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Dmitry Yu Usachov, Kirill A Bokai, Dmitry E Marchenko, Alexander V Fedorov, Viktor O Shevelev, Oleg Yu Vilkov, Elmar Yu Kataev, Lada V Yashina, Eckart Rühl, Clemens Laubschat, Denis V Vyalikh
Recrystallization of bulk materials is a well-known phenomenon, which is widely used in commercial manufacturing. However, for low-dimensional materials like graphene, this process still remains an unresolved puzzle. Thus, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the required conditions for recrystallization in low dimensions is essential for the elaboration of routes towards the inexpensive and reliable production of high-quality nanomaterials. Here, we unveil the details of the efficient recrystallization of one-atom-thick pure and boron-doped polycrystalline graphene layers on a Co(0001) surface...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Ivan Gutierrez-Urrutia, Cheng-Lin Li, Xin Ji, Satoshi Emura, Koichi Tsuchiya
We have performed quantitative analysis of {332}〈113〉 twinning in a β-Ti-15Mo (wt.%) alloy by in situ scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Microstructure-twinning relations were evaluated by statistical analysis of the evolving twin structure upon deformation at room temperature. Our analysis reveals that at the early stages of deformation ( ε < 1.5 to 2.0%), primary twinning is mainly determined by the applied macroscopic stress resolved on the twin system. Most of the primary twins (~70-80% of the analyzed twins) follow Schmid's law with respect to the macroscopic stress, and most of the growth twins (~ 85% of the analyzed twins) correspond to the higher stressed variant...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Jenny Fabian, Sanja Zlatanović, Michael Mutz, Hans-Peter Grossart, Robert van Geldern, Andreas Ulrich, Gerd Gleixner, Katrin Premke
In aquatic ecosystems, light availability can significantly influence microbial turnover of terrestrial organic matter through associated metabolic interactions between phototrophic and heterotrophic communities. However, particularly in streams, microbial functions vary significantly with the structure of the streambed, that is the distribution and spatial arrangement of sediment grains in the streambed. It is therefore essential to elucidate how environmental factors synergistically define the microbial turnover of terrestrial organic matter in order to better understand the ecological role of photo-heterotrophic interactions in stream ecosystem processes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shiyong Song, Ying Chen, Lu Liu, Yen How Benjamin See, Chuanzao Mao, Yinbo Gan, Hao Yu
Anther dehiscence determines successful sexual reproduction of flowering plants through timely release of pollen grains for pollination and fertilization. Downregulation of auxin levels during pollen mitosis is essential for promoting anther dehiscence along with pollen maturation. How this key transition of auxin levels is regulated in male organs remains elusive. Here, we report that the rice FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 7 is highly expressed in anthers before pollen mitotic divisions and facilitates nuclear translocation of a homeodomain transcription factor, Oryza sativa homeobox 1, which directly suppresses a predominant auxin biosynthetic gene, OsYUCCA4, during the late development of anthers...
June 18, 2018: Nature Plants
Manzoor H Dar, Najam W Zaidi, Showkat A Waza, Satish B Verulkar, T Ahmed, P K Singh, S K Bardhan Roy, Bedanand Chaudhary, Rambaran Yadav, Mirza Mofazzal Islam, Khandakar M Iftekharuddaula, J K Roy, R M Kathiresan, B N Singh, Uma S Singh, Abdelbagi M Ismail
Flooding is one of the major constraints for rice production in rainfed lowlands, especially in years and areas of high rainfall. Incorporating the Sub1 (Submergence1) gene into high yielding popular varieties has proven to be the most feasible approach to sustain rice production in submergence-prone areas. Introgression of this QTL into popular varieties has resulted in considerable improvement in yield after flooding. However, its impact under non-flooded conditions or years have not been thoroughly evaluated which is important for the farmers to accept and adopt any new version of their popular varieties...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ning Zhang, Hong Yu, Hao Yu, Yueyue Cai, Linzhou Huang, Cao Xu, Guosheng Xiong, Xiangbing Meng, Jiyao Wang, Haofeng Chen, Guifu Liu, Yanhui Jing, Yundong Yuan, Yan Liang, Shujia Li, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li, Yonghong Wang
Tiller angle in cereals is a key shoot architecture trait that strongly influences grain yield. Studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.) have implicated shoot gravitropism in the regulation of tiller angle. However, the functional link between shoot gravitropism and tiller angle is unknown. Here, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis of rice shoots in response to gravistimulation and identified two new nodes of a shoot gravitropism regulatory gene network that also controls rice tiller angle. We demonstrate that HEAT STRESS TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 2D (HSFA2D) is an upstream positive regulator of the LAZY1-mediated asymmetric auxin distribution pathway...
June 18, 2018: Plant Cell
François A Lavergne, Arran Curran, Dirk G A L Aarts, Roel P A Dullens
The formation and kinetics of grain boundaries are closely related to the topological constraints imposed on their complex dislocation structure. Loop-shaped grain boundaries are unique structures to establish such a link because their overall topological "charge" is zero due to their null net Burgers vector. Here, we observe that a local rotational deformation of a 2D colloidal crystal with an optical vortex results in a grain boundary loop only if the product of its radius and misorientation exceeds a critical value...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marta Ghio, Karolin Haegert, Matilde M Vaghi, Marco Tettamanti
We rarely use abstract and concrete concepts in isolation but rather embedded within a linguistic context. To examine the modulatory impact of the linguistic context on conceptual processing, we isolated the case of sentential negation polarity, in which an interaction occurs between the syntactic operator not and conceptual information in the negation's scope. Previous studies suggested that sentential negation of concrete action-related concepts modulates activation in the fronto-parieto-temporal action representation network...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sigridur Jonsdottir, Sara Bjork Stefansdottir, Sæmundur Bjarni Kristinarson, Vilhjalmur Svansson, Jon Mar Bjornsson, Arna Runarsdottir, Bettina Wagner, Eliane Marti, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdottir
Insect bite hypersensitivity is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides midges. Sufficient amount of pure, endotoxin-free allergens is a prerequisite for development and monitoring of preventive and therapeutic allergen immunotherapy. Aims of the study were to compare the Culicoides nubeculosus (Cul n) allergens Cul n 3 and Cul n 4, produced in transgenic barley grains with the corresponding E. coli or insect cells expressed proteins for measuring antibody and cytokine responses. Allergen-specific IgG responses were measured by ELISA in sera from twelve horses not exposed to Culicoides, before and after vaccination with E...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Liangkui Li, Georg Lietz, Wendy Bal, Anthony Watson, Ben Morfey, Chris Seal
A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in whole grains are linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality. Quinoa, a pseudo-cereal, is included in the &ldquo;whole grain&rdquo; category but the effects of quinoa consumption in humans is not widely studied. Our aim was to undertake a dietary intervention study to investigate the effects of daily consumption of quinoa-enriched bread (providing 20 g quinoa flour) on CVD risk markers compared with a 100% refined wheat bread control...
June 16, 2018: Nutrients
Zhenhua Wang, Yong Wang, Chengming Wang
Precipitation occurs easily during the hot forming of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steels, which reduces their hot ductility significantly. The effect of grain size on the hot ductility of high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel in the presence of precipitates was investigated. Different grain sizes of 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens, with and without precipitates, were hot-tension tested. The precipitate morphology, fracture surface, and cracks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis...
June 15, 2018: Materials
Ruicheng Feng, Wenyuan Song, Haiyan Li, Yongnian Qi, Haiyang Qiao, Longlong Li
In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the annealing process of &gamma;-TiAl alloy with different parameters after introducing residual stress into prepressing. By mainly focusing on the dynamic evolution process of microdefects during annealing and the distribution of residual stress, the relationship between microstructure and residual stress is investigated. The results show that there is no phase transition during annealing, but atom distortion occurs with the change of temperature, and the average grain size slightly increases after annealing...
June 15, 2018: Materials
Zhaoling Li, Hasi Bagan, Yoshiki Yamagata
Land use has changed dramatically in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region because of rapid economic growth and human disturbances. However, little information is available about the medium- and long-term land use changes in this region. The effects of ecological recovery policies have also been evaluated rarely. In this study, we employed the self-organizing map neural network method to identify the land cover changes in Inner Mongolia between 2000 and 2014. MOD13Q1, Landsat, and DMSP/OLS night-time light data were used as the data resources...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pankajini Mallick, Pranav Shah, Michael M Ittmann, Meghna Trivedi, Ming Hu, Song Gao, Romi Ghose
Irinotecan is highly effective in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer as well as many other cancers. However, irinotecan is known to cause severe diarrhea, which pose significant problems in patients undergoing irinotecan based chemotherapy. Dietary and herbal components have shown promise in improving gastrointestinal health. Therefore, we compared the effect of grain-based chow diet containing phytoestrogens and corn/alfalfa as fat source to purified diets containing either animal-derived fat source (lard) or plant-derived fat source (soybean oil) on irinotecan-induced toxicities in mice...
June 15, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yuji Sakai, Atsushi Mochizuki, Kazuhisa Kinoshita, Tatsuya Hirano, Masashi Tachikawa
The mechanistic details underlying the assembly of rod-shaped chromosomes during mitosis and how they segregate from each other to act as individually mobile units remain largely unknown. Here, we construct a coarse-grained physical model of chromosomal DNA and condensins, a class of large protein complexes that plays key roles in these processes. We assume that condensins have two molecular activities: consecutive loop formation in DNA and inter-condensin attractions. Our simulation demonstrates that both of these activities and their balancing acts are essential for the efficient shaping and segregation of mitotic chromosomes...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Geoffrey Ssepuuya, Christof Van Poucke, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Catherine Mulholland, Angelika Tritscher, Philippe Verger, Mary Kenny, Catherine Bessy, Sarah De Saeger
This research aimed at evaluating the safety, and the type, level and prevalence of mycotoxins in grain sorghum of four sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Mali and Sudan). A multi-analyte LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 23 mycotoxins (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, neosolaniol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, roquefortine C, HT-2 toxin, alternariol, T-2 toxin, FB1, FB2, FB3, zearalenone, aflatoxin G1 , aflatoxin G2 , aflatoxin B1 , aflatoxin B2 , sterigmatocystin, OTA, altenuene, alternariol monomethylether) was applied to different sorghum matrices...
June 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Atef M Saleem, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Wenzhu Z Yang, Tao Ran, Karen A Beauchemin, Emma J McGeough, Kim H Ominski, Erasmus K Okine, Tim A McAllister
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding engineered biocarbon to a high-forage diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and enteric methane (CH4) production in a semi-continuous culture artificial rumen system (RUSITEC). The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four treatments assigned to sixteen fermentation vessels (four/treatment) in two RUSITEC apparatuses. The basal diet consisted of 60% barley silage, 27% barley grain, 10% canola meal, and 3% supplement (DM basis) with biocarbon added at 0, 0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A Straumfors, W Eduard, K K Heldal, M Skogstad, L Barregård, D G Ellingsen
PURPOSE: To investigate if blood biomarkers could indicate early signs of lung damage or cardiovascular risk due to exposure to grain dust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pneumoproteins and markers of inflammation and platelet activation were analyzed in blood samples of 102 grain elevator and compound feed mill workers. Differences between exposed (n = 67) and controls (n = 35), and associations with exposure measurements and respiratory health were investigated by multiple linear regression analyses...
June 18, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Colin M MacRae, Anthony E Hughes, James S Laird, A M Glenn, Nicholas C Wilson, Aaron Torpy, Mark A Gibson, Xiaorong Zhou, Nick Birbilis, George E Thompson
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al-Cu-Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn...
June 18, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Hossein Farhadnejad, Farshad Teymoori, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate that the risk for diabetes associated with high consumption of potato differs in various populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between total, boiled and fried potato intake and the risk for incident diabetes in Tehranian adults. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in 1,981 adults, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6 years. Usual dietary potato intakes were assessed using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire...
February 26, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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