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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098198/climate-change-influences-on-crop-mix-shifts-in-the-united-states
#1
Sung Ju Cho, Bruce A McCarl
We examine the impact of current and future climate on crop mixes over space in the US. We find using historical data that temperature and precipitation are among the causal factors for shits in crop production location and mixes, with some crops being more sensitive than others. In particular, we find that when temperature rises, cotton, rice, sorghum and winter wheat are more likely to be chosen. We also find that barley, sorghum, winter wheat, spring wheat and hay are more likely to be chosen as regions become drier, and corn, cotton, rice and soybeans are more likely to be selected in wetter regions...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098049/influence-of-barley-grain-particle-size-and-treatment-with-citric-acid-on-digestibility-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbial-protein-synthesis-in-holstein-calves
#2
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, A Z M Salem, S López
Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid...
January 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096406/shifting-diets-and-the-rise-of-male-biased-inequality-on-the-central-plains-of-china-during-eastern-zhou
#3
Yu Dong, Chelsea Morgan, Yurii Chinenov, Ligang Zhou, Wenquan Fan, Xiaolin Ma, Kate Pechenkina
Farming domesticated millets, tending pigs, and hunting constituted the core of human subsistence strategies during Neolithic Yangshao (5000-2900 BC). Introduction of wheat and barley as well as the addition of domesticated herbivores during the Late Neolithic (∼2600-1900 BC) led to restructuring of ancient Chinese subsistence strategies. This study documents a dietary shift from indigenous millets to the newly introduced cereals in northcentral China during the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221 BC) based on stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone samples...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095124/mlo-based-resistance-an-apparently-universal-weapon-to-defeat-powdery-mildew-disease
#4
Stefan Kusch, Ralph Panstruga
Loss-of-function mutations of the appropriate Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene(s) are an apparently reliable "weapon" to protect plants from infection by powdery mildew fungi, as they confer durable broad-spectrum resistance. Originally detected as a natural mutation in an Ethiopian barley landrace, this so-called mlo-based resistance has been successfully employed in European barley agriculture for more than four decades. More recently, mlo-mediated resistance was discovered to be inducible in virtually every plant species of economical or scientific relevance...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094901/characteristics-of-dust-particles-abraded-from-pesticide-treated-seeds-1-size-distribution-using-different-measuring-techniques
#5
Dieter Foque, Ingrid Zwertvaegher, Wouter Devarrewaere, Pieter Verboven, David Nuyttens
BACKGROUND: Particle size is one of the most important properties affecting the driftability and behavior of dust particles abraded from pesticide dressed seeds during sowing. Three particle sizing techniques were used determine the particle size distribution of dust abraded from seeds from six different species. RESULTS: Important differences in dust particle size distribution between species were observed with the finest dust for rapeseed and the coarsest dust for barley...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093843/the-discovery-of-the-virulence-gene-toxa-in-the-wheat-and-barley-pathogen-bipolaris-sorokiniana
#6
Megan C Mcdonald, Dag Ahren, Steven Simpfendorfer, Andrew Milgate, Peter S Solomon
Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of multiple diseases on wheat and barley and is the primary constraint to cereal production throughout South Asia. Despite its significance, the molecular basis of disease is poorly understood. To address this, the genomes of three Australian isolates of B. sorokiniana were sequenced and screened for known pathogenicity genes. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolate BRIP10943 harboured the ToxA gene which was previously associated with disease in the wheat pathogens Parastagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092403/a-novel-mutation-conferring-the-nonbrittle-phenotype-of-cultivated-barley
#7
Peter Civáň, Terence A Brown
The nonbrittle rachis, resulting in a seed head which does not shatter at maturity, is one of the key phenotypes that distinguishes domesticated barley from its wild relatives. The phenotype is associated with two loci, Btr1 and Btr2, with all domesticated barleys thought to have either a 1 bp deletion in Btr1 or an 11 bp deletion in Btr2. We used a PCR genotyping method with 380 domesticated barley landraces to identify those with the Btr1 deletion and those with the Btr2 deletion. We discovered two landraces, from Serbia and Greece, that had neither deletion...
January 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092152/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-considerations-in-select-chronic-conditions
#8
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Chronic diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract also tend to affect nutrition. The incidence of chronic liver disease is increasing. As the prevalence of obesity rises, so do the incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with chronic liver disease usually have some degree of malnutrition. In the absence of encephalopathy, patients with chronic liver disease should consume more protein than that in the average diet. There is some controversy about whether diet plays a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092001/genotypic-differences-in-cadmium-transport-in-developing-barley-grains
#9
Li Lin, Fei Chen, Yue Cai, Zhong-Hua Chen, Fangbin Cao
Genotypic differences in cadmium (Cd) transport in developing grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were investigated using detached ears cultured in a nutrient solution containing 0.5 and 5 μM Cd. Cd concentration in each part of the ear in W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulation genotype) was much less than in Zhenong8 (a high accumulator) with 0.5 μM Cd treatment. However, Cd concentration in W6nk2 grains increased with an increase in external Cd level and was similar to Zhenong8 with 5 μM Cd treatment...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086794/characterization-of-the-sdw1-semi-dwarf-gene-in-barley
#10
Yanhao Xu, Qiaojun Jia, Gaofeng Zhou, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Tefera Angessa, Sue Broughton, George Yan, Wenying Zhang, Chengdao Li
BACKGROUND: The dwarfing gene sdw1 has been widely used throughout the world to develop commercial barley varieties. There are at least four different alleles at the sdw1 locus. RESULTS: Mutations in the gibberellin 20-oxidase gene (HvGA20ox2) resulted in multiple alleles at the sdw1 locus. The sdw1.d allele from Diamant is due to a 7-bp deletion in exon 1, while the sdw1.c allele from Abed Denso has 1-bp deletion and a 4-bp insertion in the 5' untranslated region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081146/maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-affects-testicular-and-bone-development-glucose-metabolism-and-response-to-overnutrition-in-weaned-horses-up-to-two-years
#11
Morgane Robles, Camille Gautier, Luis Mendoza, Pauline Peugnet, Cédric Dubois, Michèle Dahirel, Jean-Philippe Lejeune, Isabelle Caudron, Isabelle Guenon, Sylvaine Camous, Anne Tarrade, Laurence Wimel, Didier Serteyn, Hélène Bouraima-Lelong, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078260/rheological-and-pasting-properties-of-naked-barley-flour-as-modified-by-guar-xanthan-and-locust-bean-gums
#12
Sung-Jin Yoon, Youngseung Lee, Byoungseung Yoo
To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078259/effects-of-blends-of-low-protein-winter-wheat-flour-and-barley-byproducts-on-quality-changes-in-noodles
#13
Na-Young Lee
The physicochemical characteristics of fresh noodles made with blends of low-protein wheat flour and barley byproduct (BBP, 250 μm) were investigated. The crude protein contents (PC) of flour from Goso and Backjoong cultivars were 7.91% and 7.67%, respectively. PC and β-glucan contents from the BBP were 14.10% and 3.11%, respectively, which were higher than those in wheat flour. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of various blends was increased as a function of BBP but not gluten contents. Goso flour had the highest starch content (78...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076447/lower-methane-emissions-from-yak-compared-with-cattle-in-rusitec-fermenters
#14
Jiandui Mi, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaodan Huang, Ruijun Long
Globally methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock account for 29% of total CH4 emissions. Inherited variation about CH4 emissions of different animal species might provide new opportunity for manipulating CH4 production. Six rumen-simulating fermenters (Rusitec) were set up for this study lasting for 16 d. The diet consisted of forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 with barley straw as the forage. Treated vessels were supplied with rumen fluid from yak or cattle (3 vessels per animal species). Microbial growth was measured using 15N as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071024/effect-of-barley-%C3%AE-glucan-addition-as-a-fat-replacer-on-muffin-quality
#15
Sylwia Onacik-Gür, Anna Żbikowska, Ewa Kapler, Hanna Kowalska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to perform the partial replacement of bakery fat with barley β-glucan in muffins and to determine its effect on the physical properties of products. Most shortenings used in the industry are solid fats rich in saturated fatty acids and often trans fatty isomers, which are nutritionally unfavorable. METHODS: Dough and baked muffins were used as the research material. Five muffin recipes were prepared: control (K0%) with 16% fat content in the total dough weight, with fat content decreased by 10% (PG10%), 15% (PG15%), 20% (PG20%) and 25% (PG25%)...
July 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067892/impact-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-celiac-disease-on-nutrition-and-quality-of-life
#16
J G Nunes-Silva, V S Nunes, R P Schwartz, S Mlss Trecco, D Evazian, M L Correa-Giannella, M Nery, M S Queiroz
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) are autoimmune diseases and have similar genetic patterns. T1DM treatment is based on diet, physical activity and insulin therapy, whereas CD depends on dietary changes with restriction of wheat, rye and barley. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of individuals with the association of T1DM and CD, to characterize their nutritional status and to compare it with those with only one disease and healthier controls...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066942/antioxidant-status-and-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-in-gut-and-liver-of-piglets-fed-different-dietary-methionine-concentrations
#17
J O Zeitz, S Kaltenböck, E Most, K Eder
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary concentrations of methionine (Met), as a precursor of cysteine which is a constituent of glutathione (GSH), affect tissue antioxidant concentrations and the antioxidant defence system in pigs. Forty-five piglets (DanZucht × Pietrain) were allotted to three groups of similar mean body weight (11.0 ± 0.9 kg). The basal diet was composed of barley, wheat, corn starch, soybean oil, sucrose, cellulose and a mineral supplement with suboptimal concentrations of Met and was supplemented with dl-Met to reach 0...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065927/the-composite-water-and-solute-transport-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-roots-effect-of-suberized-barriers
#18
Kosala Ranathunge, Yangmin X Kim, Friedrich Wassmann, Tino Kreszies, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. METHODS: Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS)...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065211/faecal-parameters-as-biomarkers-of-the-equine-hindgut-microbial-ecosystem-under-dietary-change
#19
P Grimm, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Faeces could be used for evaluating the balance of the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem, which would offer a practical method for assessing gut health and how this relates to disease. However, previous studies concluded that faeces microbial ecosystem was not representative of the proximal hindgut (caecum and ventral colon). This study aimed to evaluate if variations of the faecal microbial ecosystem were similar to those observed in the proximal hindgut. Six horses, fistulated in the caecum and right ventral (RV) colon, were subjected to a gradual change of diet, from a 100% hay (high fibre) diet (2...
January 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064248/mir393-mediated-auxin-signaling-regulation-is-involved-in-root-elongation-inhibition-in-response-to-toxic-aluminum-stress-in-barley
#20
Bin Bai, Hongwu Bian, Zhanghui Zeng, Ning Hou, Bo Shi, Junhui Wang, Muyuan Zhu, Ning Han
High-throughput small RNA sequencing has identified several potential aluminum (Al)-responsive microRNAs (miRNAs); however, their regulatory role remains unknown. Here, we identified two miR393 family members in barley, and confirmed two target genes-HvTIR1 and HvAFB-through a modified form of 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) as well as degradome data analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of the miR393/target module in root development and its Al stress response. The investigation showed that miR393 affected root growth and adventitious root number by altering auxin sensitivity...
January 7, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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