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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780174/cereal-progenitors-differ-in-stand-harvest-characteristics-from-related-wild-grasses
#1
Catherine Preece, Natalie F Clamp, Gemma Warham, Michael Charles, Mark Rees, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
The domestication of crops in the Fertile Crescent began approximately 10,000 years ago indicating a change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, agriculture-based existence. The exploitation of wild plants changed during this transition, such that a small number of crops were domesticated from the broader range of species gathered from the wild. However, the reasons for this change are unclear.Previous studies have shown unexpectedly that crop progenitors are not consistently higher yielding than related wild grass species, when growing without competition...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#2
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769441/unique-features-and-clinical-importance-of-acute-alloreactive-immune-responses
#3
Charlotte F Inman, Suzy A Eldershaw, Joanne E Croudace, Nathaniel J Davies, Archana Sharma-Oates, Tanuja Rai, Hayden Pearce, Mirjana Sirovica, Y L Tracey Chan, Kriti Verma, Jianmin Zuo, Sandeep Nagra, Francesca Kinsella, Jane Nunnick, Rasoul Amel-Kashipaz, Charles Craddock, Ram Malladi, Paul Moss
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can cure some patients with hematopoietic malignancy, but this relies on the development of a donor T cell alloreactive immune response. T cell activity in the first 2 weeks after allo-SCT is crucial in determining outcome, despite the clinical effects of the early alloreactive immune response often not appearing until later. However, the effect of the allogeneic environment on T cells is difficult to study at this time point due to the effects of profound lymphopenia...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763995/the-meaning-of-co-production-for-clinicians-an-exploratory-case-study-of-practitioner-trainers-in-one-recovery-college
#4
Mark Dalgarno, Jennifer Oates
INTRODUCTION: Co-production between service users and clinicians is a desirable element of recovery-oriented practice in mental health but the effect of co-production on clinicians has not been explored thoroughly. AIM: to explore the meaning of co-production for clinicians based on their experience of co-production in a Recovery College Method: Thematic analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with clinicians who have co-produced and co-delivered workshops with a Recovery College Peer Trainer...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762375/starch-consumption-patterns-in-infants-and-young-children
#5
Erin Quann, Ryan Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The introduction of starch into an infant's diet is an important milestone in the feeding journey. Intestinal maturity and the presence of digestive enzymes are necessary for the physiologic breakdown of starch and other complementary foods. However, little is known about the consumption patterns of starch containing foods during complementary feeding. METHOD: The 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) is a cross-sectional 24-hour dietary intake survey of a nationally representative sample of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers from birth to 48 months of age...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760947/incorporating-epilepsy-genetics-into-clinical-practice-a-360%C3%A2-evaluation
#6
Stephanie Oates, Shan Tang, Richard Rosch, Rosalie Lear, Elaine F Hughes, Ruth E Williams, Line H G Larsen, Qin Hao, Hans Atli Dahl, Rikke S Møller, Deb K Pal
We evaluated a new epilepsy genetic diagnostic and counseling service covering a UK population of 3.5 million. We calculated diagnostic yield, estimated clinical impact, and surveyed referring clinicians and families. We costed alternative investigational pathways for neonatal onset epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy of unknown aetiology onset < 2 years; treatment resistant epilepsy; or familial epilepsy were referred for counseling and testing. We developed NGS panels, performing clinical interpretation with a multidisciplinary team...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760683/evaluation-of-primers-targeting-the-diazotroph-functional-gene-and-development-of-nifmap-a-bioinformatics-pipeline-for-analyzing-nifh-amplicon-data
#7
Roey Angel, Maximilian Nepel, Christopher Panhölzl, Hannes Schmidt, Craig W Herbold, Stephanie A Eichorst, Dagmar Woebken
Diazotrophic microorganisms introduce biologically available nitrogen (N) to the global N cycle through the activity of the nitrogenase enzyme. The genetically conserved dinitrogenase reductase ( nifH ) gene is phylogenetically distributed across four clusters (I-IV) and is widely used as a marker gene for N2 fixation, permitting investigators to study the genetic diversity of diazotrophs in nature and target potential participants in N2 fixation. To date there have been limited, standardized pipelines for analyzing the nifH functional gene, which is in stark contrast to the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759105/the-glycaemic-index-and-insulinaemic-index-of-commercially-available-breakfast-and-snack-foods-in-an-asian-population
#8
Wei Shuan Kimberly Tan, Wei Jie Kevin Tan, Shalini D/O Ponnalagu, Katie Koecher, Ravi Menon, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani J Henry
A low-glycaemic-index (GI) breakfast has been shown to lower blood glucose levels throughout the day. A wide variety of breakfast foods are consumed, but their GI values are largely unknown, hence limiting consumers' ability to select healthier options. This study investigated the GI values of ten common breakfast (five Asian and five Western) foods in this region using a randomised, cross-over study design. Participants arrived after an overnight fast, and fasting blood sample was taken before participants consumed test foods...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758908/spatial-relationships-among-cereal-yields-and-selected-soil-physical-and-chemical-properties
#9
Jerzy Lipiec, Bogusław Usowicz
Sandy soils occupy large area in Poland (about 50%) and in the world. This study aimed at determining spatial relationships of cereal yields and the selected soil physical and chemical properties in three study years (2001-2003) on low productive sandy Podzol soil (Podlasie, Poland). The yields and soil properties in plough and subsoil layers were determined at 72-150 points. The test crops were: wheat, wheat and barley mixture and oats. To explore the spatial relationship between cereal yields and each soil property spatial statistics was used...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757407/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analysis-provide-insights-into-root-and-root-released-organic-anion-responses-to-phosphorus-deficiency-in-oat
#10
Yanliang Wang, Erik Lysøe, Tegan Armarego-Marriott, Alexander Erban, Lisa Paruch, Andre van Eerde, Ralph Bock, Jihong Liu-Clarke
Root and root-released organic anions play important roles in uptake of phosphorus (P), an essential macronutrient for food production. Oat, ranking sixth in the world's cereal production, contains valuable nutritional compounds and can withstand poor soil conditions. Our aim was to investigate root transcriptional and metabolic responses of oat grown under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. We conducted a hydroponic experiment and measured root morphology and organic anion exudation, and analysed changes in the transcriptome and metabolome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757052/multimodal-characterization-of-a-novel-mutation-causing-vitamin-b6-responsive-gyrate-atrophy
#11
Xuan Cui, Ruben Jauregui, Karen Sophia Park, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE: Gyrate atrophy (GA) is a rare chorioretinal degeneration that results in the deterioration of night and peripheral vision, eventually leading to blindness. The disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), causing increased levels of plasma ornithine. Treatment revolves around lowering plasma ornithine levels, with vitamin B6 supplementation being the preferred treatment. Nevertheless, most patients do not respond to this therapy. Here, we report a rare case of vitamin B6-responsive GA caused by a novel mutation in OAT and characterize the presentation with multimodal imaging...
May 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753487/replacing-human-edible-feed-ingredients-with-by-products-increases-net-food-production-efficiency-in-dairy-cows
#12
Johanna Karlsson, Rolf Spörndly, Mikaela Lindberg, Kjell Holtenius
Global demand is increasing for food, and use of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs for dairy cows is an important concern. The present study examined whether feeding a by-product-based concentrate combined with high-quality grass silage to high-producing dairy cows affected feed intake and milk production compared with a conventional diet, as well as the effect on efficiency of human food production. In a changeover experiment with four 21-d periods, 24 dairy cows in mid-lactation were offered 9...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749268/corticosterone-assimilation-by-a-voluntary-oral-administration-in-palatable-food-to-rats
#13
Juliana Raya, Carlos Eduardo Neves Girardi, Débora Cristina Hipólide
Drug delivery in research on nonhuman animals in the laboratory is still challenging because it is usually invasive and stressful. Stress-free voluntary oral drug administration in water lacks precise control of dose and timing of substance ingestion. Voluntary oral consumption of corticosterone has been previously successfully applied in mice using oat flakes, but protocols for oral corticosterone administration in rats remain unavailable. This study assessed the effectiveness of voluntary oral administration to rats of a palatable piece of bread soaked with corticosterone that can be rapidly prepared and is reliably dose- and timing-controllable...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741580/nonsurgical-medical-penile-girth-augmentation-a-retrospective-study-of-psychological-and-psychosexual-outcomes
#14
Gemma Sharp, Jayson Oates
Background: Although interest in penile augmentation procedures is increasing, there is a significant lack of research into the psychological and psychosexual outcomes of these procedures. Objectives: To investigate the psychological and psychosexual outcomes of nonsurgical medical penile girth augmentation. Methods: This retrospective study involved a mixed method approach. Twenty-five men who had undergone a nonsurgical medical penile girth augmentation between 1 and 12 months prior (mean, 6...
May 8, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740799/characterization-of-two-new-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanases-from-eupenicillium-parvum-4-14-and-their-applications-for-production-of-feruloylated-oligosaccharides
#15
Liangkun Long, Meijuan Xu, Yuexin Shi, Qunying Lin, Jing Wang, Shaojun Ding
Two new endo-1,4-beta-xylanases encoding genes EpXyn1 and EpXyn3 were isolated from mesophilic fungus Eupenicillium parvum 4-14. Based on analysis of catalytic domain and phylogenetic trees, the xylanases EpXYN1 (404 aa) and EpXYN3 (220 aa) belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 and 11, respectively. Both EpXYN1 and EpXYN3 were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant enzymes were characterized using beechwood xylan, birchwood xylan, or oat spelt xylan as substrates, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740459/3d-structures-of-plant-phytochrome-a-as-pr-and-pfr-from-solid-state-nmr-implications-for-molecular-function
#16
Chen Song, Maria Andrea Mroginski, Christina Lang, Jakub Kopycki, Wolfgang Gärtner, Jörg Matysik, Jon Hughes
We present structural information for oat phyA3 in the far-red-light-absorbing (Pfr) signaling state, to our knowledge the first three-dimensional (3D) information for a plant phytochrome as Pfr. Solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to detect interatomic contacts in the complete photosensory module [residues 1-595, including the NTE (N-terminal extension), PAS ( P er/ A rnt/ S im), GAF (c G MP phosphodiesterase/ a denylyl cyclase/ F hlA) and PHY ( phy tochrome-specific) domains but with the C-terminal PAS repeat and transmitter-like module deleted] auto-assembled in vitro with 13 C- and 15 N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739419/an-increased-fraction-of-circulating-mir-363-and-mir-16-is-particle-bound-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-as-compared-to-normal-subjects
#17
Afaf Alharthi, Daniel Beck, Dena R Howard, Peter Hillmen, Melanie Oates, Andrew Pettitt, Simon D Wagner
OBJECTIVES: In vitro culture studies have shown that miR-363 is enriched in extracellular vesicles from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells. We wondered whether miR-363 was detectable in plasma, which is an essential precondition for further studies to assess its usefulness as a biomarker. Using samples from two clinical trials: one enrolling patients with advanced disease and the other asymptomatic patients with early stage disease, we determined plasma miR-363 levels and secondly investigated the distribution of this miRNA between plasma and particle bound fractions in patients and normal subjects...
May 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733232/genetic-mapping-and-a-new-pcr-based-marker-linked-to-a-dwarfing-gene-in-oat-avena-sativa-l
#18
Jun Zhao, Xueqin Tang, Charlene P Wight, Nicholas A Tinker, Yunfeng Jiang, Honghai Yan, Jian Ma, Xiu-Jin Lan, Yu-Ming Wei, Changzhong Ren, Guoyue Chen, Yuanying Peng
Short straw is a desired trait in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.) for some production environments. Marker-assisted selection, a key tool for achieving this objective, is limited by a lack of mapping data and available markers. Here, bulked-segregant analysis was used to identify PCR-based markers associated with a dwarfing gene. Genetic analysis identified a monogenic dominant inheritance of one dwarfing gene from WAOAT2132, temporarily designated DwWA. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (AME117) that was already available and a new codominant PCR-based marker (bi17) developed by homologous cloning in the present study were both associated with the dwarfing gene...
May 7, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731722/identification-expression-and-regulation-of-an-omega-class-glutathione-s-transferase-in-rhopalosiphum-padi-l-hemiptera-aphididae-under-insecticide-stress
#19
Balachandar Balakrishnan, Sha Su, Kang Wang, Ruizheng Tian, Maohua Chen
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an essential role in the detoxification of xenobiotic toxins in insects, including insecticides. However, few data are available for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). In this study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of an omega GST gene ( RpGSTO1 ) from R. padi , which contains 720 bp in length and encodes 239 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that RpGSTO1 belongs to the omega class of insect GSTs. RpGSTO1 gene was highly expressed in transformed Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730987/stigma-associated-with-medication-treatment-for-young-adults-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-case-series
#20
Scott E Hadland, Tae Woo Park, Sarah M Bagley
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related overdose deaths have risen sharply among young adults. Despite this increase, access to evidence-based medication for opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for youth remains low. Among older adults, barriers to OAT include the paucity of buprenorphine-waivered prescribers and low rates of prescribing among waivered physicians. We have increasingly found in our clinical practice significant stigma related to using OAT to treat addiction for young adults. In this series, we describe three cases of young adults who faced significant stigma related to their treatment...
May 7, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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