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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241130/calculation-of-thallium-s-toxicity-coefficient-in-the-evaluation-of-potential-ecological-risk-index-a-case-study
#1
Yongxia Liu, Qian Wang, Wen Zhuang, Yanli Yuan, Yani Yuan, Keqin Jiao, Mantang Wang, Qing Chen
As a common pollutive metal element, Tl is very biotoxic. The potential ecological risk index (RI) proposed by Håkanson is one of the commonest methods for evaluation of ecological risk of a metal in sedimentary environment of a water body. According to the calculation principle proposed by Håkanson, the toxicity coefficient of Tl was calculated, and determined as 10 in this paper. In addition, the environmental risk of Tl in the surface sediment of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Zaozhuang Section) was evaluated by RI method, enrichment factor method, etc...
December 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240782/conservation-and-divergence-of-starch-synthase-iii-genes-of-monocots-and-dicots
#2
Bhavya Priyadarshini Mishra, Rajeev Kumar, Amita Mohan, Kulvinder S Gill
Starch Synthase (SS) plays an important role in extending the α-1,4 glucan chains during starch biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of the glucosyl moiety from ADP-glucose to the non-reducing end of a pre-existing glucan chain. SS has five distinct isoforms of which SSIII is involved in the formation of longer glucan chain length. Here we report identification and detailed characterization of 'true' orthologs of the well-characterized maize SSIII (ZmSSIII), among six monocots and two dicot species. ZmSSIII orthologs have nucleotide sequence similarity ranging from 56-81%...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240762/rethinking-3r-strategies-digging-deeper-into-animaltestinfo-promotes-transparency-in-in-vivo-biomedical-research
#3
Bettina Bert, Antje Dörendahl, Nora Leich, Julia Vietze, Matthias Steinfath, Justyna Chmielewska, Andreas Hensel, Barbara Grune, Gilbert Schönfelder
In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240429/stabilizing-nanocrystalline-oxide-nanofibers-at-elevated-temperatures-by-coating-nanoscale-surface-amorphous-films
#4
Lei Yao, Wei Pan, Jian Luo, Xiaohui Zhao, Jing Cheng, Hiroki Nishijima
Nanocrystalline materials often exhibit extraordinary mechanical and physical properties, but their applications at elevated temperatures are impaired by the rapid grain growth. Moreover, the grain growth in nanocrystalline oxide nanofibers at high temperatures can occur at hundreds of degrees lower than that would occur in corresponding bulk nanocrystalline materials, which would eventually break the fibers. Herein, by characterizing a model system of scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) using hot-stage in-situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we discover that the enhanced grain growth in nanofibers is initiated at the surface...
December 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240421/photochemistry-of-fe-h2o-adducts-in-argon-matrices-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-study-in-the-mid-ir-and-uv-visible-regions
#5
Vincent Deguin, Joëlle Mascetti, Aude Simon, Nadia Ben Amor, Christian Aupetit, Sandra Latournerie, Jennifer Anna Noble
The photochemistry of Fe:H2O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H2O to H2, while in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterisation of binary systems of atomic iron with H2O in cryogenic argon matrices. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240311/systemic-changes-in-photosynthesis-and-ros-homeostasis-in-shoots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-infected-with-beet-cyst-nematode-heterodera-schachtii
#6
Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Weronika Czarnocka, Mirosław Sobczak, Jolanta Maria Dzik
Photosynthetic efficiency and redox homeostasis are important for plant physiological processes during regular development as well as defence responses. The second-stage juveniles of the Heterodera schachtii, induce syncytial feeding sites in host roots. To ascertain whether development of the syncytia alters photosynthesis and metabolism of ROS, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and antioxidant responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots at the day of inoculation and at 3, 7 and 15 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240151/wavefront-sensing-with-a-thin-diffuser
#7
Pascal Berto, Hervé Rigneault, Marc Guillon
We propose and implement a broadband, compact, and low-cost wavefront sensing scheme by simply placing a thin diffuser in the close vicinity of a camera. The local wavefront gradient is determined from the local translation of the speckle pattern. The translation vector map is computed thanks to a fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm and integrated to reconstruct the wavefront profile. The simple translation of speckle grains under local wavefront tip/tilt is ensured by the so-called "memory effect" of the diffuser...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239423/two-step-synthesis-and-characterization-of-vertically-stacked-sns-ws2-and-sns-mos2-p-n-heterojunctions
#8
Adha Sukma Aji, Masanori Izumoto, Kenshiro Suenaga, Keisuke Yamamoto, Hiroshi Nakashima, Hiroki Ago
We demonstrate the synthesis of unique heterostructures consisting of SnS and WS2 (or SnS and MoS2) by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD). After the first CVD growth of triangular WS2 (MoS2) grains, the second CVD step was performed to grow square SnS grains on the same substrate. We found that these SnS grains can be grown at very low temperature with the substrate temperature of 200 °C. Most of the SnS grains nucleated from the side edges of WS2 (MoS2) grains, resulting in the formation of partly stacked heterostructures with a large overlapping area...
December 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239176/development-of-betalain-producing-callus-lines-from-colored-quinoa-varieties-chenopodium-quinoa-willd
#9
Paula Henarejos-Escudero, Berenice Guadarrama-Flores, M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Francisco García-Carmona, Fernando Gandía-Herrero
Betalains are water soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodim quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239067/optical-and-mechanical-properties-of-newly-developed-monolithic-multilayer-zirconia
#10
Shaymaa E Elsaka
PURPOSE: To evaluate the optical and mechanical properties of newly introduced monolithic multilayer zirconia with two types of monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three brands of monolithic zirconia were used in this study: Ceramill Zolid FX Multilayer (CZF), Prettau Anterior (PA), and Zenostar T (ZT). Translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio (CR), flexural strength, fracture toughness, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were assessed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239025/fine-structure-of-conformational-ensembles-in-adenylate-kinase
#11
Yujing Wang, Lee Makowski
Adenylate kinase (ADK) catalyzes the reversible Mg2+ -dependent phosphoryl transfer reaction Mg2+ +2ADP ↔Mg2+ +ATP + AMP in essential cellular systems. This reaction is a major player in cellular energy homeostasis and the isoform network of ADK plays an important role in AMP metabolic signaling circuits. ADK has three domains, the LID, NMP and CORE domains, that undergo large conformational rearrangements during ADK's catalytic cycle. In spite of extensive experimental and computational studies, details of the conformational pathway from open to closed forms remain uncertain...
December 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238541/how-beta-diversity-and-the-underlying-causes-vary-with-sampling-scales-in-the-changbai-mountain-forests
#12
Lingzhao Tan, Chunyu Fan, Chunyu Zhang, Klaus von Gadow, Xiuhua Fan
This study aims to establish a relationship between the sampling scale and tree species beta diversity temperate forests and to identify the underlying causes of beta diversity at different sampling scales. The data were obtained from three large observational study areas in the Changbai mountain region in northeastern China. All trees with a dbh ≥1 cm were stem-mapped and measured. The beta diversity was calculated for four different grain sizes, and the associated variances were partitioned into components explained by environmental and spatial variables to determine the contributions of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation to beta diversity...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238358/characterization-of-the-wheat-leaf-metabolome-during-grain-filling-and-under-varied-n-supply
#13
Elmien Heyneke, Mutsumi Watanabe, Alexander Erban, Guangyou Duan, Peter Buchner, Dirk Walther, Joachim Kopka, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Rainer Hoefgen
Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238352/overexpression-of-erf1-v-from-haynaldia-villosa-can-enhance-the-resistance-of-wheat-to-powdery-mildew-and-increase-the-tolerance-to-salt-and-drought-stresses
#14
Liping Xing, Zhaocan Di, Wenwu Yang, Jiaqian Liu, Meina Li, Xiaojuan Wang, Chaofan Cui, Xiaoyun Wang, Xiue Wang, Ruiqi Zhang, Jin Xiao, Aizhong Cao
The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14), a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237548/dietary-patterns-and-the-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-among-jordanians-a-case-control-study
#15
R F Tayyem, A E Al-Shudifat, A Johannessen, H A Bawadi, S S AbuMweis, L M Agraib, S S Allhedan, I Haj-Husein, M Azab
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be significant risk factors in the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD). The contribution degree of these dietary risk factors in CHD development in non-westernized countries is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate several dietary choices and their potential association with CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was conducted at Prince Hamza Hospital, a referral center for coronary angiography in Amman, Jordan...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237454/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-middle-aged-adults-in-zhejiang-province-china
#16
Long Shu, Xiao-Ming Shen, Chun Li, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Pei-Fen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have shown the associations between dietary patterns and the risk T2DM in a general population, the associations in middle-aged Chinese have been rarely studied to date. In this study, we aimed to characterize dietary patterns in Chinese adults aged 45-59y (n = 1918) and to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of T2DM. METHODS: The study population was a part of the population-based the Nutrition and Health Study conducted in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China...
December 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237334/the-association-between-cognitive-performance-and-speech-in-noise-perception-for-adult-listeners-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Adam Dryden, Harriet A Allen, Helen Henshaw, Antje Heinrich
Published studies assessing the association between cognitive performance and speech-in-noise (SiN) perception examine different aspects of each, test different listeners, and often report quite variable associations. By examining the published evidence base using a systematic approach, we aim to identify robust patterns across studies and highlight any remaining gaps in knowledge. We limit our assessment to adult unaided listeners with audiometric profiles ranging from normal hearing to moderate hearing loss...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237070/rolling-circle-amplification-shows-a-sinusoidal-template-length-dependent-amplification-bias
#18
Bastian Joffroy, Yavuz O Uca, Domen Prešern, Jonathan P K Doye, Thorsten L Schmidt
Biophysical properties of DNA such as its longitudinal and torsional persistence length govern many processes and phenomena in biology, DNA nanotechnology and biotechnology. It has, for example, long been known that the circularization efficiency of short DNA fragments shows a periodic pattern where fragments with integer helical turns circularize much more efficiently than those with odd helical half turns due to stronger stacking of duplex ends. Small DNA circles can serve as templates for rolling circle amplification (RCA), which is a common and extremely robust amplification mechanism for nucleic acids...
December 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236874/physiological-response-and-productivity-of-safflower-lines-under-water-deficit-and-rehydration
#19
Fernanda P A P Bortolheiro, Marcelo A Silva
Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236853/pollen-morphology-and-viability-in-bromeliaceae
#20
Everton H Souza, Fernanda V D Souza, Mônica L Rossi, Renan M Packer, Maria Amelia V Cruz-Barros, Adriana P Martinelli
Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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