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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926698/quantification-of-lignin-and-its-structural-features-in-plant-biomass-using-13-c-lignin-as-internal-standard-for-pyrolysis-gc-sim-ms
#1
Gijs van Erven, Ries de Visser, Donny W H Merkx, Willem Strolenberg, Peter De Gijsel, Harry Gruppen, Mirjam A Kabel
Understanding mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric (13)C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS)...
September 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921815/low-gluten-non-transgenic-wheat-engineered-with-crispr-cas9
#2
Susana Sánchez-León, Javier Gil-Humanes, Carmen V Ozuna, María J Giménez, Carolina Sousa, Daniel F Voytas, Francisco Barro
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and rye. The -gliadin gene family of wheat contains four highly stimulatory peptides, of which the 33-mer is the main immunodominant peptide in celiac patients. We designed two sgRNAs to target a conserved region adjacent to the coding sequence for the 33-mer in the -gliadin genes. Twenty-one mutant lines were generated, all showing strong reduction in -gliadins. Up to 35 different genes were mutated in one of the lines of the 45 different genes identified in the wild type, while immunoreactivity was reduced by 85%...
September 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921169/effects-of-acute-salt-stress-on-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-a-malaysian-salt-tolerant-indigenous-rice-variety-bajong
#3
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Mrinal Bhave, Siaw San Hwang
The small genome size of rice relative to wheat and barley, together with its salt sensitivity, make it an ideal candidate for studies of salt stress response. Transcriptomics has emerged as a powerful technique to study salinity responses in many crop species. By identifying a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) simultaneously after the stress induction, it can provide crucial insight into the immediate responses towards the stressor. In this study, a Malaysian salt-tolerant indigenous rice variety named Bajong and one commercial rice variety named MR219 were investigated for their performance in plant growth and ion accumulation properties after salt stress treatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918484/drug-herb-interactions-in-the-elderly-patient-with-ibd-a-growing-concern
#4
REVIEW
Haider Rahman, Marina Kim, Galen Leung, Jesse A Green, Seymour Katz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is becoming more prevalent with the elderly being the fastest growing group. Parallel to this, there is an increasing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nearly half of patients with IBD have used CAM at one time. The elderly patients, however, are burdened by comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, and altered functional status. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in our elderly patients with IBD, it is vital for the provider to provide counsel on drug-herb potential interactions...
September 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918076/simultaneous-detection-of-wheat-dwarf-virus-northern-cereal-mosaic-virus-barley-yellow-striate-mosaic-virus-and-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-wheat-by-multiplex-rt-pcr
#5
Peipei Zhang, Yan Liu, Wenwen Liu, Sebastien Massart, Xifeng Wang
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) are four viruses infecting wheat and causing similar symptoms. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these viruses. The protocol uses specific primer set for each virus and produces four distinct fragments (273, 565, 783 and 1296bp), detecting the presence of RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV and NCMV, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917167/virtual-water-trade-patterns-in-relation-to-environmental-and-socioeconomic-factors-a-case-study-for-tunisia
#6
Hatem Chouchane, Maarten S Krol, Arjen Y Hoekstra
Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint of crop production is estimated using AquaCrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915461/forecasting-wheat-and-barley-crop-production-in-arid-and-semi-arid-regions-using-remotely-sensed-primary-productivity-and-crop-phenology-a-case-study-in-iraq
#7
Sarchil Hama Qader, Jadunandan Dash, Peter M Atkinson
Crop production and yield estimation using remotely sensed data have been studied widely, but such information is generally scarce in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, inter-annual variation in climatic factors (such as rainfall) combined with anthropogenic factors (such as civil war) pose major risks to food security. Thus, an operational crop production estimation and forecasting system is required to help decision-makers to make early estimates of potential food availability. Data from NASA's MODIS with official crop statistics were combined to develop an empirical regression-based model to forecast winter wheat and barley production in Iraq...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914059/physiochemical-characteristics-and-molecular-structures-for-digestible-carbohydrates-of-silages
#8
Basim Refat, Luciana Louzada Prates, Yaogeng Lei, David Christensen, John J McKinnon, Peiqiang Yu
The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro NDFD digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD , Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) as regards to their physiochemical features (energy), carbohydrate nutrient fractions and rumen digestive contents in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R), and (2) to identify the pattern of interactive association between the molecular structure of carbohydrates and digestible carbohydrates content...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913941/effects-of-hybrid-and-bacterial-inoculation-on-fermentation-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-barley-silage
#9
Dong Hyeon Kim, Sadar M Amanullah, Hyuk Jun Lee, Young Ho Joo, Ouk Kyu Han, Adegbola T Adesogan, Sam Churl Kim
This study estimated the effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculant on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silages. Yuyeon (Silkless) and Youngyang (Silking) barley hybrids were harvested at 24.9 and 27.1% dry matter, respectively, and chopped to 10 cm lengths. Each hybrid was treated with or without an inoculant (2 × 10(4)  colony-forming units/g of Lactobacillus plantarum). A total of 48 silos were prepared in an experiment with a 2 × 2 (hybrid × inoculant) treatment arrangement with four replications and three ensiling durations (2, 7 and 100 days)...
September 15, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911532/bioactive-phytochemicals-in-barley
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuel Idehen, Yao Tang, Shengmin Sang
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903794/effect-of-dietary-nutrients-on-ileal-endogenous-losses-of-threonine-cysteine-methionine-lysine-leucine-and-protein-in-broiler-chicks
#11
S Cerrate, S K Vignale, R Ekmay, J England, C Coon
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta...
September 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900274/characterization-and-identification-of-a-woody-lesion-mimic-mutant-lmd-showing-defence-response-and-resistance-to-alternaria-alternate-in-birch
#12
Ranhong Li, Su Chen, Guifeng Liu, Rui Han, Jing Jiang
Lesion mimic mutants (LMM) usually show spontaneous cell death and enhanced defence responses similar to hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Many LMM have been reported in rice, wheat, maize, barley, Arabidopsis, etc., but little was reported in xylophyta. BpGH3.5 is an early auxin-response factor which regulates root elongation in birch. Here, we found a T-DNA insertion mutant in a BpGH3.5 transgenic line named lmd showing typical LMM characters and early leaf senescence in Betula platyphylla × B...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899504/horizontal-natural-product-transfer-a-potential-source-of-alkaloidal-contaminants-in-phytopharmaceuticals
#13
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Melanie Nowak, Heiko Kima, Dirk Selmar
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that nicotine and pyrrolizidine alkaloids that leach out from decomposing plant material (donor plants) are subsequently taken up by the roots of acceptor plants and translocated into their leaves. Furthermore, it is well established that plant roots take up xenobiotics, generally by simple diffusion, and that this passive import depends on the physico-chemical properties of the substances. HYPOTHESIS: Based on the well-known uptake of xenobiotics, we assumed that in analogy, the uptake of alkaloids, which are leached out from plant material (donor plants) represents a quite general feature of plant biology...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899487/discovery-cloning-and-characterisation-of-proline-specific-prolyl-endopeptidase-a-gluten-degrading-thermo-stable-enzyme-from-sphaerobacter-thermophiles
#14
Radhakrishna Shetty, Mike Vestergaard, Flemming Jessen, Per Hägglund, Verena Knorr, Peter Koehler, H S Prakash, Timothy John Hobley
Gluten free products have emerged during the last decades, as a result of a growing public concern and technological advancements allowing gluten reduction in food products. One approach is to use gluten degrading enzymes, typically at low or ambient temperatures, whereas many food production processes occur at elevated temperature. We present in this paper, the discovery, cloning and characterisation of a novel recombinant thermostable gluten degrading enzyme, a proline specific prolyl endoprotease (PEP) from Sphaerobacter thermophiles...
December 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894250/identification-of-endoxylanase-xyne-from-clostridium-thermocellum-as-the-first-xylanase-of-glycoside-hydrolase-family-gh141
#15
Simon Heinze, Matthias Mechelke, Petra Kornberger, Wolfgang Liebl, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov
Enzymes that cleave polysaccharides in lignocellulose, i. e., cellulases, xylanases, and accessory enzymes, play crucial roles in the natural decomposition of plant-derived biomass and its efficient and sustainable processing into biofuels or other bulk chemicals. The analysis of open reading frame cthe_2195 from the thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum (also known as 'Ruminiclostridium thermocellum') suggested that it encoded a cellulosomal protein comprising a dockerin-I module, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a module of previously unknown function...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888123/the-effect-of-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-on-wheat-and-barley-germination-and-growth-influence-of-length-and-oxygen-functionalization-of-alkyl-side-chain
#16
A Tot, M Vraneš, I Maksimović, M Putnik-Delić, M Daničić, S Belić, S Gadžurić
In this work five different imidazolium based ionic liquids, namely: 1-(2-oxybutyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C2OC2mIm][Cl]; 1-(2-oxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C1OC2mIm][Cl]; 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-ethylimidazolium chloride, [OHC3eIm][Cl]; 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [OHC3mIm][Cl]; 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [OHC2mIm][Cl], together with commercial 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim][Cl] and synthesized protic imidazolium chloride, [Im][Cl], were prepared and their toxicity examined towards wheat and barley germination and growth...
September 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885977/estimated-effects-of-future-atmospheric-co2-concentrations-on-protein-intake-and-the-risk-of-protein-deficiency-by-country-and-region
#17
Danielle E Medek, Joel Schwartz, Samuel S Myers
BACKGROUND: Crops grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) contain less protein. Crops particularly affected include rice and wheat, which are primary sources of dietary protein for many countries. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate global and country-specific risks of protein deficiency attributable to anthropogenic CO2 emissions by 2050. METHODS: To model per capita protein intake in countries around the world under eCO2, we first established the effect size of eCO2 on the protein concentration of edible portions of crops by performing a meta-analysis of published literature...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885173/next-generation-sequencing-promoted-the-release-of-reference%C3%A2-genomes-and-discovered%C3%A2-genome-evolution-in-cereal-crops
#18
Yong Huang, Haiyang Liu, Yongzhong Xing
In recent decades, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was developed and brought biology into a new era. Rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and barley are the most important cereal crops and feed most of the world's population. Great progress in the study of cereal genomes has been made with the help of NGS. Reference genome sequence assembly and re-sequencing have grown exponentially. Thus, evolution and comparative genomics are renewed, including origin verification, evolution tracking and so on. In this review, we briefly record the development of sequencing technology, the comparison of next-generation sequencing methods and platforms and summarize the bioinformatics tools used for NGS data analysis...
September 8, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881438/host-induced-gene-silencing-of-an-important-pathogenicity-factor-pscpk1-in-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-enhances-resistance-of-wheat-to-stripe-rust
#19
Tuo Qi, Xiaoguo Zhu, Chenlong Tan, Peng Liu, Jia Guo, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and cause a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. To overcome this rapidly loss of varieties resistance, we generated stable transgenic wheat plants expressing short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting potentially vital genes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Protein kinase A (PKA) has been proved to play important roles in regulating the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi. PsCPK1, a PKA catalytic subunit gene from Pst, is highly induced at the early infection stage of Pst...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881082/molecular-characterization-of-the-broad-spectrum-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-conferred-by-the-stpk-v-gene-from-the-wild-species-haynaldia-villosa
#20
Chen Qian, Chaofan Cui, Xiaojuan Wang, Chuanyu Zhou, Ping Hu, Meina Li, Ruochen Li, Jin Xiao, Xiue Wang, Peidu Chen, Liping Xing, Aizhong Cao
A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. In this study, the transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and its recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were also conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis were performed for functional study...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biology
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