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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339711/interactions-of-full-fat-canola-seed-oat-hulls-as-an-insoluble-fiber-source-and-pellet-temperature-for-nutrient-utilization-and-growth-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#1
R Barekatain, R A Swick, M Toghyani, C T de Koning
The effectiveness of the addition of oat hulls (OH) as an insoluble fiber for improving nutrient digestibility and performance of birds fed diets containing full-fat canola seed (CS) was studied. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to assess the main effects of canola source (CS vs canola meal plus oil as control), OH (0 or 3%), pellet temperature (75 and 90°C) and their interactions. A total of 576 male day-old Ross 308 chickens were assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times (12 birds per replicate)...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338099/difference-in-diel-mating-time-contributes-to-assortative-mating-between-host-plant-associated-populations-of-chilo-suppressalis
#2
Wei-Li Quan, Wen Liu, Rui-Qi Zhou, Rong Chen, Wei-Hua Ma, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Behavioral isolation in animals can be mediated by inherent mating preferences and assortative traits, such as divergence in the diel timing of mating activity. Although divergence in the diel mating time could, in principle, promote the reproductive isolation of sympatric, conspecific populations, there is currently no unequivocal evidence of this. We conducted different mate-choice experiments to investigate the contribution of differences in diel mating activity to the reproductive isolation of the rice and water-oat populations of Chilo suppressalis...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337665/effect-of-efflux-transporter-inhibition-on-the-distribution-of-fluconazole-in-the-rat-brain
#3
Wei Wang, Na Zheng, Jiatang Zhang, Xusheng Huang, Shengyuan Yu
Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor...
March 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335393/solvent-retention-capacities-of-oat-flour
#4
Qianwen Niu, Yu Pu, Xiaoping Li, Zhen Ma, Xinzhong Hu
This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na₂CO₃ SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl₂ SRC (CCSRC), FeCl₃ SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na₂CO₃ (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334890/application-of-ultrasound-assisted-surfactant-enhanced-emulsification-microextraction-based-on-solidi%C3%AF-cation-of-floating-organic-droplets-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-preconcentration-and-determination-of-alprazolam-and-chlordiazepoxide-in
#5
Nasser Goudarzi, Monavar Amirnavaee, Mansour Arab Chamjangali, Sahar Farsimadan
An improved microextraction method is proposed on the basis of ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification and solidification of a floating organic droplet procedure combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the preconcentration and quantification of alprazolam (ALP) and chlordiazepoxide (CHL) present in a number of human serum samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated by the Plackett -Burman factorial design as the screening design. Then the response surface methodology based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the effective parameters in the proposed procedure...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332416/predicting-deoxynivalenol-in-oats-under-conditions-representing-scandinavian-production-regions
#6
Tomas Persson, Henrik Eckersten, Oleif Elen, Anne-Grete Roer Hjelkrem, Joel Markgren, Mats Söderström, Thomas Börjesson
Deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals, produced by Fusarium fungi, cause poisoning in humans and animals. Fusarium infections in cereals are favoured by humid conditions. Host species are susceptible mainly during the anthesis stage. Infections are also positively correlated with a regional history of Fusarium infections, frequent cereal production and non-tillage field management practices. Here, previously developed process-based models based on relative air humidity, rain and temperature conditions, Fusarium sporulation, host phenology and mycelium growth in host tissue were adapted and tested on oats...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330241/purification-characterization-gene-cloning-and-expression-of-gh-10-xylanase-penicillium-citrinum-isolate-hzn13
#7
Zabin K Bagewadi, Sikandar I Mulla, Harichandra Z Ninnekar
An extracellular thermostable xylanase (Xyl-IIb) produced by Penicillium citrinum isolate HZN13 was purified to homogeneity using DEAE-Sepharose, Sephadex G-100 and Bio-Gel P-60 chromatography with specific activity of 6272.7 U/mg and 19.6-fold purification. The purification revealed the occurrence of multiple forms of xylanases (Xyl-I, Xyl-IIa, Xyl-IIb and Xyl-III). The molecular mass of highly purified Xyl-IIb was ~31 kDa with SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was cellulase-free, thermostable (55-75 °C) and acidophilic (3...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317736/evaluation-of-phenolic-profile-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-gluten-free-flours
#8
Gabriele Rocchetti, Giulia Chiodelli, Gianluca Giuberti, Francesco Masoero, Marco Trevisan, Luigi Lucini
The characterization of phenolic fingerprints in common gluten-free flours is still scarce. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity and the entire phenolic profile were investigated for extracts from chickpea, sorghum, quinoa, black rice, lentil, amaranth, brown rice, oat and white rice flours, using soft wheat flour as a comparison. The highest phenolic content was found in black rice, followed by quinoa extracts (147.9 and 87.2mg gallic acid equivalents 100g(-1), respectively). Consistently, antioxidant capacity was highest in black rice and quinoa flours (34mmol trolox equivalents 100g(-1)), while anthocyanins were highest in black rice flour...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316079/insectivorous-birds-disrupt-biological-control-of-cereal-aphids
#9
Ingo Grass, Katrin Lehmann, Carsten Thies, Teja Tscharntke
Insect-feeding birds may interfere with trophic interactions in plant-insect food webs, which may be particularly important in agroecosystems. Here, we studied how Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) affect aphids and their predators in cereal fields using bird exclusion experiments. The tree sparrows fed their nestlings with aphid antagonists. Hoverflies and ladybird beetles accounted for 77% of the food for the nestlings during peak aphid density. When birds were excluded, densities of hoverfly larvae, which were the most abundant aphid predator group in the cereals, were 4% higher in wheat and 45% higher in oat, while aphid densities were 24% lower in wheat and 26% lower in oat...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315470/the-nitric-oxide-synthase-2-pathway-is-targeted-by-both-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-treatments-in-the-immature-human-intestine
#10
Emanuela Ferretti, Eric Tremblay, Marie-Pier Thibault, David Grynspan, Karolina M Burghardt, Marcos Bettolli, Corentin Babakissa, Emile Levy, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: NO synthase 2 (NOS2) was recently identified as one the most overexpressed genes in intestinal samples of premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NOS2 is widely implicated in the processes of epithelial cell injury/apoptosis and host immune defense but its specific role in inflammation of the immature human intestinal mucosa remains unclear. Interestingly, factors that prevent NEC such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) attenuate the inflammatory response in the mid-gestation human small intestine using serum-free organ culture while drugs that are associated with NEC occurrence such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (INDO), exert multiple detrimental effects on the immature human intestine...
March 14, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303175/responses-of-holocyclic-and-anholocyclic-rhopalosiphum-padi-populations-to-low-temperature-and-short-photoperiod-induction
#11
Xiong Peng, Xianfeng Qiao, Maohua Chen
The different life cycles of aphid species make these organisms good models for studying the short-term consequences of sex. The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi has a wide geographic distribution and correspondingly different life cycles. In this study, the life cycles of R. padi collected from six different regions in China were characterized experimentally by comparing the responses of holocyclic and anholocyclic populations to low-temperature and short-photoperiod induction. Clones collected from Chuzhou, Taian, and Taigu consistently reproduced via obligate parthenogenesis, whereas clones from Hami and Baicheng were holocyclic in their response, and those from Lanzhou were both holocyclic and anholocyclic...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303034/searching-for-wheat-resistance-to-aphids-and-wheat-bulb-fly-in-the-historical-watkins-and-gediflux-wheat-collections
#12
G I Aradottir, J L Martin, S J Clark, J A Pickett, L E Smart
Insect pests can reduce wheat yield by direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Here we report results from laboratory and field phenotyping studies on a wide range of wheat, including landraces from the Watkins collection deriving from before the green revolution, more modern cultivars from the Gediflux collection (north-western Europe) and modern UK Elite varieties, for resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae)...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299866/effects-of-moringa-oleifera-silage-on-milk-yield-nutrient-digestibility-and-serum-biochemical-indexes-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#13
B Zeng, J J Sun, T Chen, B L Sun, Q He, X Y Chen, Y L Zhang, Q Y Xi
This study investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) as a partial substitute of alfalfa hay on milk yield, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of dairy cows. MO was harvested at 120 days post-seeding. Fresh MO was cut, mixed with chopped oat hay (425:575 on a DM basis), ensiled and stored for 60 days. Sixty healthy Holstein dairy cows were allocated to one of three groups: NM (no MO or control), LM (low MO; 25% alfalfa hay and 50% maize silage were replaced by MO silage) or HM (high MO; 50% alfalfa hay and 100% maize silage were replaced by MO silage)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299773/trafficking-and-other-regulatory-mechanisms-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-oatps-and-organic-anion-transporters-oats-that-modulate-cellular-drug-and-xenobiotic-influx-and-that-are-dysregulated-in-disease
#14
REVIEW
Michael Murray, Fanfan Zhou
Organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), encoded by a number of SLC22A and SLCO genes, mediate the absorption and distribution of drugs and other xenobiotics. The regulation of OATs and OATPs is complex, comprising both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Plasma membrane expression is required for cellular substrate influx by OATs/OATPs. Thus, interest in post-translational regulatory processes, including membrane targeting, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of transporter proteins, is increasing because these are critical for plasma membrane expression...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298700/extraction-chemical-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity-of-litchi-chinensis-sonn-and-avena-sativa-l-seeds-extracts-obtained-from-pressurized-n-butane
#15
Marshall Paliga, Zuleica Novello, Rogério M Dallago, Jaqueline Scapinello, Jacir Dal Magro, Marco Di Luccio, Marcus V Tres, J Vladimir Oliveira
The extraction of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds were investigated using n-butane as pressurized solvent by evaluating the effect of pressure in the range of 7-100 bar and temperature from 25 to 70 °C on the extract yield and chemical composition together with the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained. It was experimentally observed extraction yields for both seeds up to ~3.5 wt%, with a total phenolic content around 126.4 mg GAE/100 g of extract, and an antioxidant activity up to 78...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291827/neighbour-presence-not-identity-influences-root-and-shoot-allocation-in-pea
#16
Cory E Jacob, Eric Tozzi, Christian J Willenborg
Competition is a key feature that structures the composition of plant communities. A growing body of evidence is showing that the presence of neighbours, especially belowground neighbours, induces varied morphological responses in plants. However, in many species, it is not known whether neighbour identity also influences plant morphological responses such as biomass allocation patterns. To assess plant response to above- and belowground neighbour presence and identity, we conducted a greenhouse experiment consisting of conspecific (pea; Pisum sativum L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287259/adaptation-in-caco-2-human-intestinal-cell-differentiation-and-phenolic-transport-with-chronic-exposure-to-blackberry-rubus-sp-extract
#17
Benjamin W Redan, George P Albaugh, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Mario G Ferruzzi
As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0 to 4 h...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287234/synthesis-of-a-dimeric-3%C3%AE-hydroxy-7%C3%AE-12%C3%AE-diamino-5%C3%AE-cholan-24-oate-conjugate-and-its-derivatives-and-the-effect-of-lipophilicity-on-their-anion-transport-efficacy
#18
Zhi Li, Yun Chen, De-Qi Yuan, Wen-Hua Chen
A dimeric 3α-hydroxy-7α,12α-diamino-5β-cholan-24-oate conjugate and its derivatives having alkyl chains of varying length from methyl to n-pentyl groups on the amido bonds were synthesized and fully characterized on the basis of NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and ESI MS (LR and HR) data. Their transmembrane anion transport activities were investigated in detail by means of a chloride ion selective electrode technique and the pyranine assay. The data indicate that this set of compounds is capable of promoting the transmembrane transport of anions, presumably via an anion exchange process and a mobile carrier mechanism...
March 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286354/how-did-the-domestication-of-fertile-crescent-grain-crops-increase-their-yields
#19
Catherine Preece, Alexandra Livarda, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Michael Wallace, Gemma Martin, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Mark Rees, Colin P Osborne
The origins of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, led to profound changes in the biology of plants exploited as grain crops, through the process of domestication. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. The classical view of crop domestication is narrow, focusing on reproductive and seed traits including the dispersal, dormancy and size of seeds, without considering whole-plant characteristics...
February 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285990/classification-of-causes-and-associated-conditions-for-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths
#20
REVIEW
Vicki Flenady, Aleena M Wojcieszek, David Ellwood, Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Jan Jaap H M Erwich, Elizabeth S Draper, Elizabeth M McClure, Hanna E Reinebrant, Jeremy Oats, Lesley McCowan, Alison L Kent, Glenn Gardener, Adrienne Gordon, David Tudehope, Dimitrios Siassakos, Claire Storey, Jane Zuccollo, Jane E Dahlstrom, Katherine J Gold, Sanne Gordijn, Karin Pettersson, Vicki Masson, Robert Pattinson, Jason Gardosi, T Yee Khong, J Frederik Frøen, Robert M Silver
Accurate and consistent classification of causes and associated conditions for perinatal deaths is essential to inform strategies to reduce the five million which occur globally each year. With the majority of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), their needs must be prioritised. The aim of this paper is to review the classification of perinatal death, the contemporary classification systems including the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases - Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM), and next steps...
March 9, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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