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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922088/analysis-of-four-toxic-metals-in-a-single-rice-seed-by-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#1
Xiufen He, Lixia Chen, Xin Chen, Huamei Yu, Lixu Peng, Bingjun Han
Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922071/a-carotenogenic-mini-pathway-introduced-into-white-corn-does-not-affect-development-or-agronomic-performance
#2
Daniela Zanga, Teresa Capell, Gustavo A Slafer, Paul Christou, Roxana Savin
High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922060/magnetic-properties-improvement-of-die-upset-nd-fe-b-magnets-by-dy-cu-press-injection-and-subsequent-heat-treatment
#3
Zexuan Wang, Jinyun Ju, Jinzhi Wang, Wenzong Yin, Renjie Chen, Ming Li, Chaoxiang Jin, Xu Tang, Don Lee, Aru Yan
Ultrafine-grained die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets are of importance because they provide a wide researching space to redesign the textured structures. Here is presented a route to obtain a new die-upset magnet with substantially improved magnetic properties. After experiencing the optimized heat treatment, both the coercivity and remanent magnetization of the Dy-Cu press injected magnets increased substantially in comparison with those of the annealed reference magnets, which is distinct from the reported experimental results on heavy rare-earth diffusion...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921404/genome-wide-profiling-of-genetic-variation-in-agrobacterium-transformed-rice-plants
#4
Wen-Xu Li, San-Ling Wu, Yan-Hua Liu, Gu-Lei Jin, Hai-Jun Zhao, Long-Jiang Fan, Qing-Yao Shu
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been widely used in producing transgenic plants, and was recently used to generate "transgene-clean" targeted genomic modifications coupled with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) system. Although tremendous variation in morphological and agronomic traits, such as plant height, seed fertility, and grain size, was observed in transgenic plants, the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood, and the types and frequency of genetic variation in transformed plants have not been fully disclosed...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921366/masked-trichothecene-and-zearalenone-mycotoxins-withstand-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-upper-gi-tract-but-are-efficiently-hydrolyzed-by-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#5
Silvia W Gratz, Reshma Dinesh, Tomoya Yoshinari, Grietje Holtrop, Anthony J Richardson, Gary Duncan, Susan MacDonald, Antony Lloyd, Jonathan Tarbin
SCOPE: Cereal grains are commonly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their plant-derived masked metabolites. The fate of masked mycotoxins in the human gut is poorly understood. Here we assess the metabolism and transport of glucoside metabolites of common trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin) and zearalenone compounds (zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol) in the human gut in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Masked mycotoxins were incubated with artificial digestive juices and absorption was assessed in differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921341/unexpected-effect-of-the-vehicle-grain-ethanol-of-homeopathic-fsh-on-the-in-vitro-survival-and-development-of-isolated-ovine-preantral-follicles
#6
Lartiza F Lima, Rebeca M P Rocha, Ana Beatriz G Duarte, Ivina R Brito, Gerlane M Silva, Giovanna Q Rodrigues, Diana C S Nunes-Pinheiro, Antônia D Sales, Arlindo A Moura, Matthew B Wheeler, Ana Paula R Rodrigues, Cláudio C Campello, José Ricardo Figueiredo
The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of medium replacement system (experiment I) and of FSH presentations (homeopathic - FSH 6cH and allopathic FSH - rFSH; experiment II) on the in vitro development, hormone production and gene expression of isolated ovine preantral follicles cultured for 6 days. In experiment I, secondary follicles were cultured in the α-MEM(+) supplemented with FSH 6cH (0.05 fg/ml) or recombinant bovine FSH (100 ng/ml) without/with daily medium addition. The homeopathic FSH treatments with/without medium addition improved (p < ...
December 5, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920956/grassland-productivity-in-response-to-nutrient-additions-and-herbivory-is-scale-dependent
#7
Erica A H Smithwick, Douglas C Baldwin, Kusum J Naithani
Vegetation response to nutrient addition can vary across space, yet studies that explicitly incorporate spatial pattern into experimental approaches are rare. To explore whether there are unique spatial scales (grains) at which grass response to nutrients and herbivory is best expressed, we imposed a large (∼3.75 ha) experiment in a South African coastal grassland ecosystem. In two of six 60 × 60 m grassland plots, we imposed a scaled sampling design in which fertilizer was added in replicated sub-plots (1 × 1 m, 2 × 2 m, and 4 × 4 m)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919726/g-protein-coupled-receptor-interactions-with-cholesterol-deep-in-the-membrane
#8
Samuel Genheden, Jonathan W Essex, Anthony G Lee
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are located in membranes rich in cholesterol. The membrane spanning surfaces of GPCRs contain exposed backbone carbonyl groups and residue side chains potentially capable of forming hydrogen bonds to cholesterol molecules buried deep within the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations allow the observation of GPCRs in cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers for long times (50μs), sufficient to ensure equilibration of the system...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919562/impact-of-pre-equilibration-and-diffusion-limited-release-kinetics-on-effluent-concentration-in-column-leaching-tests-insights-from-numerical-simulations
#9
Michael Finkel, Peter Grathwohl
Column leaching tests have become a standard method for assessing leaching of pollutants from materials used, e.g., for road and railway constructions and in landscaping measures. Column tests showed to be practical in laboratories yielding robust and reproducible results. However, considerable uncertainty still exists related particularly to the degree of equilibration of the pore water with the solids during preparation (pre-equilibration) and percolation of the column. We analyse equilibration time scales and sensitivity of concentrations in column leachate with respect to initial conditions in a series of numerical experiments covering a broad spectrum of material and solute properties...
December 2, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918496/bacterial-pathogenesis-a-sand-grain-in-antigen-processing
#10
Olivier Neyrolles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918076/genome-wide-association-analyses-of-54-traits-identified-multiple-loci-for-the-determination-of-floret-fertility-in-wheat
#11
Zifeng Guo, Dijun Chen, Ahmad M Alqudah, Marion S Röder, Martin W Ganal, Thorsten Schnurbusch
Increasing grain yield is still the main target of wheat breeding; yet today's wheat plants utilize less than half of their yield potential. Owing to the difficulty of determining grain yield potential in a large population, few genetic factors regulating floret fertility (i.e. the difference between grain yield potential and grain number) have been reported to date. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by quantifying 54 traits (16 floret fertility traits and 38 traits for assimilate partitioning and spike morphology) in 210 European winter wheat accessions...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917917/identification-of-heterotic-loci-associated-with-grain-yield-and-its-components-using-two-cssl-test-populations-in-maize
#12
Hongqiu Wang, Xiangge Zhang, Huili Yang, Xiaoyang Liu, Huimin Li, Liang Yuan, Weihua Li, Zhiyuan Fu, Jihua Tang, Dingming Kang
Heterosis has widely been used to increase grain yield and quality. In this study, the genetic basis of heterosis on grain yield and its main components in maize were examined over 2 years in two locations in two test populations constructed from a set of 184 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and two inbred lines (Zheng58 and Xun9058). Of the 169 heterotic loci (HL) associated with grain yield and its five components identified in CSSL × Zheng58 and CSSL × Xun9058 test populations, only 25 HL were detected in both populations...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917884/ossgl-a-novel-pleiotropic-stress-related-gene-enhances-grain-length-and-yield-in-rice
#13
Manling Wang, Xuedan Lu, Guoyun Xu, Xuming Yin, Yanchun Cui, Lifang Huang, Pedro S C F Rocha, Xinjie Xia
Abiotic stress seriously affects the yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Grain yield in rice is multiplicatively determined by the number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, and grain weight. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of STRESS_tolerance and GRAIN_LENGTH (OsSGL), a rice gene strongly up-regulated by a wide spectrum of abiotic stresses. OsSGL encodes a putative member of the DUF1645 protein family of unknown function. Overexpression of OsSGL significantly altered certain development processes greatly and positively affecting an array of traits in transgenic rice plants, including increased grain length, grain weight and grain number per panicle, resulting in a significant increase in yield...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917192/mining-centuries-old-in-situ-conserved-turkish-wheat-landraces-for-grain-yield-and-stripe-rust-resistance-genes
#14
Deepmala Sehgal, Susanne Dreisigacker, Savaş Belen, Ümran Küçüközdemir, Zafer Mert, Emel Özer, Alexey Morgounov
Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive 5-year (2009-2014) effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP), a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), led to the collection and documentation of around 2000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917186/expression-level-of-the-dreb2-type-gene-identified-with-amplifluor-snp-markers-correlates-with-performance-and-tolerance-to-dehydration-in-bread-wheat-cultivars-from-northern-kazakhstan
#15
Yuri Shavrukov, Aibek Zhumalin, Dauren Serikbay, Makpal Botayeva, Ainur Otemisova, Aiman Absattarova, Grigoriy Sereda, Sergey Sereda, Vladimir Shvidchenko, Arysgul Turbekova, Satyvaldy Jatayev, Sergiy Lopato, Kathleen Soole, Peter Langridge
A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group), which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917178/a-comparative-nitrogen-balance-and-productivity-analysis-of-legume-and-non-legume-supported-cropping-systems-the-potential-role-of-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#16
Pietro P M Iannetta, Mark Young, Johann Bachinger, Göran Bergkvist, Jordi Doltra, Rafael J Lopez-Bellido, Michele Monti, Valentini A Pappa, Moritz Reckling, Cairistiona F E Topp, Robin L Walker, Robert M Rees, Christine A Watson, Euan K James, Geoffrey R Squire, Graham S Begg
The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume-based agroecosystems...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917006/measuring-spatiotemporal-variation-in-snow-optical-grain-size-under-a-subalpine-forest-canopy-using-contact-spectroscopy
#17
Noah P Molotch, David M Barnard, Sean P Burns, Thomas H Painter
The distribution of forest cover exerts strong controls on the spatiotemporal distribution of snow accumulation and snowmelt. The physical processes that govern these controls are poorly understood given a lack of detailed measurements of snow states. In this study, we address one of many measurement gaps by using contact spectroscopy to measure snow optical grain size at high spatial resolution in trenches dug between tree boles in a subalpine forest. Trenches were collocated with continuous measurements of snow depth and vertical profiles of snow temperature and supplemented with manual measurements of snow temperature, geometric grain size, grain type, and density from trench walls...
September 2016: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916913/uniformly-porous-nanocrystalline-camgfe1-33ti%C3%A2-o12-ceramic-derived-electro-ceramic-nanocomposite-for-impedance-type-humidity-sensor
#18
Ashis Tripathy, Sumit Pramanik, Ayan Manna, Hanie Nadia Shasmin, Zamri Radzi, Noor Azuan Abu Osman
Since humidity sensors have been widely used in many sectors, a suitable humidity sensing material with improved sensitivity, faster response and recovery times, better stability and low hysteresis is necessary to be developed. Here, we fabricate a uniformly porous humidity sensor using Ca, Ti substituted Mg ferrites with chemical formula of CaMgFe1.33Ti₃O12 as humidity sensing materials by solid-sate step-sintering technique. This synthesis technique is useful to control the grain size with increased porosity to enhance the hydrophilic characteristics of the CaMgFe1...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#19
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916846/dehydropyrrolizidine-alkaloid-toxicity-cytotoxicity-and-carcinogenicity
#20
REVIEW
Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Ammon W Brown
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
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