite. We report on the fine mapping of a restorer gene for the Pampa cytoplasm in winter rye that has been tapped from the Iranian primitive rye population Altevogt 14160...
March 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315831/evaluating-methods-of-updating-training-data-in-long-term-genomewide-selection
#7
Jeffrey L Neyhart, Tyler Tiede, Aaron J Lorenz, Kevin P Smith
Genomewide selection is hailed for its ability to facilitate greater genetic gains per unit time. Over breeding cycles, the requisite linkage disequilibrium (LD) between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and markers is expected to change as a result of recombination, selection, and drift, leading to a decay in prediction accuracy. Previous research has identified the need to update the training population using data that may capture new LD generated over breeding cycles, however optimal methods of updating have not been explored...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315599/effective-saccharification-of-lignocellulosic-barley-straw-by-mechanocatalytical-pretreatment-using-potassium-pyrosulfate-as-a-catalyst
#8
Laura Schneider, Jasmiina Haverinen, Mari Jaakkola, Ulla Lassi
The catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is attractive due to the feasible generation of valuable products such as reducing sugars which constitute the basic substrates for chemical and transportation fuel production, as well as the production of renewable hydrogen. This study shows the efficient conversion of lignocellulose, especially hemicellulose, into reducing sugars such as xylose and galactose, by mechanocatalysis using potassium pyrosulfate, K2S2O7, as an effective salt catalyst. Ball milling was performed, introducing a mechanical force which, combined with chemical pretreatment, leads to reducing sugar yields (40%) almost as high as when commonly used sulfuric acid was employed...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314933/major-genes-determining-yield-related-traits-in-wheat-and-barley
#9
REVIEW
Anna Nadolska-Orczyk, Izabela K Rajchel, Wacław Orczyk, Sebastian Gasparis
Current development of advanced biotechnology tools allows us to characterize the role of key genes in plant productivity. The implementation of this knowledge in breeding strategies might accelerate the progress in obtaining high-yielding cultivars. The achievements of the Green Revolution were based on a specific plant ideotype, determined by a single gene involved in gibberellin signaling or metabolism. Compared with the 1950s, an enormous increase in our knowledge about the biological basis of plant productivity has opened new avenues for novel breeding strategies...
March 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303143/copy-number-variation-in-acetolactate-synthase-genes-of-thifensulfuron-methyl-resistant-alopecurus-aequalis-shortawn-foxtail-accessions-in-japan
#10
Satoshi Iwakami, Yoshiko Shimono, Yohei Manabe, Masaki Endo, Hiroyuki Shibaike, Akira Uchino, Tohru Tominaga
Severe infestations of Alopecurus aequalis (shortawn foxtail), a noxious weed in wheat and barley cropping systems in Japan, can occur even after application of thifensulfuron-methyl, a sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide. In the present study, nine accessions of A. aequalis growing in a single wheat field were tested for sensitivity to thifensulfuron-methyl. Seven of the nine accessions survived application of standard field rates of thifensulfuron-methyl, indicating that severe infestations likely result from herbicide resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301509/genome-wide-association-mapping-in-winter-barley-for-grain-yield-and-culm-cell-wall-polymer-content-using-the-high-throughput-compp-technique
#11
Andrea Bellucci, Alessandro Tondelli, Jonatan U Fangel, Anna Maria Torp, Xin Xu, William G T Willats, Andrew Flavell, Luigi Cattivelli, Søren K Rasmussen
A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final performances with an average reduction of ~ 50% for grain and straw harvested in comparison to the second year. The genetic determination (GD) for grain yield was 0.49 and 0.70, for the two years respectively, and for straw yield GD was low in 2009 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298671/optimization-of-additive-content-and-their-combination-to-improve-the-quality-of-pure-barley-bread
#12
Milica Pojić, Tamara Dapčević Hadnađev, Miroslav Hadnađev, Slađana Rakita, Aleksandra Torbica
The objective of this study was to model the influence of pregelatinized OSA starch (OSA), wheat gluten (Gl) and xylanase (Xyl) on breadmaking potential of barley flour by using response surface methodology. Addition of these ingredients had significant effect on specific bread volume, crust and crumb lightness, crumb texture, average cell size and crumb density. OSA showed the most pronounced effect on specific bread volume, average cell size, crumb density and hardness. Interaction between OSA and Gl, as well as Gl and Xyl, respectively, increased and decreased the specific bread volume and crumb chewiness, while the interaction between OSA and Xyl decreased the specific volume decrease and increased crumb chewiness...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290260/feeding-performance-and-life-table-parameters-of-khapra-beetle-trogoderma-granarium-everts-coleoptera-dermestidae-on-various-barley-cultivars
#13
A Golizadeh, Z Abedi
The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a common pest of cereal grains and other stored products. In this study, the effects of ten barley cultivars (Abidar, Bahman, Line20, Line22, Line30, Lisuei, Lokht11, Makuyi, Sahand, and Sahraa) were evaluated on life table parameters and nutritional indices of T. granarium under the following laboratory conditions: 33 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 14: 10 (L: D) h. Life history parameters of T. granarium could be appropriate indices in resistance and susceptibility evaluation of barley cultivars...
March 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289537/comparative-analysis-of-pre-and-post-parasitic-transcriptomes-and-mining-pioneer-effectors-of-heterodera-avenae
#14
Dan Yang, Changlong Chen, Qian Liu, Heng Jian
BACKGROUND: The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a devastating pathogen of wheat and barley crops in many countries. We aimed to prioritize genetic and molecular targets for H. avenae control via the powerful and integrative bioinformatics platform. RESULTS: Here, we sequenced mRNA isolated from Chinese H. avenae at pre-parasitic (consisting of egg, J1 and hatched-J2) stages and post-parasitic (consisting of parasitic-J2, J3, J4 and adults) stages...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287867/psychoeducation-for-siblings-of-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#15
Jacqueline Sin, Cheryl Jordan, Elizabeth Barley, Claire Henderson, Ian Norman, Lisa Whitehead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286354/how-did-the-domestication-of-fertile-crescent-grain-crops-increase-their-yields
#16
Catherine Preece, Alexandra Livarda, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Michael Wallace, Gemma Martin, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Mark Rees, Colin P Osborne
The origins of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, led to profound changes in the biology of plants exploited as grain crops, through the process of domestication. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. The classical view of crop domestication is narrow, focusing on reproductive and seed traits including the dispersal, dormancy and size of seeds, without considering whole-plant characteristics...
February 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281694/identification-of-the-beer-component-hordenine-as-food-derived-dopamine-d2-receptor-agonist-by-virtual-screening-a-3d-compound-database
#17
Thomas Sommer, Harald Hübner, Ahmed El Kerdawy, Peter Gmeiner, Monika Pischetsrieder, Timothy Clark
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is involved in food reward and compulsive food intake. The present study developed a virtual screening (VS) method to identify food components, which may modulate D2R signalling. In contrast to their common applications in drug discovery, VS methods are rarely applied for the discovery of bioactive food compounds. Here, databases were created that exclusively contain substances occurring in food and natural sources (about 13,000 different compounds in total) as the basis for combined pharmacophore searching, hit-list clustering and molecular docking into D2R homology models...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274442/development-of-predictive-models-for-total-phenolics-and-free-p-coumaric-acid-contents-in-barley-grain-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Zhigang Han, Shengguan Cai, Xuelei Zhang, Qiufeng Qian, Yuqing Huang, Fei Dai, Guoping Zhang
Barley grains are rich in phenolic compounds, which are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Development of barley cultivars with high phenolic acid content has become one of the main objectives in breeding programs. A rapid and accurate method for measuring phenolic compounds would be helpful for crop breeding. We developed predictive models for both total phenolics (TPC) and p-coumaric acid (PA), based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis. Regressions of partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were compared for improving the models, and Monte Carlo-Uninformative Variable Elimination (MC-UVE) was applied to select informative wavelengths...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#19
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265352/nutritional-quality-and-sensory-acceptability-of-complementary-food-blended-from-maize-zea-mays-roasted-pea-pisum-sativum-and-malted-barley-hordium-vulgare
#20
Obse Fikiru, Geremew Bultosa, Sirawdink Fikreyesus Forsido, Mathewos Temesgen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blending ratio of malted barley, maize, and roasted pea flour on complementary food quality and sensory acceptability. D- Optimal mixture design was used to generate 14 formulations. Each ingredient had 55-90% maize, 20-35% pea and 4-12% malted barley. Pretreatments like debranning of maize, roasting of pea and dehusking of malted barley were done. The three component-constrained mixture design was conducted using Design-Expert(®) 6 (Stat-Ease). Ash, protein, fat, fiber, moisture, and carbohydrate contents were found in between range of 1...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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