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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728389/influence-of-substituting-steam-flaked-corn-for-dry-rolled-corn-on-feedlot-cattle-growth-performance-when-cattle-are-allowed-either-ad-libitum-or-restricted-access-to-the-finishing-diet
#1
Víctor Manuel González-Vizcarra, Alejandro Plascencia, Daniel Ramos-Aviña, Richard Avery Zinn
Objective: The influence of substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) for dry rolled corn (DRC) on feedlot cattle growth performance and dietary net energy when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or 2-h restricted access to the finishing diet was evaluated. Methods: Treatment effects were tested using 96 crossbred steers (251 ±2 kg) during the initial 56 d of the finishing phase. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned within blocks to 16 pens (4 pens/treatment)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728361/influence-of-barley-grain-treated-with-alkaline-compounds-or-organic-extracts-on-ex-vivo-site-and-extent-of-digestion-of-starch
#2
Reza Naseroleslami, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Abdolmansour Tahmasbi, Alireza Vakili, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: Two ex vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effect of barley grain (Nusrat cultivar) treated with alkaline compounds (AC) including alum, ammonium, and sodium hydroxide or cation-exchanged organic extracts (OE) prepared from alfalfa hay, sugar beet pulp and Ulva Fasciata, on extent and digestion site of starch. Methods: In the first study, the in vitro first order disappearance kinetic parameters of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and starch were estimated using a non-linear model (D(t)= D(i)...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728019/unraveling-the-complex-tapestry-of-association-networks
#3
Daniel S Margulies
Prior group-level studies have described several large-scale distributed networks within association cortex. In this issue of Neuron, Braga and Buckner (2017) attend to the individual brain, revealing a challenging new portrait of its fine-grained organization.
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727805/turgor-responsive-starch-phosphorylation-in-oryza-sativa-stems-a-primary-event-of-starch-degradation-associated-with-grain-filling-ability
#4
Hiroshi Wada, Chisato Masumoto-Kubo, Koichi Tsutsumi, Hiroshi Nonami, Fukuyo Tanaka, Haruka Okada, Rosa Erra-Balsells, Kenzo Hiraoka, Taiken Nakashima, Makoto Hakata, Satoshi Morita
Grain filling ability is mainly affected by the translocation of carbohydrates generated from temporarily stored stem starch in most field crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.). The partitioning of non-structural stem carbohydrates has been recognized as an important trait for raising the yield ceiling, yet we still do not fully understand how carbohydrate partitioning occurs in the stems. In this study, two rice subspecies that exhibit different patterns of non-structural stem carbohydrates partitioning, a japonica-dominant cultivar, Momiroman, and an indica-dominant cultivar, Hokuriku 193, were used as the model system to study the relationship between turgor pressure and metabolic regulation of non-structural stem carbohydrates, by combining the water status measurement with gene expression analysis and a dynamic prefixed 13C tracer analysis using a mass spectrometer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727545/role-of-age-and-acculturation-in-diet-quality-among-mexican-americans-findings-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-1999-2012
#5
Yilin Yoshida, Richard Scribner, Liwei Chen, Stephanie Broyles, Stephen Phillippi, Tung-Sung Tseng
Age and acculturation may play a role in diet quality among Mexican Americans. This study examined diet quality in Mexican Americans by age and whether acculturation influences diet quality across different age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010, improved with age except in categories of dairy, sodium, and refined grains. More acculturation was associated with lower scores in overall diet quality and categories of vegetables, fruits, and sodium and empty calories across almost all ages, but higher scores in grain categories, especially in younger groups...
July 20, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727426/fully-atomistic-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-in-water-observation-of-pore-like-conformations
#6
Matthew John Voelker, Bogdan Barz, Brigita Urbanc
Oligomers formed by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, yet their structure remains elusive. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, the latter is more strongly associated with AD. Here, we structurally characterized Aβ40 and Aβ42 monomers through pentamers which were converted from previously derived coarse-grained (DMD4B-HYDRA) simulations into all-atom conformations and subjected to explicit-solvent MD. Free energy landscapes revealed that structural differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42 conformations increase with oligomer order up to trimers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727094/effects-of-adding-minimally-refined-cottonseed-oil-or-crude-glycerol-to-diets-containing-40-corn-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-pork-fat-firmness-of-growing-finishing-pigs
#7
C C E J Villela, R B Cox, G C Shurson, K M Compart, P E Urriola, L J Johnston
Diets containing more than 20% distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) reduce fat firmness in pork, but supplementation of cottonseed oil or crude glycerol may improve fat firmness. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding minimally refined cottonseed oil or crude glycerol on growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality of growing-finishing pigs. Mixed sex pigs ( = 216; 24 ± 4 kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) a basal corn-soybean meal diet with 40% DDGS (CON), 2) CON diet plus 5% minimally refined cottonseed oil added throughout the experiment (COT), or 3) CON fed during the first 8 wk and CON + 8% crude glycerol fed during the last 6 wk of the experiment (GLY)...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727092/effects-of-dried-distiller-s-grains-and-lasalocid-inclusion-on-feedlot-lamb-growth-carcass-traits-nutrient-digestibility-ruminal-fluid-volatile-fatty-acid-concentrations-and-ruminal-hydrogen-sulfide-concentration
#8
A R Crane, R R Redden, K C Swanson, B M Howard, T J Frick, K R Maddock-Carlin, C S Schauer
Our hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion level of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) to feedlot lambs would increase growth and the inclusion of lasalocid (LAS; Bovatec, Alpharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) would increase ADG and G:F, while not affecting digestibility, ruminal VFA concentration, and ruminal pH. Furthermore, we hypothesized that rations containing LAS and higher levels of DDGS would cause increased ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS) concentrations. Two hundred forty crossbred (Suffolk × Rambouillet) lambs (31...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727085/impact-of-microbial-efficiency-to-predict-mp-supply-when-estimating-protein-requirements-of-growing-beef-cattle-from-performance
#9
A K Watson, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson, J C MacDonald, V A Wilkerson
Data from 16 trials were compiled to calculate microbial CP (MCP) production and MP requirements of growing cattle on high-forage diets. All cattle were individually fed diets with 28% to 72% corn cobs in addition to either alfalfa, corn silage, or sorghum silage at 18% to 60% of the diet (DM basis). The remainder of the diet consisted of protein supplement. Source of protein within the supplement varied and included urea, blood meal, corn gluten meal, dry distillers grains, feather meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and wet distillers grains...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727064/ileal-starch-digestibility-of-different-cereal-grains-fed-to-growing-pigs
#10
P Rosenfelder-Kuon, E J P Strang, H K Spindler, M Eklund, R Mosenthin
The objective of the present study was to determine, in growing pigs, the ileal starch digestibility and ileal digestible starch content of 8 different genotypes of barley, rye, triticale, and wheat each. Therefore, 4 experiments were conducted with 34 ileally cannulated growing pigs (initial BW of 24 to 32 kg) in total. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 1 of the 8 genotypes of each cereal grain at an inclusion level of 95%. Cereal grains were ground through a 2-mm sieve and were the sole dietary source of starch...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727063/effect-of-dietary-fiber-and-diet-particle-size-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-gastrointestinal-secretory-function-in-growing-pigs
#11
M Saqui-Salces, Z Luo, P E Urriola, B J Kerr, G C Shurson
Reduction of diet particle size (PS) increases feed efficiency due to an increase in the apparent total tract (ATTD) of GE. However, other effects of PS on the gut secretory function are not known. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of diet composition (DC) and PS on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma of finishing pigs ( = 8/diet). Pigs were fed finely (374 ± 29 µm) or coarsely (631 ± 35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), CSB + 35% corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 d...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727060/effect-of-monensin-inclusion-on-intake-digestion-and-ruminal-fermentation-parameters-by-bos-taurus-indicus-and-bos-taurus-taurus-steers-consuming-bermudagrass-hay
#12
N L Bell, R C Anderson, T R Callaway, M O Franco, J E Sawyer, T A Wickersham
Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 [BI] and 5 [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments were 0 (CON) or 200 mg·steer·d monensin (MON) in 0.91 kg dried distillers' grains with solubles. Periods were 70 d in length: 20 d of adaptation, 22 d of sample collection, and 28 d for withdrawal of treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727043/effect-of-monensin-withdrawal-on-intake-digestion-and-ruminal-fermentation-parameters-by-bos-taurus-indicus-and-bos-taurus-taurus-steers-consuming-bermudagrass-hay
#13
N L Bell, T R Callaway, R C Anderson, M O Franco, J E Sawyer, T A Wickersham
Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 [BI] and 5 [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover design. Treatments consisted of either 0 mg·steer·d-1 monensin with no previous monensin feeding (CON) or withdrawal from 200 mg·steer·d-1 monensin (MON) fed individually in 0.91 kg dried distillers' grains with solubles for 42 d. Withdrawal was evaluated for a 28-d period...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727011/effects-of-supplementing-sow-diets-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-refermented-sorghum-dried-distiller-s-grains-with-solubles-from-late-gestation-to-weaning-on-the-performance-of-sows-and-progeny
#14
D Song, X Li, Y Cheng, G Wu, X Xiao, F Wang, Y Wang, Z Lu
We performed 2 experiments to study the effects of supplementing sow diets with refermented sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles (SSDDGS) from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and their progeny. In Exp. 1, 24 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated to the following 3 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal diet from late gestation to weaning ( = 8), 2) sows fed a diet with 2% SSDDGS ( = 8), and 3) sows fed a diet with 4% SSDDGS ( = 8). The 4% SSDDGS treatment significantly improved the sows' ADFI, the litter weaning alive rate, and the individual piglet weaning weights and significantly reduced the litter stillbirth rate and the levels of urea N and somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727002/hourly-methane-production-in-finishing-steers-fed-at-different-levels-of-dry-matter-intake
#15
K E Hales, N A Cole
Methane (CH) loss from finishing cattle is important as it represents an energy loss that could be used for maintenance and growth, and CH is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 21 to 25 times that of CO. Our objectives were to determine hourly CH production from growing cattle fed diets differing in corn processing method (dry rolling or steam flaking) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) inclusion rate. Eight steers (195 kg ± 2.3 in Exp. 1 and 322 kg ± 3.7 in Exp. 2) were fed the following diets: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45); 5) Dry-rolled corn DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 6) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726767/fat-taste-sensitivity-is-associated-with-short-term-and-habitual-fat-intake
#16
Andrew Costanzo, Liliana Orellana, Caryl Nowson, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6) (SD) years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7) kg/m²) by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank)...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726544/evaluating-wais-iv-structure-through-a-different-psychometric-lens-structural-causal-model-discovery-as-an-alternative-to-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#17
Marjolein J A M van Dijk, Tom Claassen, Christiany Suwartono, William M van der Veld, Paul T van der Heijden, Marc P H Hendriks
OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725573/determination-of-nitrogen-balance-in-agroecosystems
#18
Upendra M Sainju
Nitrogen balance in agroecosystems provides a quantitative framework of N inputs and outputs and retention in the soil that examines the sustainability of agricultural productivity and soil and environmental quality. Nitrogen inputs include N additions from manures and fertilizers, atmospheric depositions including wet and dry depositions, irrigation water, and biological N fixation. Nitrogen outputs include N removal in crop grain and biomass and N losses through leaching, denitrification, volatilization, surface runoff, erosion, gas emissions, and plant senescence...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725023/surface-energy-driven-cubic-to-hexagonal-grain-growth-of-ge2sb2te5-thin-film
#19
Yonghui Zheng, Yan Cheng, Rong Huang, Ruijuan Qi, Feng Rao, Keyuan Ding, Weijun Yin, Sannian Song, Weili Liu, Zhitang Song, Songlin Feng
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising nonvolatile memory to reform current commercial computing system. Inhibiting face-centered cubic (f-) to hexagonal (h-) phase transition of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin film is essential for realizing high-density, high-speed, and low-power PCM. Although the atomic configurations of f- and h-lattices of GST alloy and the transition mechanisms have been extensively studied, the real transition process should be more complex than previous explanations, e.g. vacancy-ordering model for f-to-h transition...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725004/shift-of-large-scale-atmospheric-systems-over-europe-during-late-mis-3-and-implications-for-modern-human-dispersal
#20
Igor Obreht, Ulrich Hambach, Daniel Veres, Christian Zeeden, Janina Bösken, Thomas Stevens, Slobodan B Marković, Nicole Klasen, Dominik Brill, Christoph Burow, Frank Lehmkuhl
Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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