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Aleurone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436146/improving-zinc-accumulation-in-barley-endosperm-using-hvmtp1-a-transition-metal-transporter
#1
Paloma Menguer, Thomas Vincent, Anthony J Miller, James K M Brown, Eva Vincze, Søren Borg, Preben Bach Holm, Dale Sanders, Dorina Podar
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosperm, is the part that is eaten after milling but contains only a quarter of the total grain Zn. Here we present results demonstrating that endosperm Zn content can be enhanced through expression of a transporter responsible for vacuolar Zn accumulation in cereals...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#2
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383251/fate-and-transformation-of-cuo-nanoparticles-in-the-soil-rice-system-during-the-lifecycle-of-rice-plants
#3
Cheng Peng, Chen Xu, Qinglin Liu, Lijuan Sun, Yongming Luo, Jiyan Shi
Agricultural soil is gradually becoming a primary sink for metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs). The uptake and accumulation of MNPs by crops may contaminate food chain and pose unexpected risks for human health. Here, we investigated the fate and transformation of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in the soil-rice system during the rice lifecycle. The results show that at the maturation stage, 1000 mg/kg CuO NPs significantly decreased redox potential by 202.75 mV but enhanced electrical conductivity by 497.07 mS/cm compared to controls...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215318/dietary-corn-fractions-reduce-atherogenesis-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-knockout-mice
#4
Kabo Masisi, Khuong Le, Nora Ghazzawi, Mohammed H Moghadasian, Trust Beta
Accumulating evidence has suggested that intake of whole grains is a protective factor against pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The exact mechanisms, however, are still not clearly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that adequate intake of corn fractions (aleurone, endosperm and germ) can modify lipid profiles in relation to atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of corn fractions in LDLr-KO mice through a number of biomarkers including lipid profile, and morphologic and morphometrical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188274/spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-key-lipid-species-in-brassica-napus-seeds
#5
Helen K Woodfield, Drew Sturtevant, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Eberhard Munz, Irina A Guschina, Kent Chapman, John L Harwood
The regulation of lipid synthesis in oil seeds is still not fully understood. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is the third most productive vegetable oil crop on the global market; therefore, increasing our understanding of lipid accumulation in oilseed rape seeds is of great economic, as well as intellectual, importance. Matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that allows the mapping of metabolites directly onto intact biological tissues, giving a spatial context to metabolism...
April 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166627/rapid-and-nondestructive-determination-of-aleurone-content-in-pearling-fractions-of-barley-by-near-infrared-nir-and-fluorescence-spectroscopies
#6
Jens Petter Wold, Diego Airado-Rodríguez, Ann-Katrin Holtekjølen, Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Stefan Sahlstrøm
The aim of the present work was to develop and evaluate near-infrared (NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies as rapid and potential online methods for determination of the amount of aleurone in pearling dust fractions of barley. Phytic acid was used as a marker for the aleurone layer. Different varieties of barley were pearled, and dust fractions were progressively taken out. Sample concentration of phytic acid varied in the range of 0.5-4.1 g/100 g, and highest concentrations were obtained in dust fractions for pearling degrees in the range of 15-25%...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150142/genome-wide-exploration-of-metal-tolerance-protein-mtp-genes-in-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-insights-into-metal-homeostasis-and-biofortification
#7
Recep Vatansever, Ertugrul Filiz, Seckin Eroglu
Metal transport process in plants is a determinant of quality and quantity of the harvest. Although it is among the most important of staple crops, knowledge about genes that encode for membrane-bound metal transporters is scarce in wheat. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are involved in trace metal homeostasis at the sub-cellular level, usually by providing metal efflux out of the cytosol. Here, by using various bioinformatics approaches, genes that encode for MTPs in the hexaploid wheat genome (Triticum aestivum, abbreviated as Ta) were identified and characterized...
February 1, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117452/the-relationship-between-vacuolation-and-initiation-of-pcd-in-rice-oryza-sativa-aleurone-cells
#8
Yan Zheng, Heting Zhang, Xiaojiang Deng, Jing Liu, Huiping Chen
Vacuole fusion is a necessary process for the establishment of a large central vacuole, which is the central location of various hydrolytic enzymes and other factors involved in death at the beginning of plant programmed cell death (PCD). In our report, the fusion of vacuoles has been presented in two ways: i) small vacuoles coalesce to form larger vacuoles through membrane fusion, and ii) larger vacuoles combine with small vacuoles when small vacuoles embed into larger vacuoles. Regardless of how fusion occurs, a large central vacuole is formed in rice (Oryza sativa) aleurone cells...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995999/tissue-specific-transcript-profiling-of-wheat-phosphate-transporter-genes-and-its-association-with-phosphate-allocation-in-grains
#9
Vishnu Shukla, Mandeep Kaur, Sipla Aggarwal, Kaushal Kumar Bhati, Jaspreet Kaur, Shrikant Mantri, Ajay K Pandey
Approaches enabling efficient phosphorus utilization in crops are of great importance. In cereal crop like wheat, utilization of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is high and mature grains are the major sink for Pi utilization and storage. Research that addresses the importance of the Pi homeostasis in developing grains is limited. In an attempt to understand the Pi homeostasis in developing wheat grains, we identified twelve new phosphate transporters (PHT), these are phyologentically well distributed along with the members reported from Arabidopsis and rice...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904399/identification-of-alleles-of-puroindoline-genes-and-their-effect-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grain-texture
#10
Mária Presinszká, Klára Štiasna, Tomáš Vyhnánek, Václav Trojan, Eva Mrkvicová, Luděk Hřivna, Ladislav Havel
Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb). A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm) was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d)...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895224/nkd-transcription-factors-are-central-regulators-of-maize-endosperm-development
#11
Bryan C Gontarek, Anjanasree K Neelakandan, Hao Wu, Philip W Becraft
NAKED ENDOSPERM1 (NKD1) and NKD2 are duplicate INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors important for maize (Zea mays) endosperm development. RNA-seq analysis of the nkd1 nkd2 mutant endosperm revealed that NKD1 and NKD2 influence 6.4% of the transcriptome in developing aleurone and 6.7% in starchy endosperm. Processes regulated by NKD1 and NKD2 include gene expression, epigenetic functions, cell growth and division, hormone pathways, and resource reserve deposition. The NKD1 and NKD2 proteins bind a consensus DNA sequence of TTGTCGT with slightly different properties...
December 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855940/rheological-and-stability-aspects-of-dry-and-hydrothermally-heat-treated-aleurone-rich-wheat-milling-fraction
#12
Blanka Bucsella, Ágnes Takács, Walter von Reding, Urs Schwendener, Franka Kálmán, Sándor Tömösközi
Novel aleurone-rich wheat milling fraction developed and produced on industry scale is investigated. The special composition of the novel flour with high protein, dietary fiber and fat content results in a unique combination of the mixing and viscosity properties. Due to the high lipid concentration, the fraction is exposed to fast rancidity. Dry heat (100°C for 12min) and hydrothermal treatment processes (96°C for 6min with 0-20 L/h steam) were applied on the aleurone-rich flour to modify the technological properties...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830397/zmsbt1-and-zmsbt2-two-new-subtilisin-like-serine-proteases-genes-expressed-in-early-maize-kernel-development
#13
Maribel López, Elisa Gómez, Christian Faye, Denise Gerentes, Wyatt Paul, Joaquín Royo, Gregorio Hueros, Luis M Muñiz
Two subtilisin-like proteases show highly specific and complementary expression patterns in developing grains. These genes label the complete surface of the filial-maternal interface, suggesting a role in filial epithelial differentiation. The cereal endosperm is the most important source of nutrition and raw materials for mankind, as well as the storage compartment enabling initial growth of the germinating plantlets. The development of the different cell types in this tissue is regulated environmentally, genetically and epigenetically, resulting in the formation of top-bottom, adaxial-abaxial and surface-central axes...
February 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803124/rice-aleurone-layer-specific-osnf-yb1-regulates-grain-filling-and-endosperm-development-by-interacting-with-an-erf-transcription-factor
#14
Jing-Jing Xu, Xiao-Fan Zhang, Hong-Wei Xue
Grain yield and quality of rice mainly depend on grain filling and endosperm development. Here we report that a rice NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factor, OsNF-YB1, is specifically expressed in the aleurone layer of developing endosperm and regulates grain filling and endosperm development. Knockdown of OsNF-YB1 expression by RNAi significantly retarded grain filling, leading to small grains with chalky endosperm as well as altered starch quality. Whereas OsNF-YB1 shows subcellular localization in both the cytosol and the nucleus in roots, it was specifically targeted to the nucleus of aleurone layer cells, which was facilitated by interacting with OsNF-YC proteins preferentially expressed in the aleurone layer...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729925/the-associative-changes-in-scutellum-nuclear-content-and-morphology-with-viability-loss-of-naturally-aged-and-accelerated-aging-wheat-triticum-aestivum-seeds
#15
Zaheer Ahmed, Hui Yang, Yong-Bi Fu
Timely prediction of seed viability loss over long-term storage represents a challenge in management and conservation of ex situ plant genetic resources. However, little attention has been paid to study the process of seed deterioration and seed aging signals under storage. An attempt was made here to investigate morphological and molecular changes in the scutellum and aleurone sections of naturally or artificially aged wheat seeds using TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. Twelve wheat genotypes or samples exposed to natural ageing (NA) or accelerated ageing (AA) were assayed and these samples had germination rates ranging from 11 to 93%...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709320/zmdof3-a-maize-endosperm-specific-dof-protein-gene-regulates-starch-accumulation-and-aleurone-development-in-maize-endosperm
#16
Xin Qi, Shixue Li, Yaxi Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
To explore the function of Dof transcription factors during kernel development in maize, we first identified Dof genes in the maize genome. We found that ZmDof3 was exclusively expressed in the endosperm of maize kernel and had the features of a Dof transcription factor. Suppression of ZmDof3 resulted in a defective kernel phenotype with reduced starch content and a partially patchy aleurone layer. The expression levels of starch synthesis-related genes and aleurone differentiation-associated genes were down-regulated in ZmDof3 knockdown kernels, indicating that ZmDof3 plays an important role in maize endosperm development...
January 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641112/monitoring-intra-and-extracellular-redox-capacity-of-intact-barley-aleurone-layers-responding-to-phytohormones
#17
Christina Mark, Kinga Zór, Arto Heiskanen, Martin Dufva, Jenny Emnéus, Christine Finnie
Redox regulation is important for numerous processes in plant cells including abiotic stress, pathogen defence, tissue development, seed germination and programmed cell death. However, there are few methods allowing redox homeostasis to be addressed in whole plant cells, providing insight into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622597/cell-wall-degradation-is-required-for-normal-starch-mobilisation-in-barley-endosperm
#18
Vasilios M E Andriotis, Martin Rejzek, Elaine Barclay, Michael D Rugen, Robert A Field, Alison M Smith
Starch degradation in barley endosperm provides carbon for early seedling growth, but the control of this process is poorly understood. We investigated whether endosperm cell wall degradation is an important determinant of the rate of starch degradation. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of enzymes that degrade the cell wall component arabinoxylan. The iminosugar 1,4-dideoxy-1, 4-imino-l-arabinitol (LAB) inhibits arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXAH) but does not inhibit the main starch-degrading enzymes α- and β-amylase and limit dextrinase...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542984/ubiquitous-mir159-repression-of-myb33-65-in-arabidopsis-rosettes-is-robust-and-is-not-perturbed-by-a-wide-range-of-stresses
#19
Yanjiao Li, Maria Alonso-Peral, Gigi Wong, Ming-Bo Wang, Anthony A Millar
BACKGROUND: The microR159 (miR159) - GAMYB pathway is conserved in higher plants, where GAMYB, expression promotes programmed cell death in seeds (aleurone) and anthers (tapetum). In cereals, restriction of GAMYB expression to seeds and anthers is mainly achieved transcriptionally, whereas in Arabidopsis this is achieved post-transcriptionally, as miR159 silences GAMYB (MYB33 and MYB65) in vegetative tissues, but not in seeds and anthers. However, we cannot rule out a role for miR159-MYB33/65 pathway in Arabidopsis vegetative tissues; a loss-of-function mir159 Arabidopsis mutant displays strong pleiotropic defects and numerous reports have documented changes in miR159 abundance during stress and hormone treatments...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462083/acyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase2-and-3-are-responsible-for-making-omega-7-fatty-acids-in-the-arabidopsis-aleurone
#20
Fiona M Bryant, Olaya Munoz-Azcarate, Amélie A Kelly, Frédéric Beaudoin, Smita Kurup, Peter J Eastmond
Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3 We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content...
September 2016: Plant Physiology
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