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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821914/breeding-progress-genotypic-and-environmental-variation-and-correlation-of-quality-traits-in-malting-barley-in-german-official-variety-trials-between-1983-and-2015
#1
Friedrich Laidig, Hans-Peter Piepho, Dirk Rentel, Thomas Drobek, Uwe Meyer
Evaluation of breeding progress for spring barley varieties in Germany showed that both grain yield and malting quality were considerably improved during the last 33 years, and that genetic effects of protein concentration and malting traits were not associated. Based on historical data, this study aimed to investigate yield potential and malting quality of 187 varieties tested and released in German registration trials to evaluate the value for cultivation and use (VCU) during 1983-2015, and to quantify the environmental variability and the association among traits...
August 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821745/metabolomics-and-genomics-combine-to-unravel-the-pathway-for-the-presence-of-fragrance-in-rice
#2
Venea Dara Daygon, Mariafe Calingacion, Louise C Forster, James J De Voss, Brett D Schwartz, Ben Ovenden, David E Alonso, Susan R McCouch, Mary J Garson, Melissa A Fitzgerald
Since it was first characterised in 1983, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been considered to be the most important aroma compound in rice. In this study, we show four other amine heterocycles: 6-methyl, 5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine (6M5OTP), 2-acetylpyrrole, pyrrole and 1-pyrroline, that correlate strongly with the production of 2AP, and are present in consistent proportions in a set of elite aromatic rice varieties from South East Asia and Australia as well as in a collection of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from indica Jasmine-type varieties, Australian long grain varieties (temperate japonica) and Basmati-type rice (Grp V)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821707/molecular-bases-for-differential-aging-programs-between-flag-and-second-leaves-during-grain-filling-in-rice
#3
Shinyoung Lee, Hyobin Jeong, Sichul Lee, Jinwon Lee, Sun-Ji Kim, Ji-Won Park, Hye Ryun Woo, Pyung Ok Lim, Gynheung An, Hong Gil Nam, Daehee Hwang
Flag leaves (FL) and second leaves (SL) in rice show differential aging patterns during monocarpic senescence. Coordination of aging programs between FL and SL is important for grain yield and quality. However, the molecular bases for differential aging programs between FL and SL have not been systematically explored in rice. Here, we performed mRNA-sequencing of FL and SL at six time points during grain-filling and identified four molecular bases for differential aging programs between FL and SL: phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, amino acid (AA) transport, and hormone response...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821077/building-a-fructan-lc-ms-2-library-and-its-application-to-reveal-the-fine-structure-of-cereal-grain-fructans
#4
Joran Verspreet, Anders Holmgaard Hansen, Scott J Harrison, Rudy Vergauwen, Wim Van den Ende, Christophe M Courtin
A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) library is presented containing the relative retention times of 28 fructan oligomers and MS(2) spectra of 18 of them. It includes the main representatives of all fructan classes occurring in nature and with a degree of polymerization between three and five. This library enables a rapid and unambiguous detection of these 18 fructan structures in any type of sample without the need for fructan purification or the synthesis of fructan standards. Its wide applicability is demonstrated by the analysis of fructans in a set of cereal flour samples...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820490/the-potentiodynamic-bottom-up-growth-of-the-tin-oxide-nanostructured-layer-for-gas-analytical-multisensor-array-chips
#5
Fedor S Fedorov, Dmitry Podgainov, Alexey Varezhnikov, Andrey Lashkov, Michail Gorshenkov, Igor Burmistrov, Martin Sommer, Victor Sysoev
We report a deposition of the tin oxide/hydroxide nanostructured layer by the potentiodynamic method from acidic nitrate solutions directly over the substrate, equipped with multiple strip electrodes which is employed as a gas-analytical multisensor array chip. The electrochemical synthesis is set to favor the growth of the tin oxide/hydroxide phase, while the appearance of metallic Sn is suppressed by cycling. The as-synthesized tin oxide/hydroxide layer is characterized by mesoporous morphology with grains, 250-300 nm diameter, which are further crystallized into fine SnO₂ poly-nanocrystals following heating to 300 °C for 24 h just on the chip...
August 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820445/choline-intake-and-its-food-sources-in-the-diet-of-romanian-kindergarten-children
#6
Cristian Reinhard Prelicz, Lucia Maria Lotrean
The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4-6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data were collected by means of three-day food records. The mean (SD) daily intake of choline was 215 (32) mg/day, 22.5% of the participants fulfilling the adequate intake (AI) for children 4-6 years of age of 250 mg of choline per day. The main food sources were meat (mainly poultry), eggs, grains, cereals, and baked products (mainly bread), and dairy products (mainly milk)...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819970/chemical-selectivity-at-grain-boundary-dislocations-in-monolayer-mo1-xwxs2-transition-metal-dichalcogenides
#7
Ziqian Wang, Yuhao Shen, Shoucong Ning, Yoshikazu Ito, Pan Liu, Zheng Tang, Takeshi Fujita, Akihiko Hirata, Mingwei Chen
Grain boundaries (GBs) are unavoidable crystal defects in polycrystalline materials and significantly influence their properties. However, the structure and chemistry of GBs in 2D transition metal dichalcogenide alloys have not been well established. Here we report significant chemical selectivity of transition metal atoms at GB dislocation cores in Mo1-xWxS2 monolayers. Different from classical elastic field-driven dislocation segregation in bulk crystals, the chemical selectivity in the 2D crystals originates prominently from variation of atomic coordination numbers at dislocation cores...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819968/popcorn-derived-porous-carbon-flakes-with-an-ultrahigh-specific-surface-area-for-superior-performance-supercapacitors
#8
Jianhua Hou, Kun Jiang, Rui Wei, Muhammad Tahir, Xiaoge Wu, Ming Shen, Xiaozhi Wang, Chuanbao Cao
Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes (PCFs) have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structure for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as multi-layer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (SBET: 3301 m2 g-1), a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819311/the-mechanism-for-the-different-effects-of-texture-on-yield-strength-and-hardness-of-mg-alloys
#9
Feilong Guo, Huihui Yu, Chenyu Wu, Yunchang Xin, Cong He, Qing Liu
A study regarding the effect of texture on tensile yield strength and hardness of an extruded Mg-15Gd-0.5Zr rod was performed, with a great emphasis laid on the relevant mechanisms. A 7% pre-tension along the extrusion direction (ED) in the solid solution condition was used to transform the texture from a broad distribution of basal poles with a peak approximately 45° with respect to the ED into a texture with basal poles largely perpendicular to the ED. This texture variation enhances the yield strength of peak aged sample by approximately 103 MPa, while hardly increases the peak hardness...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819172/suppression-for-an-intermediate-phase-in-znsb-films-by-nio-doping
#10
Chao Li, Guoxiang Wang, Dongfeng Qi, Daotian Shi, Xianghua Zhang, Hui Wang
The structural evolution and phase-change kinetics of NiO-doped ZnSb films are investigated. NiO-doped ZnSb films exhibit a single-step crystallization process, which is different from that of undoped ZnSb. NiO-doped ZnSb can directly crystallize into a stable ZnSb phase at temperatures greater than 320 °C with suppression of a metastable ZnSb phase. These characteristics enlarge the amorphous/crystalline resistance ratio by approximately five orders of magnitude. Moreover, NiO doping of ZnSb films increases crystallization temperature from 260 to 275 °C, improves data retention temperature from 201...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819129/dielectric-properties-of-y-and-nb-co-doped-tio2-ceramics
#11
Xianwei Wang, Bihui Zhang, Linhai Xu, Xiaoer Wang, Yanchun Hu, Gaohang Shen, Lingyun Sun
In this work, the (Y0.5Nb0.5)xTi1-xO2 (x = 0.001, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.1) ceramics (as called YNTO) were fabricated by synthesized through a standard solid-state reaction. As revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, the YNTOs exhibit tetragonal rutile structure. Meanwhile, the grain size of YNTO ceramics increased and then decreased with the increase of x value, and the largest value reached when x = 0.02. All the YNTO samples display colossal permittivity (~10(2)-10(5)) over a wide temperature and frequency range...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818819/quantifying-human-movement-using-the-movn-smartphone-app-validation-and-field-study
#12
Ralph Maddison, Luke Gemming, Javier Monedero, Linda Bolger, Sarahjane Belton, Johann Issartel, Samantha Marsh, Artur Direito, Madeleine Solenhill, Jinfeng Zhao, Daniel John Exeter, Harshvardhan Vathsangam, Jonathan Charles Rawstorn
BACKGROUND: The use of embedded smartphone sensors offers opportunities to measure physical activity (PA) and human movement. Big data-which includes billions of digital traces-offers scientists a new lens to examine PA in fine-grained detail and allows us to track people's geocoded movement patterns to determine their interaction with the environment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the Movn smartphone app (Moving Analytics) for collecting PA and human movement data...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818776/bacillus-thuringiensis-coated-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-and-its-biopesticidal-effects-on-the-pulse-beetle-callosobruchus-maculatus
#13
Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Sekar Vijayakumar, Merlin P Thangaraj
Insect pests belonging to the genus Callosobruchus are the major cause of damage to stored pulse crops. Recently, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool for pest control. In the present study, we report for the first time the synthesis and biological evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (Bt-ZnO NPs) on the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. The biologically synthesized Bt-ZnO NPs were extensively characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Zeta potential...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818576/the-effect-of-mutations-in-the-lid-region-of-thermomyces-lanuginosus-lipase-on-interactions-with-triglyceride-surfaces-a-multi-scale-simulation-study
#14
Nathalie Willems, Mickäel Lelimousin, Jakob Skjold-Jorgensen, Allan Svendsen, Mark S P Sansom
Lipases naturally function at the interface formed between amphiphilic molecules and the aqueous environment. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) is a well-characterised lipase, known to exhibit interfacial activation during which a lid region covering the active site becomes displaced upon interaction with an interface. In this study, we investigate the effect the amino acid sequence of the lid region on interfacial binding and lid dynamics of TLL. Three TLL variants were investigated, a wild-type variant, a variant containing an esterase lid region (Esterase), and a Hybrid variant, containing both wild-type lid residues and esterase lid residues...
August 14, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818380/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-duplicated-polyphenol-oxidase-genes-reveal-their-functional-differentiations-in-sorghum
#15
Song Yan, Sujuan Li, Guowei Zhai, Ping Lu, Hui Deng, Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Jianfeng Shao, Yuezhi Tao, Guihua Zou
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818379/influence-of-tagw2-6a-on-seed-development-in-wheat-by-negatively-regulating-gibberellin-synthesis
#16
Qingyan Li, Liqun Li, Yan Liu, Qian Lv, Heng Zhang, Jian Zhu, Xuejun Li
Gibberellins (GA) are involved in seed development and E3 ubiquitin-ligases actively participate in GA perception and signal transduction. TaGW2-6A encodes a RING E3 ubiquitin-ligase that negatively regulates grain size. Therefore, Chinese Spring (CS) and its TaGW2-6A allelic variants (NIL31) were investigated to elucidate the relative contribution of GA to the regulation of seed development in wheat. The expression levels of GA biosynthesis and response genes were higher in NIL31 than CS, especially those of GA 3-oxidase and GASA4...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818310/fracture-analysis-of-tube-boiler-for-physical-explosion-accident
#17
Eui Soo Kim
Material and failure analysis techniques are key tools for determining causation in case of explosive and bursting accident result from material and process defect of product in the field of forensic science. The boiler rupture generated by defect of the welding division, corrosion, overheating and degradation of the material have devastating power. If weak division of boiler burner is fractured by internal pressure, saturated vapor and water is vaporized suddenly. At that time, volume of the saturated vapor and water increases up to thousands of volume...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818110/microbial-community-composition-along-the-digestive-tract-in-forage-and-grain-fed-bison
#18
Gaddy T Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Diversity and composition of microbial communities was compared across the 13 major sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and rectum) in two captive populations of American bison (Bison bison), one of which was finished on forage, the other on grain. RESULTS: Microbial diversity fell to its lowest levels in the small intestine, with Bacteroidetes reaching their lowest relative abundance in that region, while Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota attained their highest relative abundances there...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817618/national-scale-cropland-mapping-based-on-spectral-temporal-features-and-outdated-land-cover-information
#19
François Waldner, Matthew C Hansen, Peter V Potapov, Fabian Löw, Terence Newby, Stefanus Ferreira, Pierre Defourny
The lack of sufficient ground truth data has always constrained supervised learning, thereby hindering the generation of up-to-date satellite-derived thematic maps. This is all the more true for those applications requiring frequent updates over large areas such as cropland mapping. Therefore, we present a method enabling the automated production of spatially consistent cropland maps at the national scale, based on spectral-temporal features and outdated land cover information. Following an unsupervised approach, this method extracts reliable calibration pixels based on their labels in the outdated map and their spectral signatures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817608/data-driven-coarse-graining-of-large-biomolecular-structures
#20
Yi-Ling Chen, Michael Habeck
Advances in experimental and computational techniques allow us to study the structure and dynamics of large biomolecular assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. However, with increasing structural detail it can be challenging to unravel the mechanism underlying the function of molecular machines. One reason is that atomistic simulations become computationally prohibitive. Moreover it is difficult to rationalize the functional mechanism of systems composed of tens of thousands to millions of atoms by following each atom's movements...
2017: PloS One
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