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Aleurone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647924/comparative-expression-analysis-of-rice-and-arabidopsis-peroxiredoxin-genes-suggests-conserved-or-diversified-roles-between-the-two-species-and-leads-to-the-identification-of-tandemly-duplicated-rice-peroxiredoxin-genes-differentially-expressed-in-seeds
#1
Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ruyl Kim, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) have recently been identified as plant antioxidants. Completion of various genome sequencing projects has provided genome-wide information about PRX genes in major plant species. Two of these -- Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis -- each have 10 PRX members. Although significant progress has been made in understanding their biological roles in Arabidopsis, those functions in rice, a model crop plant, have not been well studied. RESULTS: We performed a comparative expression analysis of rice and Arabidopsis PRXs...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#2
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630499/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-coding-and-long-noncoding-transcripts-during-maize-endosperm-development
#3
Eun-Deok Kim, Yuqing Xiong, Youngjae Pyo, Dong-Hwan Kim, Byung-Ho Kang, Sibum Sung
The maize endosperm consists of three major compartmentalized cell types: the starchy endosperm (SE), the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL), and the aleurone cell layer (AL). Differential genetic programs are activated in each cell type to construct functionally and structurally distinct cells. To compare gene expression patterns involved in maize endosperm cell differentiation, we isolated transcripts from cryo-dissected endosperm specimens enriched with BETL, AL, or SE at 8, 12, and 16 days after pollination (DAP)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626890/transcriptomic-analysis-of-rice-aleurone-cells-identified-a-novel-abscisic-acid-response-element
#4
Kenneth A Watanabe, Arielle Homayouni, Lingkun Gu, Kuan-Ying Huang, Tuan-Hua David Ho, Qingxi J Shen
Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signaling. However, its consensus sequence, (ACGTG(G/T)C), is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA-sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function...
June 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626590/antiglycemic-effect-of-water-extractable-arabinoxylan-from-wheat-aleurone-and-bran
#5
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, Trust Beta
The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622601/immobilisation-of-barley-aleurone-layers-enables-parallelisation-of-assays-and-analysis-of-transient-gene-expression-in-single-cells
#6
Kinga Zór, Christina Mark, Arto Heiskanen, Claus Krogh Madsen, Martin Dufva, Jenny Emnéus, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Christine Finnie
The barley aleurone layer is an established model system for studying phytohormone signalling, enzyme secretion and programmed cell death during seed germination. Most analyses performed on the aleurone layer are end-point assays based on cell extracts, meaning each sample is only analysed at a single time point. By immobilising barley aleurone layer tissue on polydimethylsiloxane pillars in the lid of a multiwell plate, continuous monitoring of living tissue is enabled using multiple non-destructive assays in parallel...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585692/osgcd1-is-essential-for-rice-fertility-and-required-for-embryo-dorsal-ventral-pattern-formation-and-endosperm-development
#7
Xiaorong Huang, Xiongbo Peng, Meng-Xiang Sun
Rice fertility is critical for rice reproduction and is thus a focus of interest. Most studies have addressed male sterility and its relation to rice production. The mechanisms of regulation of embryogenesis and endosperm development are essential for rice reproduction, but remain largely unknown. Here, we report a functional analysis of the rice gene OsGCD1, which encodes a highly conserved homolog of Arabidopsis GCD1 (GAMETE CELLS DEFECTIVE1). OsGCD1 mutants were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and subjected to functional analysis...
June 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558686/global-identification-structural-analysis-and-expression-characterization-of-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-wheat
#8
Xiao-Jiang Guo, Ji-Rui Wang
BACKGROUND: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs), which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms, play crucial roles in plant development. However, no comprehensive analysis of the bHLH family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been undertaken previously. RESULTS: In this study, 225 bHLH TFs predicted from wheat using genomic and RNA sequencing data were subjected to identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motif characterization, chromosomal distribution determination and expression pattern analysis...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527335/dissection-of-cis-regulatory-element-architecture-of-the-rice-oleosin-gene-promoters-to-assess-abscisic-acid-responsiveness-in-suspension-cultured-rice-cells
#9
Sol Kim, Soo-Bin Lee, Chae-Seong Han, Mi-Na Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, In Sun Yoon, Yong-Sic Hwang
Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509349/isolation-of-tissues-and-preservation-of-rna-from-intact-germinated-barley-grain
#10
Natalie S Betts, Oliver Berkowitz, Ruijie Liu, Helen M Collins, Birgitte Skadhauge, Christoph Dockter, Rachel A Burton, James Whelan, Geoffrey B Fincher
Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450877/responses-to-hypoxia-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-discriminate-the-development-of-vitreous-and-floury-endosperms-of-conventional-maize-zea-mays-inbred-lines
#11
Mathieu Gayral, Khalil Elmorjani, Michèle Dalgalarrondo, Sandrine M Balzergue, Stéphanie Pateyron, Marie-Hélène Morel, Sylvie Brunet, Laurent Linossier, Caroline Delluc, Bénédicte Bakan, Didier Marion
Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize (Zea mays) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450015/a-comparative-study-of-anthocyanin-distribution-in-purple-and-blue-corn-coproducts-from-three-conventional-fractionation-processes
#12
Qian Li, Pavel Somavat, Vijay Singh, Laura Chatham, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
The aim was to compare the distribution of ANCs in purple and blue corn coproducts from three conventional corn fractionation processes and linking ANC partitioning in different coproducts to corn kernel phenotype. Total monomeric anthocyanin (TA) from purple corn extract was 4933.1±43.4mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent per kg dry corn, 10 times more than blue corn. In dry milled purple corn, maximum ANCs were present in the pericarp (45.9% of total ANCs) and in wet-milling they were concentrated in steeping water (79...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446022/survey-of-anthocyanin-composition-and-concentration-in-diverse-maize-germplasms
#13
Michael Paulsmeyer, Laura Chatham, Talon Becker, Megan West, Leslie West, John Juvik
Increasing consumer demand for natural ingredients in foods and beverages justifies investigations into more economic sources of natural colorants. In this study, 398 genetically diverse pigmented accessions of maize were analyzed using HPLC to characterize the diversity of anthocyanin composition and concentration in maize germplasm. One hundred and sixty-seven accessions were identified that could produce anthocyanins in the kernel pericarp or aleurone and were classified into compositional categories. Anthocyanin content was highest in pericarp-pigmented accessions with flavanol-anthocyanin condensed forms, similar to the Andean Maı́z Morado landraces...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#14
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#15
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383251/fate-and-transformation-of-cuo-nanoparticles-in-the-soil-rice-system-during-the-life-cycle-of-rice-plants
#16
Cheng Peng, Chen Xu, Qinglin Liu, Lijuan Sun, Yongming Luo, Jiyan Shi
Agricultural soil is gradually becoming a primary sink for metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs). The uptake and accumulation of MNPs by crops may contaminate food chain and pose unexpected risks for human health. Here, we investigated the fate and transformation of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in the soil-rice system during the rice lifecycle. The results show that at the maturation stage, 1000 mg/kg CuO NPs significantly decreased redox potential by 202.75 mV but enhanced electrical conductivity by 497.07 mS/cm compared to controls...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215318/dietary-corn-fractions-reduce-atherogenesis-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-knockout-mice
#17
Kabo Masisi, Khuong Le, Nora Ghazzawi, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Trust Beta
Accumulating evidence has suggested that intake of whole grains is a protective factor against pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The exact mechanisms, however, are still not clearly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that adequate intake of corn fractions (aleurone, endosperm and germ) can modify lipid profiles in relation to atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of corn fractions in LDLr-KO mice through a number of biomarkers including lipid profile, and morphologic and morphometrical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188274/spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-key-lipid-species-in-brassica-napus-seeds
#18
Helen K Woodfield, Drew Sturtevant, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Eberhard Munz, Irina A Guschina, Kent Chapman, John L Harwood
The regulation of lipid synthesis in oil seeds is still not fully understood. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is the third most productive vegetable oil crop on the global market; therefore, increasing our understanding of lipid accumulation in oilseed rape seeds is of great economic, as well as intellectual, importance. Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that allows the mapping of metabolites directly onto intact biological tissues, giving a spatial context to metabolism...
April 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166627/rapid-and-nondestructive-determination-of-aleurone-content-in-pearling-fractions-of-barley-by-near-infrared-nir-and-fluorescence-spectroscopies
#19
Jens Petter Wold, Diego Airado-Rodríguez, Ann-Katrin Holtekjølen, Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Stefan Sahlstrøm
The aim of the present work was to develop and evaluate near-infrared (NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies as rapid and potential online methods for determination of the amount of aleurone in pearling dust fractions of barley. Phytic acid was used as a marker for the aleurone layer. Different varieties of barley were pearled, and dust fractions were progressively taken out. Sample concentration of phytic acid varied in the range of 0.5-4.1 g/100 g, and highest concentrations were obtained in dust fractions for pearling degrees in the range of 15-25%...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150142/genome-wide-exploration-of-metal-tolerance-protein-mtp-genes-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-insights-into-metal-homeostasis-and-biofortification
#20
Recep Vatansever, Ertugrul Filiz, Seckin Eroglu
Metal transport process in plants is a determinant of quality and quantity of the harvest. Although it is among the most important of staple crops, knowledge about genes that encode for membrane-bound metal transporters is scarce in wheat. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are involved in trace metal homeostasis at the sub-cellular level, usually by providing metal efflux out of the cytosol. Here, by using various bioinformatics approaches, genes that encode for MTPs in the hexaploid wheat genome (Triticum aestivum, abbreviated as Ta) were identified and characterized...
February 1, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
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