keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Aleurone

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892900/imprinted-gene-expression-in-maize-starchy-endosperm-and-aleurone-tissues-of-reciprocal-f1-hybrids-at-a-defined-developmental-stage
#1
Meishan Zhang, Ruili Lv, Wei Yang, Tiansi Fu, Bao Liu
Imprinted gene expression in flowering plants predominantly occurs in the triploid endosperm of developing seed. However, endosperm is composed of distinct tissue types. For example, the maize (Zea mays) endosperm is constituted by two major tissues, starchy endosperm and aleurone. Previous studies in imprinted gene expression have generally assumed that the different tissues constituting endosperm would behavior the same, and hence have not examined them separately. Here, to examine parental-specific expression of imprinted genes in different parts of the seed, eight previously reported maize protein-coding imprinted genes were selected, and analyzed by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) coupled with Sanger sequencing for transcripts from the various seed tissues collected at 18 days after pollination (DAP)...
January 2018: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789885/instability-of-endosperm-development-in-amphiploids-and-their-parental-species-in-the-genus-avena-l
#2
Paulina Tomaszewska, Romuald Kosina
The development of oat endosperm is modified by chromatin and nuclei elimination, intrusive growth of cell walls, and polyploidisation of cell clones. The last event is correlated with somatic crossing-over. Grass endosperm is a variable tissue in terms of its cytogenetics and development. Free-nuclear syncytium and starchy and aleurone endosperm were the main focus of the research. These were studied in oat amphiploids (4x, 6x, and 8x) and parental species (2x, 4x, and 6x). What the levels of cytogenetic disorders and developmental anomalies in species versus hybrids are, and, what the factors are determining phenotypes of both tissue components, are open questions for oats...
May 22, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740423/a-histological-study-of-aspergillus-flavus-colonization-of-wound-inoculated-maize-kernels-of-resistant-and-susceptible-maize-hybrids-in-the-field
#3
Gary L Windham, William P Williams, J E Mylroie, Cedric X Reid, Erika D Womack
Aspergillus flavus colonization in developing kernels of maize single-cross hybrids resistant (Mp313E × Mp717) and susceptible (GA209 × T173) to aflatoxin accumulation was determined in the field over three growing seasons (2012-2014). Plants were hand pollinated, and individual kernels were inoculated with a needle dipped in a suspension of A. flavus conidia 21 days after pollination. Kernels were harvested at 1- to 2-day intervals from 1 to 21 days after inoculation (DAI). Kernels were placed in FAA fixative, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with toluidine blue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734523/targeting-intra-cellular-transport-combined-with-efficient-uptake-and-storage-significantly-increases-grain-iron-and-zinc-levels-in-rice
#4
Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Rice, a staple food for more than half of the world population, is an important target for iron and zinc biofortification. Current strategies mainly focus on the expression of genes for efficient uptake, long-distance transport and storage. Targeting intracellular iron mobilization to increase grain iron levels has not been reported. Vacuole is an important cell compartment for iron storage and the NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGE PROTEIN (NRAMP) family of transporters export iron from vacuoles to cytosol when needed...
May 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671758/anthocyanin-composition-and-content-in-rye-plants-with-different-grain-color
#5
Pavel A Zykin, Elena A Andreeva, Anna N Lykholay, Natalia V Tsvetkova, Anatoly V Voylokov
The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6) lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C) and pericarp (gene Vs) also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples...
April 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660003/temperature-and-nitrogen-supply-interact-to-determine-protein-distribution-gradients-in-the-wheat-grain-endosperm
#6
George P Savill, Adam Michalski, Stephen J Powers, Yongfang Wan, Paola Tosi, Peter Buchner, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Gradients exist in the distribution of storage proteins in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm and determine the milling properties and protein recovery rate of the grain. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify both the gradients in protein concentration, and the size distribution of protein bodies within the endosperm of wheat plants grown under two different (20 or 28 °C) post-anthesis temperatures, and supplied with a nutrient solution with either high or low nitrogen content. Under all treatment combinations, protein concentration was greater in the endosperm cells closest to the aleurone layer and decreased towards the centre of the two lobes of the grain, i...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658925/measuring-gene-expression-in-bombarded-barley-aleurone-layers-with-increased-throughput
#7
Grace Uwase, Taylor P Enrico, David S Chelimo, Benjamin R Keyser, Russell R Johnson
The aleurone layer of barley grains is an important model system for hormone-regulated gene expression in plants. In aleurone cells, genes required for germination or early seedling development are activated by gibberellin (GA), while genes associated with stress responses are activated by abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms of GA and ABA signaling can be interrogated by introducing reporter gene constructs into aleurone cells via particle bombardment, with the resulting transient expression measured using enzyme assays...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610577/profiling-and-quantification-of-grain-anthocyanins-in-purple-pericarp-%C3%A3-blue-aleurone-wheat-crosses-by-high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography-and-densitometry
#8
Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua Timotheus Oberlerchner, Christina Fuchs, Thomas Rosenau, Heinrich Grausgruber
Background: Anthocyanins are abundant secondary metabolites responsible for most blue to blue-black, and red to purple colors of various plant organs. In wheat grains, anthocyanins are accumulated in the pericarp and/or aleurone layer. Anthocyanin pigmented wheat grains can be processed into functional foods with potential health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of the anthocyanins. The grain anthocyanin content can be increased by pyramidizing the different genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanins in the different grain layers...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593765/zinc-and-iron-concentration-as-affected-by-nitrogen-fertilization-and-their-localization-in-wheat-grain
#9
Bal R Singh, Yadu N Timsina, Ole C Lind, Simone Cagno, Koen Janssens
Nearly half of the world cereal production comes from soils low or marginal in plant available zinc, leading to unsustainable and poor quality grain production. Therefore, the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and application time on zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in wheat grain were investigated. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum var. Krabat) was grown in a growth chamber with 8 and 16 h of day and night periods, respectively. The N rates were 29, 43, and 57 mg N kg-1 soil, equivalent to 80, 120, and 160 kg N ha-1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569870/novel-insights-into-pericarp-protein-body-globoids-of-aleurone-layer-starchy-granules-of-three-cereals-gained-using-atomic-force-microscopy-and-environmental-scanning-electronic-microscopy
#10
Elena Antonini, Carolina Zara, Laura Valentini, Pietro Gobbi, Paolino Ninfali, Michele Menotta
In this study, we applied Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis to three different cereal caryopses: barley, oat and einkorn wheat. The morphological structures, chemical elemental composition and surface characteristics of the three cereals were described. Regarding the morphology, barley showed the thickest pericarp, providing a strong barrier digestion and absorption of nutrients. The aleurone layer of each cereal type contained protein body globoids within its cells...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547863/effects-of-exogenous-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-on-%C3%AE-amylase-activity-in-the-aleurone-of-barley-seeds
#11
Yidi Sheng, Huiyuan Xiao, Chunli Guo, Hong Wu, Xiaojing Wang
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination...
March 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542137/characterizing-bread-wheat-genotypes-of-pakistani-origin-for-grain-zinc-biofortification-potential
#12
Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad Nawaz, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Khalid S Al-Hashmi, Faisal Nadeem, Aman Ullah
BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. RESULTS: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449858/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-contributes-to-heme-oxygenase-1-delaying-programmed-cell-death-in-isolated-aleurone-layers-of-rice-subjected-to-drought-stress-in-a-cgmp-dependent-manner
#13
Guanghui Wang, Yu Xiao, Xiaojiang Deng, Heting Zhang, Tingge Li, Huiping Chen
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H2 O2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H2 O2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H2 O2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H2 O2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416529/prebiotic-wheat-bran-fractions-induce-specific-microbiota-changes
#14
Kevin D'hoe, Lorenza Conterno, Francesca Fava, Gwen Falony, Sara Vieira-Silva, Joan Vermeiren, Kieran Tuohy, Jeroen Raes
Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397987/fingerprinting-and-characterization-of-anthocyanins-in-94-colored-wheat-varieties-and-blue-aleurone-and-purple-pericarp-wheat-crosses
#15
Stephanie Krüger, Gertrud E Morlock
Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393510/sweet11-and-15-as-key-players-in-seed-filling-in-rice
#16
Jungil Yang, Dangping Luo, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Joon-Seob Eom
Despite the relevance of seed-filling mechanisms for crop yield, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of the transport processes that supply the caryopsis with sugars. We hypothesized that SWEET sucrose transporters may play important roles in nutrient import pathways in the rice caryopsis. We used a combination of mRNA quantification, histochemical analyses, translational promoter-reporter fusions and analysis of knockout mutants created by genomic editing to evaluate the contribution of SWEET transporters to seed filling...
April 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387363/-in-situ-production-of-active-vitamin-b12-in-cereal-matrices-using-propionibacterium-freudenreichii
#17
Bhawani Chamlagain, Tessa A Sugito, Paulina Deptula, Minnamari Edelmann, Susanna Kariluoto, Pekka Varmanen, Vieno Piironen
The in situ production of active vitamin B12 was investigated in aqueous cereal-based matrices with three strains of food-grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii . Matrices prepared from malted barley flour (33% w/v; BM), barley flour (6%; BF), and wheat aleurone (15%; AM) were fermented. The effect of cobalt and the lower ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) or its natural precursors (riboflavin and nicotinamide) on active B12 production was evaluated. Active B12 production was confirmed by UHPLC-UV-MS analysis...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342075/enrichment-and-identification-of-the-most-abundant-zinc-binding-proteins-in-developing-barley-grains-by-zinc-imac-capture-and-nano-lc-ms-ms
#18
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247595/method-for-hull-less-barley-transformation-and-manipulation-of-grain-mixed-linkage-beta-glucan
#19
Wai Li Lim, Helen M Collins, Rohan R Singh, Natalie A J Kibble, Kuok Yap, Jillian Taylor, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however, recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited the use of these varieties. To overcome this limitation, we sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fiber component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily present in starchy endosperm cell walls...
May 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164348/delineation-of-inheritance-pattern-of-aleurone-layer-colour-through-chemical-tests-in-rice
#20
Chandu Singh, Sripathy K V, Jeevan Kumar S P, Bhojaraja Naik K, Govind Pal, Udaya Bhaskar K, Ramesh K V, Somasundaram G
BACKGROUND: Rice aleurone layer develops different colours with various chemical tests that may help to develop some rapid tests for identification/grouping of rice varieties. Understanding the colour inheritance pattern could enable to develop chemical clues that may help for genetic purity analysis along with grow-out-test. RESULTS: In this study, inheritance pattern of aleurone layer colour was studied in parents, F1 and F2 progenies derived from the crosses IR 36 × Acc...
November 21, 2017: Rice
keyword
keyword
49929
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"