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Yi-An Bi, Sumathy Mathialagan, Laurie Tylaska, Myra Fu, Julie Keefer, Anna Vildhede, Chester Costales, A David Rodrigues, Manthena Varma
Tolbutamide is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9, and thus, frequently applied as a clinical probe substrate for CYP2C9 activity. However, there is a marked discrepancy in the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of its metabolic clearance implying potential for additional clearance mechanisms. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of hepatic uptake transport in the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide and identify the molecular mechanism thereof. Transport studies using singly-transfected cells expressing six major hepatic uptake transporters showed that tolbutamide is a substrate to organic anion transporter (OAT)2 alone -- with transporter affinity (Km) of 19...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
H Leung, A Arrazola, S Torrey, E Kiarie
A total of 72, 65-week-old broiler breeder hens (Ross 308, BW 4,190 ± 45 g) was placed in individual cages to investigate utilization of fiber in soy hulls (SH), oat hulls (OH), and flax meal (FM). Birds were adapted to cages for 10 d prior to allocation (n = 18) to broiler breeder ration (control) or control mixed with either of the 3 fiber sources (wt/wt) added to supply equal amounts of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ∼21% and TiO2. The daily feed allocation was based on 4% BW. Feed intake (FI) was monitored daily, and grab excreta samples were taken on d 16 and 17...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
Donald S Bae, Eitan M Ingall, Patricia E Miller, Katherine Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral autologous transplantation surgery (OATS) has been advocated for unstable osetochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the adolescent capitellum, though limited information is available regarding clinical and radiographic results in North American patients. We hypothesize that single-plug OATS is safe and effective in alleviating pain and restoring function in unstable OCD. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with unstable OCD treated with single-plug OATS were evaluated...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
A R Oates, J Unger, C M Arnold, J Fung, J L Lanovaz
Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s), relative time spent in double support (%DS), a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOSML) and its variance (MOSMLCV), as well as a symmetry index (SI) for the MOSML...
December 2017: Heliyon
Angelika Schütz, Stephan Moser, Cornelia Schwanke, Raphael Schubert, Julian Luhn, Enisa Gutic, Tobias Lang, Michael Schleicher, Hans Haltmayer, Michael Gschwantler
An important subgroup of people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT), cannot be treated in the setting of a hepatology center and would not regularly ingest their medication when handed to them for self-administration. Our hypothesis was that chronic hepatitis C in these patients could be ideally managed if modern, interferon-free regimens were administered together with OAT under direct observation of a physician or nurse at a low-threshold facility. In this open-label, non-interventional, proof-of-concept study (ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Maeva Guillaume, Camille Christol, Aurélie Plessier, Michèle Corbic, Jean-Marie Péron, Agnès Sommet, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Yann Consigny, Jean-Pierre Vinel, Charles-Dominique Valla, Christophe Bureau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic nontumoral extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is the second leading cause of portal hypertension (PHT) and is mainly related to prothrombotic disorders. Patients with EHPVO often require prolonged oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) together with variceal band ligation (VBL) to prevent thrombosis recurrence and PHT-related bleeding, respectively. The benefit-risk balance of VBL in this context remains unknown. We aimed to assess upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) risk and variceal eradication efficacy in EHPVO patients undergoing a VBL program without stopping OAT...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michael Thomas, Sharon Kim, Weimin Guo, William F Collins, Mitchell L Wise, Mohsen Meydani
Oats, in addition to cholesterol-lowering properties, contain unique antioxidants called avenanthramides (Avns), which inhibit both inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells in culture. This study evaluated the effects of Avns of oats on atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice, one of the most commonly used atherosclerosis mouse models with their similar cholesterol distributions to humans. The Ldlr-/- mice were fed a low fat, high fat, high fat containing regular oat brans with low levels of Avns (HFLA), or high fat containing regular oat brans with high levels of Avns (HFHA) diet...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
G V Sakovich, E A Skiba, V V Budaeva, E K Gladysheva, L A Aleshina
The concept of manufacturing valuable bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) from plant raw materials having a zero prime cost is substantiated. The process flowsheet involves the chemical transformation of the feedstock to obtain a pulp; enzymatic hydrolysis of the pulp to furnish a solution of reducing sugars, chiefly glucose; preparation of a nutrient broth based on the enzymatic hydrolysate; biosynthesis of nanocellulose microfibrils by the symbiotic Medusomyces gisevii Sa-12 culture; and purification of BNC. BNC has for the first time been synthesized from oat hulls and has a high degree of crystallinity of 88 ± 5% and is composed of 99% Iα-allomorph...
November 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Edyta Boros-Lajszner, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski
Nickel is a heavy metal which is a stable soil pollutant which is difficult to remediate. An attempt to reduce its impact on the environment can be made by changing its solubility. The right level of hydrogen ions and the content of mineral and organic colloids are crucial in this regard. Therefore, methods to neutralise heavy metals in soil are sought. There are no reports in the literature on the possibility of using minerals in the detoxication of a soil environment contaminated with metals. It is important to fill the gap in research on the effect of zeolites on the microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties of soils under pressure from heavy metals...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Elena A Вabushkina, Liliana V Belokopytova, Dina F Zhirnova, Santosh K Shah, Tatiana V Kostyakova
We investigated the variability of yield of the three main crop cultures in the Khakassia Republic: spring wheat, spring barley, and oats. In terms of yield values, variability characteristics, and climatic response, the agricultural territory of Khakassia can be divided into three zones: (1) the Northern Zone, where crops yield has a high positive response to the amount of precipitation, May-July, and a moderately negative one to the temperatures of the same period; (2) the Central Zone, where crops yield depends mainly on temperatures; and (3) the Southern Zone, where climate has the least expressed impact on yield...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Lokesh Kumar, Margaret Brennan, Haotian Zheng, Charles Brennan
The effects of milk ingredients, whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey lactalbumin (WLAC) and skim milk powder (SMP) on oat starch characteristics in terms of pasting, rheological, freeze-thaw and swelling behaviour, were investigated. Oat starch was extracted from oat flour and different proportions of dairy ingredients were mixed with oat starch. Substitution of oat starch with milk components increased hot paste stability and reduced peak viscosity using the RVA method of assessment. Furthermore, thermal processing affected the granules size, swelling power and flow behaviour of the mixtures containing oat starch in combination with different dairy ingredients...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Qi Bei, Gong Chen, Fangju Lu, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
This work aims to investigate the effects of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes on the release of phenolics in oat fermentation with Monascus anka. There were good correlations between phenolic content and α-amylase, xylanase and FPase activities. A high level of α-amylase activity (141.07 U/g) was observed, while xylanase (2.40 U/g), total cellulase (0.52 U/g) and β-glucosidase activities (0.028 U/g) were relatively low in the fermentation system. The phenolic content of oat powder treated with crude enzyme from fermented oats significantly increased, especially that of the ferulic acid in the insoluble fraction and the vanillic acid in the soluble fraction...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
David Martinez, Kienana Muhrez, Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Aline Berthelot, Emmanuel Gyan, Sylvain Choquet, Christian R Andrès, Pierre Marquet, Chantal Barin-Le Guellec
Although OATP1B1 is not expressed in the kidney, polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 have been associated with methotrexate clearance or toxicity. This unexpected pharmacogenetic association may reflect remote communication between liver and kidney transporters. This study confirms the pharmacogenetic association with methotrexate toxicity in adult patients with hematological malignancies. Using a targeted urinary metabolomics approach, we identified 38 and 34 metabolites which were differentially excreted between wild-type and carriers of the c...
December 29, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Raceli Sandrin, Thiago Caon, André Wüst Zibetti, Alicia de Francisco
BACKGROUND: Whole oat and rice flours were mixed to develop instant flours by a high pressure and low mechanical shear extrusion process. The screw profile was designed aiming to obtain an infant food with gelatinized starch and high hydration ability. Response surface methodology was selected to study the impact of operating parameters such as temperature and screw speed (73-186 °C; 109-391 rpm) on physicochemical and pasting properties of the final extruded product. The main challenge of this study was to process high oats content since they are characterized by high lipid and fiber content, which impact on material processing...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tzu-Kai Lin, Lily Zhong, Juan Luis Santiago
Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter)...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xueyan Lin, Jian Wang, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhiyong Hu, Kerong Shi, Zhengui Yan, Zhonghua Wang
An animal feeding trial was conducted on 18 seven-day-old Holstein dairy bull calves weighing 42 ± 3 kg each. Calves were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6 each). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) milk and starter for the control group (MS), (2) supplementation of oat hay from week 2 on the basis of milk and starter (MSO2), and (3) supplementation of oat hay from week 6 on the basis of milk and starter (MSO6). All animals were fed starter and oat hay ad libitum. The major phyla in the different groups of rumen fluid included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota...
December 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Puja Ghosh, Aryadeep Roychoudhury
Accounting for aroma production in different aromatic indica rice varieties based on variations in the levels of concerned metabolites and enzymes is poorly explored. The present investigation was, therefore, focused on unraveling the differential levels of metabolites and activities of enzymes related to aroma formation in eleven indigenous aromatic rice varieties, as compared with four non-aromatic varieties. The levels of metabolites such as proline (Pro) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and the activity of related enzymes such as proline dehydrogenase (PDH), Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) were comparatively higher in the aromatic varieties, with Kalonunia and Tulaipanji registering the highest Pro, Kalonunia the highest P5C content, Gobindobhog with the highest PDH activity, Gobindobhog and Tulaipanji with the highest P5CS, and Pusa Basmati-1 with the highest OAT activity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Bindu A Sunilkumar, Eden Tareke
This review summarizes the analytical methods that have been developed for quantification and characterization of oat proteins. These include sampling, sample preparation, extraction, quantification, separation, detection, and characterization of oat proteins. The review also provides a comparison of different methods for the determination of protein fraction of oat and the efficiency thereof. We conclude that there is a need for further validation of existing data or methods and for a standard methodology to quantify oat proteins...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Shijie Wen, Changyuan Wang, Yingjie Duan, Xiaokui Huo, Qiang Meng, Zhihao Liu, Shilei Yang, Yanna Zhu, Huijun Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Siyun Yang, Kexin Liu
This study aimed to demonstrate that organic anion transporters (OATs) mediate the drug-drug interaction (DDI) between piperacillin and tazobactam. After co-administration with piperacillin in rats, the AUC of tazobactam in plasma was significantly increased, and t1/2β was prolonged with significant reduction in plasma clearance, renal clearance and cumulative urinary excretion. In rat and human kidney slices, probenecid, p-aminohippurate and benzylpenicillin inhibited the uptake of piperacillin and tazobactam...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Masahiro Maruyama, Masatoshi Takahara, Hiroshi Satake
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum is a critical elbow injury in adolescent overhead throwing athletes. However, its etiology remains unknown. Medical examinations using ultrasonography found that the prevalence of capitellar OCD among adolescent baseball players was approximately from 1% to 3%. A plain anteroposterior radiograph with the elbow in 45° of flexion is essential for the diagnosis of an OCD lesion. The stability of OCD lesions is evaluated on plain radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
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