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Zaheer Ahmed, Hui Yang, Yong-Bi Fu
Timely prediction of seed viability loss over long-term storage represents a challenge in management and conservation of ex situ plant genetic resources. However, little attention has been paid to study the process of seed deterioration and seed aging signals under storage. An attempt was made here to investigate morphological and molecular changes in the scutellum and aleurone sections of naturally or artificially aged wheat seeds using TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. Twelve wheat genotypes or samples exposed to natural ageing (NA) or accelerated ageing (AA) were assayed and these samples had germination rates ranging from 11 to 93%...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xin Qi, Shixue Li, Yaxi Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
To explore the function of Dof transcription factors during kernel development in maize, we first identified Dof genes in the maize genome. We found that ZmDof3 was exclusively expressed in the endosperm of maize kernel and had the features of a Dof transcription factor. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype with reduced starch content and a partially patchy aleurone layer. The expression levels of starch synthesis-related genes and aleurone differentiation-associated genes were down-regulated in ZmDof3 knockdown kernels, indicating that ZmDof3 plays an important role in maize endosperm development...
October 5, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Christina Mark, Kinga Zór, Arto Heiskanen, Martin Dufva, Jenny Emnéus, Christine Finnie
Redox regulation is important for numerous processes in plant cells including abiotic stress, pathogen defence, tissue development, seed germination and programmed cell death. However, there are few methods allowing redox homeostasis to be addressed in whole plant cells, providing insight into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Vasilios M E Andriotis, Martin Rejzek, Elaine Barclay, Michael D Rugen, Robert A Field, Alison M Smith
Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yanjiao Li, Maria Alonso-Peral, Gigi Wong, Ming-Bo Wang, Anthony A Millar
BACKGROUND: The microR159 (miR159) - GAMYB pathway is conserved in higher plants, where GAMYB, expression promotes programmed cell death in seeds (aleurone) and anthers (tapetum). In cereals, restriction of GAMYB expression to seeds and anthers is mainly achieved transcriptionally, whereas in Arabidopsis this is achieved post-transcriptionally, as miR159 silences GAMYB (MYB33 and MYB65) in vegetative tissues, but not in seeds and anthers. However, we cannot rule out a role for miR159-MYB33/65 pathway in Arabidopsis vegetative tissues; a loss-of-function mir159 Arabidopsis mutant displays strong pleiotropic defects and numerous reports have documented changes in miR159 abundance during stress and hormone treatments...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Fiona M Bryant, Olaya Munoz-Azcarate, Amélie A Kelly, Frédéric Beaudoin, Smita Kurup, Peter J Eastmond
Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3 We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
Xiaoba Wu, Jinxin Liu, Dongqi Li, Chun-Ming Liu
The rice endosperm plays crucial roles in nourishing the embryo during embryogenesis and seed germination. Although previous studies have provided the general information about rice endosperm, a systematic investigation throughout the entire endosperm developmental process is still lacking. In this study, we examined in detail rice endosperm development on a daily basis throughout the 30-day period of post-fertilization development. We observed that coenocytic nuclear division occurred in the first 2 days after pollination (DAP), cellularization occurred between 3 and 5 DAP, differentiation of the aleurone and starchy endosperm occurred between 6 and 9 DAP, and accumulation of storage products occurred concurrently with the aleurone/starchy endosperm differentiation from 6 DAP onwards and was accomplished by 21 DAP...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Zhiyong Li, Liqun Tang, Jiehua Qiu, Wen Zhang, Yifeng Wang, Xiaohong Tong, Xiangjin Wei, Yuxuan Hou, Jian Zhang
Serine carboxypeptidase (SCP) is one of the largest groups of enzymes catalyzing proteolysis for functional protein maturation. To date, little is known about the function of SCPs in rice. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene structure and expression profile of 59 rice SCPs. SCP46 is dominantly expressed in developing seeds, particularly in embryo, endosperm and aleurone layers, and could be induced by ABA. Functional characterization revealed that knock-down of SCP46 resulted in smaller grain size and enhanced seed germination...
2016: PloS One
Sergio N Daneri-Castro, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Friederike M Grosse-Holz, Renier A L van der Hoorn, Thomas H Roberts
During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase...
September 2016: FEBS Letters
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Trust Beta
Feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (F-AXOS) are a subject of interest because of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. We aimed at isolating and identifying F-AXOS from maize, wheat, wheat bran and wheat aleurone using HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Prior to extraction of F-AXOS, samples were subjected to either simulated gastric fluid with enzymes (gastric) or without enzymes (pH) or water (aqueous) at 37 °C. F-AXOS present in all samples were identified as 5-O-feruloyl-α-L- arabinofuranose and possibly 5-O-feruloyl-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-O-β-D-xylopyranose...
May 2016: Heliyon
Letizia Bresciani, Francesca Scazzina, Roberto Leonardi, Elisabetta Dall'Aglio, Michael Newell, Margherita Dall'Asta, Camilla Melegari, Sumantra Ray, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification...
June 7, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Isabel Ruiz-Ballesta, Guillermo Baena, Jacinto Gandullo, Liqun Wang, Yi-Min She, William Charles Plaxton, Cristina Echevarría
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaolong Huang, Zhanhua Lu, Xin Wang, Yidan Ouyang, Wei Chen, Koulong Xie, Dongying Wang, Min Luo, Jie Luo, Jialing Yao
Imprinted Polycomb group (PcG) genes play a critical role in seed development in Arabidopsis. However, the role of the imprinted gene in cereal plants remains obscure. Here, a transgenic approach was conducted to study the function of the imprinted gene Oryza sativa Fertilization-Independent Endosperm 1 (OsFIE1) during seed development in rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica 'ZhongHua11'). RNAi of OsFIE1 and homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant osfie1 led to smaller seeds, delayed embryo development, smaller aleurone layer cells, and decreased seed set rate...
August 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Peter Eck, Trust Beta
The effect of feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (FAXmo) on mammalian α-glucosidase and glucose transporters was investigated using human Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal acetone powder, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. The isolated FAXmo from wheat aleurone and corn bran were identified to have degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 1, respectively, by HPLC-MS. Both FAXmo extracts were effective inhibitors of sucrase and maltase functions of the α-glucosidase. The IC50 for FAXmo extracts on Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal α-glucosidase was 1...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Niels De Brier, Sara V Gomand, Erica Donner, David Paterson, Erik Smolders, Jan A Delcour, Enzo Lombi
Several studies have suggested that the majority of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in wheat grains are associated with phytate, but a nuanced approach to unravel important tissue-level variation in element speciation within the grain is lacking. Here, we present spatially resolved Fe-speciation data obtained directly from different grain tissues using the newly developed synchrotron-based technique of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging, coupling this with high-definition μ-X-ray fluorescence microscopy to map the co-localization of essential elements...
August 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Anne Katrine Bolvig, Herman Adlercreutz, Peter Kappel Theil, Henry Jørgensen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds ingested with whole grains and seeds and converted to enterolignans by the colonic microbiota. In the present study, we investigated absorption and metabolism of plant lignans and enterolignans in vivo after consumption of cereal-based diets. Six pigs fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and portal vein and with a flow probe attached to the portal vein along with twenty pigs for quantitative collection of urine were used for this study. The animals were fed bread based on wheat flour low in plant lignans and three lignan-rich breads based on whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour or rye aleurone flour...
May 28, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Bhanu Prakash Petla, Nitin Uttam Kamble, Meenu Kumar, Pooja Verma, Shraboni Ghosh, Ajeet Singh, Venkateswara Rao, Prafull Salvi, Harmeet Kaur, Saurabh Chandra Saxena, Manoj Majee
PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a protein-repairing enzyme involved in seed vigor and longevity. However, the regulation of PIMT isoforms during seed development and the mechanism of PIMT-mediated improvement of seed vigor and longevity are largely unknown. In this study in rice (Oryza sativa), we demonstrate the dynamics and correlation of isoaspartyl (isoAsp)-repairing demands and PIMT activity, and their implications, during seed development, germination and aging, through biochemical, molecular and genetic studies...
July 2016: New Phytologist
Vivian Adams, Sanaa Ragaee, El-Sayed M Abdel-Aal
BACKGROUN: DFrozen dough rheological characteristics are of great importance in bread making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg-(1) and 200 g kg-(1) arabinoxylan (AX) respectively were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg-(1) substitution level (composite A & B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at -18 °C for 9 weeks...
March 11, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Vito M Butardo, Nese Sreenivasulu
A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids...
2016: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Ramandeep Garg, Lorraine Brennan, Ruth K Price, Julie M W Wallace, J J Strain, Mike J Gibney, Peter R Shewry, Jane L Ward, Lalit Garg, Robert W Welch
Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions...
February 2016: Nutrients
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