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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146260/a-novel-burkholderia-ambifaria-strain-able-to-degrade-the-mycotoxin-fusaric-acid-and-to-inhibit-fusarium-spp-growth
#1
Ester Simonetti, Irma N Roberts, Marcela S Montecchia, Flavio H Gutierrez-Boem, Federico M Gomez, Jimena A Ruiz
Fusaric acid (FA) is a fungal metabolite produced by several Fusarium species responsible for wilts and root rot diseases of a great variety of plants. Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. have been considered as promising biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic Fusarium spp., however it has been demonstrated that FA negatively affects growth and production of some antibiotics in these bacteria. Thus, the capability to degrade FA would be a desirable characteristic in bacterial biocontrol agents of Fusarium wilt...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146152/improved-antifungal-activity-of-barley-derived-chitinase-i-gene-that-overexpress-a-32kda-recombinant-chitinase-in-escherichia-coli-host
#2
Nida Toufiq, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Umar Bhatti, Anwar Khan, Muhammad Tariq, Naila Shahid, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Tayyab Husnain
Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935bp full-length chitinase I gene...
October 31, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144408/antioxidant-effect-of-barley-sprout-extract-via-enhancement-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-activity-and-glutathione-synthesis
#3
Yun-Hee Lee, Sou Hyun Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Tae Gen Son, Sung Hwan Ki, Woo-Duck Seo, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Jin Tae Hong, Young-Suk Jung
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143621/identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-network-components-for-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-barley-aleurone
#4
Ksenia V Strygina, Andreas Börner, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Among natural populations, there are different colours of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The colour of barley grains is directly related to the accumulation of different pigments in the aleurone layer, pericarp and lemma. Blue grain colour is due to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the aleurone layer, which is dependent on the presence of five Blx genes that are not sequenced yet (Blx1, Blx3 and Blx4 genes clustering on chromosome 4HL and Blx2 and Blx5 on 7HL). Due to the health benefits of anthocyanins, blue-grained barley can be considered as a source of dietary food...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#5
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143605/impact-of-the-7-bp-deletion-in-hvga20ox2-gene-on-agronomic-important-traits-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#6
Serafima Teplyakova, Marina Lebedeva, Nadezhda Ivanova, Valentina Horeva, Nina Voytsutskaya, Olga Kovaleva, Elena Potokina
BACKGROUND: Alike to Reduced height-1 (Rht-1) genes in wheat and the semi dwarfing (sd-1) gene in rice, the sdw1/denso locus involved in the metabolism of the GA, was designated as the 'Green Revolution' gene in barley. The recent molecular characterization of the candidate gene HvGA20ox2 for sdw1/denso locus allows to estimate the impact of the functional polymorphism of this gene on the variation of agronomically important traits in barley. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of the 7-bp deletion in exon 1 of HvGA20ox2 gene (sdw1...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143600/characterizing-the-pathotype-structure-of-barley-powdery-mildew-and-effectiveness-of-resistance-genes-to-this-pathogen-in-kazakhstan
#7
Aralbek Rsaliyev, Zhazira Pahratdinova, Shynbolat Rsaliyev
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew of barley is a wind-borne and obligate biotrophic pathogen, which ranks among the most widespread barley pathogens worldwide. However, purposeful research towards studying the structure of the barley powdery mildew populations, of their virulence and of effectiveness of certain resistance genes against the infection was not conducted in Kazakhstan till present time. This paper is the first to describe characteristics of the pathotype structure of Blumeria graminis f...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140092/determinants-and-expansion-of-specificity-in-a-trichothecene-udp-glucosyltransferase-from-oryza-sativa
#8
Karl M Wetterhorn, Kaitlyn Gabardi, Herbert Michlmayr, Alexandra Malachova, Mark Busman, Susan Patricia McCormick, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Ivan Rayment
Family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases in plants (UGTs) primarily form glucose conjugates of small molecules and, besides other functions, play a role in detoxification of xenobiotics. Indeed, overexpression of a barley UGT in wheat has been shown to control Fusarium head blight, where this is a plant disease of global significance that leads to reduced crop yields and contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin and many other structural variants. The UGT Os79 from rice has emerged as a promising candidate for inactivation of mycotoxins on account of its ability to glycosylate DON, nivalenol and hydrolyzed T-2 toxin (HT-2)...
November 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138428/structural-disorder-and-induced-folding-within-two-cereal-aba-stress-and-ripening-asr-proteins
#9
Karama Hamdi, Edoardo Salladini, Darragh P O'Brien, Sébastien Brier, Alexandre Chenal, Ines Yacoubi, Sonia Longhi
Abscisic acid (ABA), stress and ripening (ASR) proteins are plant-specific proteins involved in plant response to multiple abiotic stresses. We previously isolated the ASR genes and cDNAs from durum wheat (TtASR1) and barley (HvASR1). Here, we show that HvASR1 and TtASR1 are consistently predicted to be disordered and further confirm this experimentally. Addition of glycerol, which mimics dehydration, triggers a gain of structure in both proteins. Limited proteolysis showed that they are highly sensitive to protease degradation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131356/gluten-sensitivities-and-the-allergist-threshing-the-grain-from-the-husks
#10
REVIEW
J G Burkhardt, A Chapa-Rodriguez, S L Bahna
"Gluten sensitivity" has become commonplace among the public. Wheat allergy (WA) and celiac disease (CD) are well-defined entities, but are becoming a fraction of individuals following a gluten-free diet. WA has a prevalence of <0.5%. Wheat, specifically its omega-5 gliadin fraction, is the most common allergen implicated in food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. CD is a non-IgE hypersensitivity to certain cereal proteins: gluten in wheat, secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and to a lesser extent avenin in oat...
November 13, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127104/chemical-suppressors-of-mlo-mediated-powdery-mildew-resistance
#11
Hongpo Wu, Mark Kwaaitaal, Roxana Strugala, Ulrich Schaffrath, Pawel Bednarek, Ralph Panstruga
Loss of function of barley Mlo confers durable broad-spectrum penetration resistance to the barley powdery mildew pathogen , Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei ( Bgh ). Given the importance of mlo mutants in agriculture, surprisingly few molecular components have been identified to be required for this type of resistance in barley. With the aim to identify novel cellular factors contributing to mlo -based resistance, we devised a pharmacological inhibitor screen. Of the 41 rationally chosen compounds tested, five caused a partial suppression of mlo resistance in barley, indicated by increased levels of Bgh host cell entry...
November 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#12
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124282/development-of-a-complete-set-of-wheat-barley-group-7-robertsonian-translocation-chromosomes-conferring-an-increased-content-of-%C3%AE-glucan
#13
Tatiana V Danilova, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Jesse Poland, Eric Jackson
A complete set of six compensating Robertsonian translocation chromosomes involving barley chromosome 7H and three chromosomes of hexaploid wheat was produced. Grain β-glucan content increased in lines containing 7HL. Many valuable genes for agronomic performance, disease resistance and increased yield have been transferred from relative species to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through whole-arm Robertsonian translocations (RobT). Although of a great value, the sets of available translocations from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...
November 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117786/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-pr-1-like-proteins-identified-from-the-wheat-head-blight-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#14
Shunwen Lu, Michael Edwards
The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins originally identified from plants and their homologues are also found in other eukaryotic kingdoms. Studies on non-plant PR-1-like (PR-1L) proteins have been pursued widely in humans/animals but rarely in filamentous ascomycetes. Here we report the characterization of four PR-1L proteins identified from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Molecular cloning revealed that the four FgPR-1L proteins are all encoded by small open reading frames (612 to 909 bp) that are often interrupted by introns, in contrast to plant PR-1 genes that lack introns...
November 8, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117229/effects-of-tillage-practice-on-soil-structure-n2o-emissions-and-economics-in-cereal-production-under-current-socio-economic-conditions-in-central-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#15
Ognjen Žurovec, Bishal Kumar Sitaula, Hamid Čustović, Jasminka Žurovec, Peter Dörsch
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116352/a-multiplex-competitive-elisa-for-the-detection-and-characterization-of-gluten-in-fermented-hydrolyzed-foods
#16
Rakhi Panda, Marc Boyer, Eric A E Garber
A novel competitive ELISA was developed utilizing the G12, R5, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerritt antibody-HRP conjugates employed in nine commercial ELISA test kits that are routinely used for gluten detection. This novel multiplex competitive ELISA simultaneously measures gliadin-, deamidated gliadin-, and glutenin-specific epitopes. The assay was used to evaluate 20 wheat beers, 20 barley beers, 6 barley beers processed to reduce gluten, 15 soy sauces, 6 teriyaki sauces, 6 Worcestershire sauces, 6 vinegars, and 8 sourdough breads...
November 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115942/detection-of-qtls-for-seedling-characteristics-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-grown-under-hydroponic-culture-condition
#17
Qifei Wang, Genlou Sun, Xifeng Ren, Jibin Wang, Binbin Du, Chengdao Li, Dongfa Sun
BACKGROUND: Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115200/barley-%C3%AE-glucan-reduces-blood-cholesterol-levels-via-interrupting-bile-acid-metabolism
#18
Yanan Wang, Scott V Harding, Sijo J Thandapilly, Susan M Tosh, Peter J H Jones, Nancy P Ames
Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113008/-drug-therapy-in-coeliac-disease-from-bench-to-bedside
#19
Jürgen Stein, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Detlef Schuppan
Coeliac disease is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with an estimated global prevalence of 0.5 - 1 %. The disease is triggered by a combination of environmental (gluten proteins from wheat, rye or barley) and genetic factors (mainly the human leucocyte antigens HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8). At present, a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) represents the only treatment option. However, strict adherence to a GFD is challenging, since even highly motivated patients may be subject to inadvertent or background exposure to gluten...
November 7, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112843/modeling-future-water-footprint-of-barley-production-in-alberta-canada-implications-for-water-use-and-yields-to-2064
#20
Mohammad Badrul Masud, Tim McAllister, Marcos R C Cordeiro, Monireh Faramarzi
Despite the perception of being one of the most agriculturally productive regions globally, crop production in Alberta, a western province of Canada, is strongly dependent on highly variable climate and water resources. We developed agro-hydrological models to assess the water footprint (WF) of barley by simulating future crop yield (Y) and consumptive water use (CWU) within the agricultural region of Alberta. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to develop rainfed and irrigated barley Y simulation models adapted to sixty-seven and eleven counties, respectively through extensive calibration, validation, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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