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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792772/genome-sequence-resources-for-the-wheat-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-and-the-barley-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-hordei
#1
Chongjing Xia, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Omar E Cornejo, Scot Hulbert, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) causes devastating stripe (yellow) rust on wheat and P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) causes stripe rust on barley. Several Pst genomes are available, but no Psh genome is available. More genomes of Pst and Psh are needed to understand the genome evolution and molecular mechanisms of their pathogenicity. We sequenced Pst isolate 93-210 and Psh isolate 93TX-2 using PacBio and Illumina technologies, and RNA sequencing. Their genomic sequences were assembled to contigs with high continuity and showed significant structural differences...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792425/roasted-barley-extract-mugi-cha-containing-cyclo-d-phe-l-pro-prevents-lowering-of-cutaneous-blood-flow-and-skin-temperature-under-air-conditioning-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#2
Hiroshi Ashigai, Mai Mizutani, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Yasuko Matsukura, Keiko Nakashima, Emiko Ikeshima, Hiroaki Yajima
Roasted barley extract (RBE), also known as mugi-cha, is a well-known healthy non-caffeinated beverage and its health functionality has been widely reported. Our previous clinical study showed that RBE affects cutaneous blood flow and skin temperature after cold water immersion, and that cyclo (D-Phe-L-Pro) is responsible for its effect. In this study, we investigated whether cyclo (D-Phe-L-Pro)-containing RBE prevents the decrease in cutaneous blood flow and skin temperature in an excessively air-conditioned room...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790929/mir172-downregulates-the-translation-of-cleistogamy-1-in-barley
#3
Nadia Anwar, Masaru Ohta, Takayuki Yazawa, Yutaka Sato, Chao Li, Akemi Tagiri, Mari Sakuma, Thomas Nussbaumer, Phil Bregitzer, Mohammad Pourkheirandish, Jianzhong Wu, Takao Komatsuda
Background and Aims: Floret opening in barley is induced by the swelling of the lodicule, a trait under the control of the cleistogamy1 (cly1) gene. The product of cly1 is a member of the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor family, which inhibits lodicule development. A sequence polymorphism at the miR172 target site within cly1 has been associated with variation in lodicule development and hence with the cleistogamous phenotype. It was unclear whether miR172 actually functions in cly1 regulation and, if it does, which miR172 gene contributes to cleistogamy...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788921/signatures-of-host-specialization-and-a-recent-transposable-element-burst-in-the-dynamic-one-speed-genome-of-the-fungal-barley-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#4
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Barbara Kracher, Stefan Kusch, Makoto Yoshikawa-Maekawa, Saskia Bauer, Carsten Pedersen, Pietro D Spanu, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Ralph Panstruga
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildews are biotrophic pathogenic fungi infecting a number of economically important plants. The grass powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis, has become a model organism to study host specialization of obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. We resolved the large-scale genomic architecture of B. graminis forma specialis hordei (Bgh) to explore the potential influence of its genome organization on the co-evolutionary process with its host plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). RESULTS: The near-chromosome level assemblies of the Bgh reference isolate DH14 and one of the most diversified isolates, RACE1, enabled a comparative analysis of these haploid genomes, which are highly enriched with transposable elements (TEs)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788908/perceptions-of-insulin-use-in-type-2-diabetes-in-primary-care-a-thematic-synthesis
#5
Kathy Ellis, Henrietta Mulnier, Angus Forbes
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are progressing to insulin therapy, and despite its potency many such individuals still have suboptimal glycaemic control. Insulin initiation and intensification is now often conducted by Practice Nurses and General Practitioners in many parts of the UK. Therefore, gaining insight into perspectives of patients and primary care clinicians is important in determining self-management and engagement with insulin. A thematic synthesis of studies was conducted exploring the views and experiences of people with type 2 diabetes and of healthcare professionals on insulin use and management in the context of primary care...
May 22, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787299/the-influences-of-thermal-processing-on-phytochemicals-and-possible-routes-to-the-discovery-of-new-phytochemical-conjugates
#6
Fai-Chu Wong, Tsun-Thai Chai, Jianbo Xiao
In our diets, many of the consumed foods are subjected to various forms of heating and thermal processing. Besides enhancing the taste, texture, and aroma of the foods, heating helps to sterilize and facilitate food storage. On the other hand, heating and thermal processing are frequently reported during the preparation of various traditional herbal medicines. In this review, we intend to highlight works by various research groups which reported on changes in phytochemicals and bioactivities, following thermal processing of selected plant-derived foods and herbal medicines...
May 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#7
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#8
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775863/superoxide-o-2-accumulation-contributes-to-symptomless-type-i-nonhost-resistance-of-plants-to-biotrophic-pathogens
#9
András Künstler, Renáta Bacsó, Réka Albert, Balázs Barna, Zoltán Király, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, József Fodor, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Lóránt Király
Nonhost resistance is the most common form of disease resistance exhibited by plants against most pathogenic microorganisms. Type I nonhost resistance is symptomless (i.e. no macroscopically visible cell/tissue death), implying an early halt of pathogen growth. The timing/speed of defences is much more rapid during type I nonhost resistance than during type II nonhost and host ("gene-for-gene") resistance associated with a hypersensitive response (localized necrosis, HR). However, the mechanism(s) underlying symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance is not entirely understood...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775100/phytoremediation-of-btex-and-naphthalene-from-produced-water-spill-sites-using-poaceae
#10
Amanda Rose Shores, Brittany Hethcock, Melinda Laituri
Surface spills of water produced from hydraulic fracturing can expose soil and groundwater to organics such as BTEX and naphthalene (BTEX&N) as well as high concentrations of salt. As an alternative to soil excavation, we evaluated the effectiveness of BTEX&N soil remediation using 2 grasses present in Colorado. Perennial ryegrass and foxtail barley were grown separately in pots in the greenhouse and exposed to salt or a synthesized produced-water slurry containing relevant levels of salt and BTEX&N...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767798/genome-wide-association-of-yield-traits-in-a-nested-association-mapping-population-of-barley-reveals-new-gene-diversity-for-future-breeding
#11
Rajiv Sharma, Fulvia Draicchio, Hazel Bull, Paul Herzig, Andreas Maurer, Klaus Pillen, William T B Thomas, Andrew J Flavell
To explore wild barley as a source of useful alleles for yield improvement in breeding we have carried out a genome-wide association scan using the nested association mapping population HEB-25, which contains 25 diverse exotic barley genomes superimposed on a ca 70% genetic background of cultivated barley. 1420 HEB-25 lines were trialled for nine yield-related grain traits for two years in Germany and Scotland, with varying N-fertilizer application. The phenotypic data were related to genotype scores for 5,398 gene-based SNP markers...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765389/homoeologous-chromosomes-from-two-hordeum-species-can-recognize-and-associate-during-meiosis-in-wheat-in-the-presence-of-the-ph1-locus
#12
María C Calderón, María-Dolores Rey, Antonio Martín, Pilar Prieto
Understanding the system of a basic eukaryotic cellular mechanism like meiosis is of fundamental importance in plant biology. Moreover, it is also of great strategic interest in plant breeding since unzipping the mechanism of chromosome specificity/pairing during meiosis will allow its manipulation to introduce genetic variability from related species into a crop. The success of meiosis in a polyploid like wheat strongly depends on regular pairing of homologous (identical) chromosomes and recombination, processes mainly controlled by the Ph1 locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763523/role-of-basic-pentacysteiene-transcription-factors-in-a-sub-set-of-cytokinin-signaling-responses
#13
Carly M Shanks, Andreas Hecker, Chia-Yi Cheng, Luise Brand, Silvio Collani, Markus Schmid, G Eric Schaller, Dierk Wanke, Klaus Harter, Joseph J Kieber
Cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, generally acting by modulating gene transcription in target tissues. The type-B ARR transcription factors have emerged as primary targets of cytokinin signaling and are required for essentially all cytokinin-mediated changes in gene expression. The diversity of cytokinin function is likely imparted by the activity of various transcription factors working with the type-B ARRs to alter specific sets of target genes. One potential set of co-regulators modulating the cytokinin response are the BARLEY B-RECOMBINANT/BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BBR/BPC) family of plant-specific transcription factors...
May 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762476/function-of-the-erfl1a-transcription-factor-in-wheat-responses-to-water-deficiency
#14
Tian Gao, Ge-Zi Li, Chuan-Ren Wang, Jie Dong, Sha-Sha Yuan, Yong-Hua Wang, Guo-Zhang Kang
The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily is involved in the responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the functions and mechanisms of some members of this family in plants are unclear. In our previous study, expression of TaERFL1a , a member of the AP2/ERF family, was remarkably induced in wheat seedlings suffering freezing stress. In this study, we show that its expression was rapidly upregulated in response to salt, cold, and water deficiency, suggesting roles in the responses to abiotic stresses...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761494/control-of-xylem-na-loading-and-transport-to-the-shoot-in-rice-and-barley-as-a-determinant-of-differential-salinity-stress-tolerance
#15
Tetsuya Ishikawa, Sergey Shabala
Control of xylem Na+ loading has often been named as the essential components of salinity tolerance mechanism. However, it is less clear to what extent the difference in this trait may determine differential salinity tolerance between species. In this study barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. CM72) and rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Dongjin) plants were grown under two levels of salinity. Na+ and K+ concentrations in the xylem sap, and shoot and root tissues were measured at different time points after stress onset. Salt-exposed rice plants prevented xylem Na+ loading for several days, but failed to control this process in the longer term, ultimately resulting in a massive Na+ shoot loading...
May 15, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759109/hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-whole-grain-highland-hull-less-barley-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Xuejuan Xia, Guannan Li, Jiaxin Song, Jiong Zheng, Jianquan Kan
Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758908/spatial-relationships-among-cereal-yields-and-selected-soil-physical-and-chemical-properties
#17
Jerzy Lipiec, Bogusław Usowicz
Sandy soils occupy large area in Poland (about 50%) and in the world. This study aimed at determining spatial relationships of cereal yields and the selected soil physical and chemical properties in three study years (2001-2003) on low productive sandy Podzol soil (Podlasie, Poland). The yields and soil properties in plough and subsoil layers were determined at 72-150 points. The test crops were: wheat, wheat and barley mixture and oats. To explore the spatial relationship between cereal yields and each soil property spatial statistics was used...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758891/benzo-a-pyrene-degradation-and-bioaccumulation-in-soil-plant-system-under-artificial-contamination
#18
Svetlana Sushkova, Irina Deryabkina, Elena Antonenko, Ridvan Kizilkaya, Vishnu Rajput, Galina Vasilyeva
The involvement of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causes its potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The aim of this article is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination in model experiment with Haplic Chernozem and that spiked with various doses of BaP (20, 200, 400 and 800μgkg-1 ) equivalent to 1, 10, 20 and 40 levels of maximal permissible concentrations (MPC) planted with spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum)...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757394/a-barley-powdery-mildew-fungus-non-autonomous-retrotransposon-encodes-a-peptide-that-supports-penetration-success-on-barley
#19
Mathias Nottensteiner, Bernd Zechmann, Christopher McCollum, Ralph Hückelhoven
Pathogens overcome plant immunity by the means of secreted effectors. Host effector targets often act in pathogen defense but might also support fungal accommodation or nutrition. The barley ROP GTPase HvRACB is involved in accommodation of fungal haustoria of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley epidermal cells. We found that HvRACB interacts with the ROP-interactive peptide 1 (ROPIP1) that is encoded on the active non-long terminal repeat retroelement Eg-R1 of Bgh. Over-expression of ROPIP1 in barley epidermal cells and host-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (HIGS) of ROPIP1 suggested that ROPIP1 is involved in virulence of Bgh...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755419/the-fusarium-graminearum-histone-acetyltransferases-are-important-for-morphogenesis-don-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity
#20
Xiangjiu Kong, Anne D van Diepeningen, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Jingsheng Xu, Jin Xu, Hao Zhang, Wanquan Chen, Jie Feng
Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs ( FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3 ) in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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