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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335362/the-change-of-electronic-transport-behaviors-by-p-and-b-doping-in-nano-crystalline-silicon-films-with-very-high-conductivities
#1
Dan Shan, Mingqing Qian, Yang Ji, Xiaofan Jiang, Jun Xu, Kunji Chen
Nano-crystalline Si films with high conductivities are highly desired in order to develop the new generation of nano-devices. Here, we first demonstrate that the grain boundaries played an important role in the carrier transport process in un-doped nano-crystalline Si films as revealed by the temperature-dependent Hall measurements. The potential barrier height can be well estimated from the experimental results, which is in good agreement with the proposed model. Then, by introducing P and B doping, it is found that the scattering of grain boundaries can be significantly suppressed and the Hall mobility is monotonously decreased with the temperature both in P- and B-doped nano-crystalline Si films, which can be attributed to the trapping of P and B dopants in the grain boundary regions to reduce the barriers...
December 3, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335337/effect-of-crystal-orientation-on-self-assembly-nanocones-formed-on-tungsten-surface-induced-by-helium-ion-irradiation-and-annealing
#2
Shilin Huang, Guang Ran, Penghui Lei, Shenghua Wu, Nanjun Chen, Ning Li
The self-assembly nanocone structures on the surface of polycrystalline tungsten were created by He⁺ ion irradiation and then annealing, and the resulting topography and morphology were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sectional samples of the self-assembly nanocones were prepared using an in situ-focused ion beam and then observed using transmission electron microscopy. The self-assembly nanocones were induced by the combined effect of He⁺ ion irradiation, the annealing process and the chromium impurity...
November 12, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334872/hplc-dad-fld-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-wheat-bran
#3
Maria N Irakli, Adriana Skendi, Maria D Papageorgiou
Aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone are the most important mycotoxins that everyone on its own, in groups or simultaneously contaminate cereals. The external layers of cereal grains (bran) apart from health promoting ingredients are also the most contaminated part with reference to mycotoxin's presence. Therefore, consumption of a high fiber wheat-based diet represent an increased risk to consumer's health. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of these mycotoxins in wheat bran (WB)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334647/arsenic-load-in-rice-ecosystem-and-its-mitigation-through-deficit-irrigation
#4
Arkabanee Mukherjee, M Kundu, B Basu, B Sinha, M Chatterjee, M Das Bairagya, U K Singh, S Sarkar
Rice the staple food is a notable intake source of arsenic to the rural population of eastern India through food-chain. A field survey was carried out to study the variation of arsenic load in different parts of rice genotype Shatabdi (most popular genotype of the region) exposed to varying level of arsenic present in the irrigation water and soil. As irrigation is the primary source of arsenic contamination, a study was conducted to assess arsenic load in rice ecosystem under deficit irrigation practices like intermittent ponding (IP), saturation (SAT) and aerobic (AER) imposed during stress allowable stage (16-40 days after transplanting) of the crop (genotype Shatabdi)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334576/stemsalabim-a-high-performance-computing-cluster-friendly-code-for-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-image-simulations-of-thin-specimens
#5
Jan Oliver Oelerich, Lennart Duschek, Jürgen Belz, Andreas Beyer, Sergei D Baranovskii, Kerstin Volz
We present a new multislice code for the computer simulation of scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images based on the frozen lattice approximation. Unlike existing software packages, the code is optimized to perform well on highly parallelized computing clusters, combining distributed and shared memory architectures. This enables efficient calculation of large lateral scanning areas of the specimen within the frozen lattice approximation and fine-grained sweeps of parameter space.
March 10, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334232/walking-responses-of-tribolium-castaneum-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-to-its-aggregation-pheromone-and-odors-of-wheat-infestations
#6
B J Stevenson, L Cai, C Faucher, M Michie, A Berna, Y Ren, A Anderson, S Chyb, W Xu
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332602/silver-metal-nano-matrixes-as-high-efficiency-and-versatile-catalytic-reactors-for-environmental-remediation
#7
Ludovic F Dumée, Zhifeng Yi, Blaise Tardy, Andrea Merenda, Elise des Ligneris, Ray R Dagastine, Lingxue Kong
Nano-porous metallic matrixes (NMMs) offer superior surface to volume ratios as well as enhanced optical, photonic, and electronic properties to bulk metallic materials. Such behaviours are correlated to the nano-scale inter-grain metal domains that favour the presence of electronic vacancies. In this work, continuous 3D NMMs were synthesized for the first time through a simple diffusion-reduction process whereby the aerogel matrix was functionalized with (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. The surface energy of the silica monolith templates was tuned to improve the homogeneity of the reduction process while thiol functionalization facilitated the formation of a high density of seeding points for metal ions to reduce...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332480/honey-bee-hairs-and-pollenkitt-are-essential-for-pollen-capture-and-removal
#8
Guillermo J Amador, Marguerite Matherne, D'Andre Waller, Megha Mathews, Stanislav N Gorb, David L Hu
While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs...
March 23, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332416/predicting-deoxynivalenol-in-oats-under-conditions-representing-scandinavian-production-regions
#9
Tomas Persson, Henrik Eckersten, Oleif Elen, Anne-Grete Roer Hjelkrem, Joel Markgren, Mats Söderström, Thomas Börjesson
Deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals, produced by Fusarium fungi, cause poisoning in humans and animals. Fusarium infections in cereals are favoured by humid conditions. Host species are susceptible mainly during the anthesis stage. Infections are also positively correlated with a regional history of Fusarium infections, frequent cereal production and non-tillage field management practices. Here, previously developed process-based models based on relative air humidity, rain and temperature conditions, Fusarium sporulation, host phenology and mycelium growth in host tissue were adapted and tested on oats...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332359/burdens-of-cardiometabolic-diseases-attributable-to-dietary-and-metabolic-risks-in-korean-adults-2012-2013
#10
Yoonsu Cho, Frederick Cudhea, Ju Hyun Park, Dariush Mozaffarian, Gitanjali Singh, Min Jeong Shin
PURPOSE: In line with epidemiological and sociocultural changes in Korea over the past decades, reliable estimation of diseases as a result of dietary and metabolic risks is required. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic factors to cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) in Korean adults (25-64 years old) during 2012-2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Distribution of risk factors and cause-specific mortality by gender and age per year was obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Statistics Korea, respectively...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332274/time-course-expression-qtl-atlas-of-the-global-transcriptional-response-of-wheat-to-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Mina Samad-Zamini, Wolfgang Schweiger, Thomas Nussbaumer, Klaus F X Mayer, Hermann Buerstmayr
Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of small grain cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). The pathogen switches from a biotrophic to a nectrotrophic lifestyle in course of disease development forcing its host to adapt its defence strategies. Using a genetical genomics approach we illustrate genome-wide reconfigurations of genetic control over transcript abundances between two decisive time points after inoculation with the causative pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Whole transcriptome measurements have been recorded for 163 lines of a wheat doubled haploid population segregating for several resistance genes yielding 15 552 at 30 hours and 15 888 eQTL at 50 hours after inoculation...
March 23, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332204/evaluation-of-hmw-gs-20-and-2-2-from-near-isogenic-lines-nils-of-wheat-variety-hd2329-for-bread-quality-improvement
#12
Sonia Goel, Sapna Grewal, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end- product quality. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in (HMW-GS) genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332192/arresting-simulated-dentine-caries-with-adjunctive-application-of-silver-nitrate-solution-and-sodium-fluoride-varnish-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#13
Irene Shuping Zhao, May Lei Mei, Quan-Li Li, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun-Hung Chu
PURPOSE: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the ability of silver nitrate solution, followed by sodium fluoride varnish, to arrest caries. METHODS: Dentine slices were prepared and demineralised. Each slice was cut into three specimens for three groups (SF, SDF and W). Specimens of the SF group received topical application of 25% silver nitrate solution followed by 5% sodium fluoride varnish. The SDF group received topical application of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution (positive control)...
March 22, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332086/reducing-nitrogen-losses-through-ammonia-volatilization-and-surface-runoff-to-improve-apparent-nitrogen-recovery-of-double-cropping-of-late-rice-using-controlled-release-urea
#14
Pengfei Li, Jianwei Lu, Wenfeng Hou, Yonghui Pan, Yang Wang, Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Xiaokun Li
Controlled release fertilizer can reduce nitrogen losses to the environment while increasing grain yield and improving apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) of rice. However, few studies have evaluated the comparative efficacy of different polymer-coated urea products on nitrogen (N) losses, ANR, and N uptake of rice. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three different types of polymer-coated urea fertilizer on nitrogen losses through NH3 volatilization and surface runoff to the environment, ANR, grain yield, and N uptake as compared to conventional urea of rice...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331576/bumblebees-require-visual-pollen-stimuli-to-initiate-and-multimodal-stimuli-to-complete-a-full-behavioral-sequence-in-close-range-flower-orientation
#15
Saskia Wilmsen, Robin Gottlieb, Robert R Junker, Klaus Lunau
Flower visits are complex encounters, in which animals are attracted by floral signals, guided toward the site of the first physical contact with a flower, land, and finally take up floral rewards. At close range, signals of stamens and pollen play an important role to facilitate flower handling in bees, yet the pollen stimuli eliciting behavioral responses are poorly known. In this study, we test the response of flower-naive bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) toward single and multimodal pollen stimuli as compared to natural dandelion pollen...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331111/longitudinal-monitoring-of-tree-airborne-pollen-in-japan
#16
Reiko Kishikawa, Eiko Kotoh, Chie Oshikawa, Nobuo Soh, Terufumi Shimoda, Akemi Saito, Norio Sahashi, Tadao Enomoto, Atsushi Usami, Hidetoyo Teranishi, Yohko Fujisaki, Toshitaka Yokoyama, Kohji Murayama, Tohru Imai, Yuma Fukutomi, Masami Taniguchi, Tomoaki Iwanaga
RATIONAL: In Japan patients with Japanese Cedar (JC) pollinosis have increased nation widely since the latter of 1970's. The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japanese Governments has begun to take preventive measures against JC pollinosis and airborne pollen monitoring has begun to investigate as a causative agent since 1986. We have estimated the longitudinal investigation result for successful prevention and treatment against pollinosis in Japan. METHOD: We have monitored airborne pollen all year around since July 1986 by gravitational pollen sampler, Durham's sampler, at more than 20 locations in the Japanese Islands...
2017: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330733/what-do-children-eat-in-the-summer-a-direct-observation-of-summer-day-camps-that-serve-meals
#17
Erica L Kenney, Rebekka M Lee, Carolyn J Brooks, Angie L Cradock, Steven L Gortmaker
BACKGROUND: More than 14 million children in the United States attend summer camp annually, yet little is known about the food environment in day camps. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the nutritional quality of meals served to, brought by, and consumed by children attending summer day camps serving meals and snacks, and to describe camp water access. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: Participants were 149 children attending five summer camps in Boston, MA, in 2013...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330728/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-nutrition-label-use-and-food-selection-servings-and-consumption-in-a%C3%A2-university-dining-setting
#18
Mary J Christoph, Brenna Ellison
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels at the point of purchase are recommended to improve food choice, yet food choice does not always translate into food consumption. It is important to understand the relationship between label use, food selection, servings, and consumption. Previous research, which has relied on self-reported intake or inferred label use or intake based on sales data, has not adequately answered this question. OBJECTIVE: To combine survey and meal photographic data to compare food selection, servings, and consumption between label users and nonusers...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330339/the-attachment-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-to-a-fiber-a-coarse-grain-approach
#19
Ioana M Ilie, Wouter K den Otter, Wim J Briels
We present simulations of the amyloidogenic core of α-synuclein, the protein causing Parkinson's disease, as a short chain of coarse-grain patchy particles. Each particle represents a sequence of about a dozen amino acids. The fluctuating secondary structure of this intrinsically disordered protein is modelled by dynamic variations of the shape and interaction characteristics of the patchy particles, ranging from spherical with weak isotropic attractions for the disordered state to spherocylindrical with strong directional interactions for a β-sheet...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330288/biofabrication-and-spectral-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-cytotoxic-studies-on-human-cd34-ve-stem-cells
#20
Venkata S Kotakadi, Susmila Aparna Gaddam, Sucharitha K Venkata, P V G K Sarma, D V R Sai Gopal
Biosynthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles is gaining significant importance due to environmentally safe 'green method' and it is an efficient alternative method. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra an important medicinal plant. The AgNPs are characterized by spectral analysis; the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of AgNPs showed maximum absorption at 445 nm. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) data show that the O-H hydroxyl groups, carboxylic acids, ester and ether groups and C-O stretching of alcohols have been utilized in the formation of AgNPs...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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