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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351014/coinfection-timing-drives-host-population-dynamics-through-changes-in-virulence
#1
Katherine M Marchetto, Alison G Power
Infections of one host by multiple parasites are common, and several studies have found that the order of parasite invasion can affect both within-host competition and disease severity. However, it is unclear to what extent coinfection timing might be important to consider when modeling parasite impacts on host populations. Using a model system of two viruses infecting barley, we found that simultaneous infections of the two viruses were significantly more damaging to hosts than sequential coinfections. While priority effects were evident in within-host concentrations of sequential coinfections, priority did not influence any parameters (such as virulence or transmission rate) that affect host population dynamics...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#2
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349538/capturing-pair-wise-epistatic-effects-associated-with-three-agronomic-traits-in-barley
#3
Yi Xu, Yajun Wu, Jixiang Wu
Genetic association mapping has been widely applied to determine genetic markers favorably associated with a trait of interest and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Many association mapping studies commonly focus on main effects due to intolerable computing intensity. This study aims to select several sets of DNA markers with potential epistasis to maximize genetic variations of some key agronomic traits in barley. By doing so, we integrated a MDR (multifactor dimensionality reduction) method with a forward variable selection approach...
January 18, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346559/predicting-plant-biomass-accumulation-from-image-derived-parameters
#4
Dijun Chen, Rongli Shi, Jean-Michel Pape, Kerstin Neumann, Daniel Arend, Andreas Graner, Ming Chen, Christian Klukas
Background: Image-based high-throughput phenotyping technologies have been rapidly developed in plant science recently and they provide a great potential to gain more valuable information than traditionally destructive methods. Predicting plant biomass is regarded as a key purpose for plant breeders and ecologist. However, it is a great challenge to find a predictive biomass model across experiments. Results: In the present study, we constructed four predictive models to examine the quantitative relationship between image-based features and plant biomass accumulation...
January 16, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344874/laser-capture-microdissection-based-rna-seq-of-barley-grain-tissues
#5
Ronny Brandt, Martin Mascher, Johannes Thiel
Spatiotemporal patterning throughout the plant body depends to a large degree on cell- and tissue-specific expression of genes. Subsequently, for a better understanding of cell and tissue differentiation processes during plant development it is important to conduct transcript analyses in individual cells or tissue types rather than in bulk tissues. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) provides a useful method for isolating specific cell types from complex tissue structures for downstream applications. Contrasting to mammalian cells, the texture of plant cells is more critical due to hard, cellulose-rich cell walls, large vacuoles, and air spaces which complicates tissue preparation and extraction of macromolecules, like DNA and RNA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342075/enrichment-and-identification-of-the-most-abundant-zinc-binding-proteins-in-developing-barley-grains-by-zinc-imac-capture-and-nano-lc-ms-ms
#6
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338262/roasted-barley-extract-affects-blood-flow-in-the-rat-tail-and-increases-cutaneous-blood-flow-and-skin-temperature-in-humans
#7
Hiroshi Ashigai, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Yasuko Matsukura, Emiko Ikeshima, Keiko Nakashima, Mai Mizutani, Hiroaki Yajima
Roasted barley extract (RBE, "Mugicha") is a traditional Japanese beverage reported to improve blood viscosity and affect food functionality. RBE is suggested to contain 2,5-diketopiperazines, which are the functional component with neuroprotective and immunostimulatory effects that are produced in food through roasting. In this study, we investigated the effects of RBE on blood circulation, both clinically and in rats. At first, we confirmed five 2,5-diketopiperazine derivatives in RBE by LC-MS analysis. Secondary, we revealed that RBE affects blood flow in the rat tail, and compared the efficacy on rat tail blood flow among five 2,5-diketopiperazine in RBE...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338232/improved-descriptors-for-the-qsar-modeling-of-peptides-and-proteins
#8
Mark Howard Barley, Nicholas J Turner, Royston Goodacre
The ability to model the activity of a protein using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) requires descriptors for the 20 naturally coded amino acids. In this work we show that by modifying some established descriptors we were able to model the activity data of 140 mutants of the enzyme epoxide hydrolase with improved accuracy. These new descriptors (referred to as Physical descriptors) also gave very good results when tested against a series of four dipeptide datasets. The Physical descriptors encode the amino acids using only two orthogonal scales: the first is strongly linked to hydrophillicity/hydrophobicity, and the second to the volume of the amino acid residue...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334323/development-of-functional-agricultural-products-utilizing-the-new-health-claim-labeling-system-in-japan
#9
Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Toshio Ohtani
In April 2015, Consumer Affairs Agency of Japan launched a new food labeling system known as "Foods with Function Claims (FFC)." Under this system, the food industry independently evaluates scientific evidence on foods and describes their functional properties. As of May 23, 2017, 1023 FFC containing 8 fresh foods have been launched. Meanwhile, to clarify the health-promoting effects of agricultural products, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) implemented the "Research Project on Development of Agricultural Products" and demonstrated the risk reduction of osteoporosis of β-cryptoxanthin rich Satsuma mandarins and the anti-allergic effect of the O-methylated catechin rich tea cultivar Benifuuki...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331459/garlic-allium-sativum-l-fed-to-dairy-cows-does-not-modify-the-cheese-making-properties-of-milk-but-affects-the-color-texture-and-flavor-of-ripened-cheese
#10
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329217/prey-acceptability-and-preference-of-oenopia-conglobata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-a-candidate-for-biological-control-in-urban-green-areas
#11
Belén Lumbierres, Filipe Madeira, Xavier Pons
Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivoraMonelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively), and the psyllid Acizziajamatonica on Persian silk tree...
January 12, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328967/mycotoxin-production-of-alternaria-strains-isolated-from-korean-barley-grains-determined-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
Thuong T T Nguyen, Jueun Kim, Sun Jeong Jeon, Chul Won Lee, Naresh Magan, Hyang Burm Lee
Twenty-four Alternaria strains were isolated from barley grain samples. These strains were screened for the production of mycotoxins on rice medium using thin layer chromatography. All 24 strains produced at least one of the five mycotoxins (ALT, AOH, ATX-I, AME, and TeA). Three representative strains, namely EML-BLDF1-4, EML-BLDF1-14, and EML-BLDF1-18, were further analyzed using a new LC-MS/MS-based mycotoxin quantification method. This method was used to detect and quantify Alternaria mycotoxins. We used positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction mode (MRM) for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria mycotoxins produced by these strains...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324899/the-effects-of-high-dose-of-two-manganese-supplements-organic-and-inorganic-on-the-rumen-microbial-ecosystem
#13
Svetlana Kišidayová, Peter Pristaš, Michaela Zimovčáková, Monika Blanár Wencelová, Lucia Homol'ová, Katarína Mihaliková, Klaudia Čobanová, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Zora Váradyová
Little is known about the effects of the high dose and types of manganese supplements on rumen environment at manganese intake level close above the limit of 150 mg/kg of dry feed matter. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on rumen microbial ecosystem after four months of treatment of 18 lambs divided into three treatment groups were studied. We examined the enzyme activities (α-amylase, xylanase, and carboxymethyl cellulase), total and differential microscopic counts of rumen ciliates, total microscopic counts of bacteria, and fingerprinting pattern of the eubacterial and ciliates population analyzed by PCR-DGGE...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322104/soil-total-carbon-and-nitrogen-and-crop-yields-after-eight-years-of-tillage-crop-rotation-and-cultural-practice
#14
Upendra M Sainju, Andrew W Lenssen, Brett L Allen, William B Stevens, Jalal D Jabro
Information on the long-term effect of management practices on soil C and N stocks is lacking. An experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA to examine the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on annualized crop residue (stems + leaves) returned to the soil and grain yield, and soil total C (STC) and total N (STN) stocks at the 0-120 cm depth. Tillage practices were no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotations were continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321551/aster-leafhopper-survival-and-reproduction-and-aster-yellows-transmission-under-static-and-fluctuating-temperatures-using-ddpcr-for-phytoplasma-quantification
#15
Md H Bahar, Tyler J Wist, Diana R Bekkaoui, Dwayne D Hegedus, Chrystel Y Olivier
Aster yellows (AY) is an important disease of Brassica crops and is caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris and transmitted by the insect vector, Aster leafhopper (Macrosteles quadrilineatus). Phytoplasma-infected Aster leafhoppers were incubated at various constant and fluctuating temperatures ranging from 0 to 35 °C with the reproductive host plant barley (Hordium vulgare). At 0 °C, leafhopper adults survived for 18 days, but failed to reproduce, whereas at 35 °C insects died within 18 days, but successfully reproduced before dying...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320435/updated-overview-of-infrared-spectroscopy-methods-for-detecting-mycotoxins-on-cereals-corn-wheat-and-barley
#16
REVIEW
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia
Each year, mycotoxins cause economic losses of several billion US dollars worldwide. Consequently, methods must be developed, for producers and cereal manufacturers, to detect these toxins and to comply with regulations. Chromatographic reference methods are time consuming and costly. Thus, alternative methods such as infrared spectroscopy are being increasingly developed to provide simple, rapid, and nondestructive methods to detect mycotoxins. This article reviews research conducted over the last eight years into the use of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy to monitor mycotoxins in corn, wheat, and barley...
January 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310853/immobilization-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-4-glucanase-from-bacillus-sp-on-porous-silica-for-production-of-%C3%AE-glucooligosaccharides
#17
Hwa Jin Cho, Won Je Jang, Soo Young Moon, Jong Min Lee, Jang-Ho Kim, Hyon-Sob Han, Kang-Woong Kim, Bong-Joo Lee, In-Soo Kong
(1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan has been determined to have various beneficial effects due to its unique structure. β-glucooligosaccharides (β-GOS), which are hydrolysates of barley (1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucan, provide a useful prebiotic material for selective growth of probiotic bacteria. In this study, recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (Bg1314) from Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (KCCM 90078) was immobilized on porous silica using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking reagent to achieve efficient production of β-GOS. We investigated the effects of factors such as the amounts of enzyme and glutaraldehyde, reaction temperature, and pH on catalytic activity...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310584/long-branch-chains-of-amylopectin-with-b-type-crystallinity-in-rice-seed-with-inhibition-of-starch-branching-enzyme-i-and-iib-resist-in-situ-degradation-and-inhibit-plant-growth-during-seedling-development-degradation-of-rice-starch-with-inhibition-of-sbei
#18
Ting Pan, Lingshang Lin, Juan Wang, Qiaoquan Liu, Cunxu Wei
BACKGROUND: Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion...
January 8, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305269/comparative-study-of-reactor-performance-and-microbial-community-in-psychrophilic-and-mesophilic-biogas-digesters-under-solid-state-condition
#19
Suzhen Wei, Yanfei Guo
Psychrophilic (15°C) and mesophilic (35°C) reactor performance and microbial community dynamics were compared when the biogas fermenters were performed at high altitude and solid state condition using animal manure and highland barley straw as substrate. Longer biogas fermentation time, higher peak methane content and lower volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation were found at psychrophilic condition compared to that of at mesophilic condition although the biogas production in both temperature conditions was similar...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304414/effects-of-fluorine-on-crops-soil-exoenzyme-activities-and-earthworms-in-terrestrial-ecosystems
#20
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Youn-Joo An
Fluorine can flow into the environment after leakage or spill accidents and these excessive amounts can cause adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Using three media (filter paper, soil, and filter-paper-on-soil), we investigated the toxic effects of fluorine on the germination and growth of crops (barley, mung bean, sorghum, and wheat), on the activities of soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, and urease) and on the survival, abnormality, and cytotoxicity of Eisenia andrei earthworms...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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