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Aleurone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449858/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-contributes-to-heme-oxygenase-1-delaying-programmed-cell-death-in-isolated-aleurone-layers-of-rice-subjected-to-drought-stress-in-a-cgmp-dependent-manner
#1
Guanghui Wang, Yu Xiao, Xiaojiang Deng, Heting Zhang, Tingge Li, Huiping Chen
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H 2 O 2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H 2 O 2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H 2 O 2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416529/prebiotic-wheat-bran-fractions-induce-specific-microbiota-changes
#2
Kevin D'hoe, Lorenza Conterno, Francesca Fava, Gwen Falony, Sara Vieira-Silva, Joan Vermeiren, Kieran Tuohy, Jeroen Raes
Wheat bran fibers are considered beneficial to human health through their impact on gut microbiota composition and activity. Here, we assessed the prebiotic potential of selected bran fractions by performing a series of fecal slurry anaerobic fermentation experiments using aleurone as well as total, ultrafine, and soluble wheat bran (swb) as carbon sources. By combining amplicon-based community profiling with a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach, we found that incubation conditions favor the growth of Proteobacteria such as Escherichia and Bilophila...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397987/fingerprinting-and-characterization-of-anthocyanins-in-94-colored-wheat-varieties-and-blue-aleurone-and-purple-pericarp-wheat-crosses
#3
Stephanie Krüger, Gertrud E Morlock
Colored wheat varieties and crosses were analyzed to figure out their anthocyanin profiles, and thus, their potential as health-related food. After method development, the obtained 94 anthocyanin fingerprints allowed the clear differentiation of the blue aleurone and purple pericarp genotypes as well as their breeding lines. The method was trimmed so that the complete analysis of the whole grain flour including sample preparation of up to 20 samples on one plate took less than 3 h (<9 min per sample) and total costs including sample preparation were <1...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393510/sweet11-and-15-as-key-players-in-seed-filling-in-rice
#4
Jungil Yang, Dangping Luo, Bing Yang, Wolf B Frommer, Joon-Seob Eom
Despite the relevance of seed-filling mechanisms for crop yield, we still have only a rudimentary understanding of the transport processes that supply the caryopsis with sugars. We hypothesized that SWEET sucrose transporters may play important roles in nutrient import pathways in the rice caryopsis. We used a combination of mRNA quantification, histochemical analyses, translational promoter-reporter fusions and analysis of knockout mutants created by genomic editing to evaluate the contribution of SWEET transporters to seed filling...
February 2, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387363/in-situ-production-of-active-vitamin-b12-in-cereal-matrices-using-propionibacterium-freudenreichii
#5
Bhawani Chamlagain, Tessa A Sugito, Paulina Deptula, Minnamari Edelmann, Susanna Kariluoto, Pekka Varmanen, Vieno Piironen
The in situ production of active vitamin B12 was investigated in aqueous cereal-based matrices with three strains of food-grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Matrices prepared from malted barley flour (33% w/v; BM), barley flour (6%; BF), and wheat aleurone (15%; AM) were fermented. The effect of cobalt and the lower ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) or its natural precursors (riboflavin and nicotinamide) on active B12 production was evaluated. Active B12 production was confirmed by UHPLC-UV-MS analysis...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342075/enrichment-and-identification-of-the-most-abundant-zinc-binding-proteins-in-developing-barley-grains-by-zinc-imac-capture-and-nano-lc-ms-ms
#6
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247595/method-for-hull-less-barley-transformation-and-manipulation-of-grain-mixed-linkage-beta-glucan
#7
Wai Li Lim, Helen M Collins, Rohan R Singh, Natalie Aj Kibble, Kuok Yap, Jillian Taylor, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited use of these varieties. To overcome this, we have sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fibre component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily found in starchy endosperm cell walls...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164348/delineation-of-inheritance-pattern-of-aleurone-layer-colour-through-chemical-tests-in-rice
#8
Chandu Singh, Sripathy K V, Jeevan Kumar S P, Bhojaraja Naik K, Govind Pal, Udaya Bhaskar K, Ramesh K V, Somasundaram G
BACKGROUND: Rice aleurone layer develops different colours with various chemical tests that may help to develop some rapid tests for identification/grouping of rice varieties. Understanding the colour inheritance pattern could enable to develop chemical clues that may help for genetic purity analysis along with grow-out-test. RESULTS: In this study, inheritance pattern of aleurone layer colour was studied in parents, F1 and F2 progenies derived from the crosses IR 36 × Acc...
November 21, 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155872/sulfur-dioxide-alleviates-programmed-cell-death-in-barley-aleurone-by-acting-as-an-antioxidant
#9
Sha-Sha Wang, Ying-Xin Zhang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jun Tang, Kang-Di Hu, Hua Zhang
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M) effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (⋅O2-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in aleurone layers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143621/identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-network-components-for-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-barley-aleurone
#10
Ksenia V Strygina, Andreas Börner, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Among natural populations, there are different colours of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The colour of barley grains is directly related to the accumulation of different pigments in the aleurone layer, pericarp and lemma. Blue grain colour is due to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the aleurone layer, which is dependent on the presence of five Blx genes that are not sequenced yet (Blx1, Blx3 and Blx4 genes clustering on chromosome 4HL and Blx2 and Blx5 on 7HL). Due to the health benefits of anthocyanins, blue-grained barley can be considered as a source of dietary food...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091444/using-synchrotron-based-approaches-to-examine-the-foliar-application-of-znso4-and-zno-nanoparticles-for-field-grown-winter-wheat
#11
Teng Zhang, Hongda Sun, Zhiyuan Lv, Lili Cui, Hui Mao, Peter M Kopittke
The effects of foliar-applied ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and ZnSO4 on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and grain quality were studied under field conditions, with the distribution and speciation of Zn within the grain examined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Although neither of the two Zn compounds improved grain yield or quality, both increased the grain Zn concentration (average increments were 5 and 10 mg/kg for ZnSO4 and ZnO NPs treatments, respectively)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982156/postprandial-pyy-increase-by-resistant-starch-supplementation-is-independent-of-net-portal-appearance-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-pigs
#12
Anne Krog Ingerslev, Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Mette Skou Hedemann, Peter Kappel Theil, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Henry Jørgensen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Increased dietary fiber (DF) fermentation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production may stimulate peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) secretion. In this study, the effects of hindgut SCFA production on postprandial PYY plasma levels were assessed using different experimental diets in a porto-arterial catheterized pig model. The pigs were fed experimental diets varying in source and levels of DF for one week in 3×3 Latin square designs. The DF sources were whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone, rye aleurone-rich flour, rye flakes, and resistant starch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972079/histone-deacetylase-is-required-for-ga-induced-programmed-cell-death-in-maize-aleurone-layers
#13
Haoli Hou, Xueke Zheng, Hao Zhang, Mengxia Yue, Yan Hu, Hong Zhou, Qing Wang, Chengshen Xie, Pu Wang, Lijia Li
Recent discoveries have shown that epigenetic regulation is an integral part of phytohormone-mediated processes. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) triggers a series of events in cereal aleurone cells that lead to programmed cell death (PCD), but the signaling cascade mediating GA-induced PCD in cereal aleurone layers remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity gradually increased relative to histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, leading to a global decrease in histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels during PCD of maize (Zea mays) embryoless aleurone layers after 3 d of treatment with GA...
November 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946335/tocotrienols-and-tocopherols-in-colored-grain-wheat-tritordeum-and-barley
#14
Jaromír Lachman, Alena Hejtmánková, Matyáš Orsák, Marek Popov, Petr Martinek
Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939922/histone-acetylation-is-involved-in-ga-mediated-45s-rdna-decondensation-in-maize-aleurone-layers
#15
Xueke Zheng, Haoli Hou, Hao Zhang, Mengxia Yue, Yan Hu, Lijia Li
The aleurone layer is crucial to seed germination. Using dissected aleurone layers, we found that GA increased histone acetylation accompanied by rDNA decondensation in aleurone layers during maize seed germination. Aleurone layers play an important role in cereal seed germination. In this study, we reported that rDNA chromatin was decondensed, accompanied with increased rDNA expression and genomic global hyperacetylation in gibberellin (GA)-treated maize-dissected aleurone layers. The activity analysis of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) showed that GA increased the level of histone acetylation by promoting the ratio of HAT/HDAC activity in aleurone layers...
September 22, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761993/coumarin-impairs-redox-homeostasis-in-wheat-aleurone-layers
#16
Ahmed M Saleh, Rashad Kebeish
Many plant families produce coumarin (COU) and its derivatives as secondary metabolites via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. This ubiquitous group of phytochemicals was shown to have diverse physiological effects on cellular, tissue, and organ levels. So far, research dealing with the hormonal like behavior of COU and its interaction with the activity and/or transport of phytohormones is very limited. In the current study, the impact of COU on redox homeostasis in aleurone layers of wheat grains was investigated...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710348/spatiotemporal-expression-patterns-of-wheat-amino-acid-transporters-reveal-their-putative-roles-in-nitrogen-transport-and-responses-to-abiotic-stress
#17
Yongfang Wan, Robert King, Rowan A C Mitchell, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Amino acid transporters have roles in amino acid uptake from soil, long-distance transport, remobilization from vegetative tissues and accumulation in grain. Critically, the majority of wheat grain nitrogen is derived from amino acids remobilized from vegetative organs. However, no systematic analysis of wheat AAT genes has been reported to date. Here, 283 full length wheat AAT genes representing 100 distinct groups of homeologs were identified and curated by selectively consolidating IWGSC CSSv2 and TGACv1 Triticum aestivum genome assemblies and reassembling or mapping of IWGSC CSS chromosome sorted reads to fill any gaps...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704468/thmyc4e-candidate-blue-aleurone-1-gene-controlling-the-associated-trait-in-triticum-aestivum
#18
Na Li, Shiming Li, Kunpu Zhang, Wenjie Chen, Bo Zhang, Daowen Wang, Dengcai Liu, Baolong Liu, Huaigang Zhang
Blue aleurone is a useful and interesting trait in common wheat that was derived from related species. Here, transcriptomes of blue and white aleurone were compared for isolating Blue aleurone 1 (Ba1) transferred from Thinopyrum ponticum. In the genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, only a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, ThMYC4E, had a higher transcript level in blue aleurone phenotype, and was homologous to the genes on chromosome 4 of Triticum aestivum. ThMYC4E carried the characteristic domains (bHLH-MYC_N, HLH and ACT-like) of a bHLH transcription factor, and clustered with genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis upon phylogenetic analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647924/comparative-expression-analysis-of-rice-and-arabidopsis-peroxiredoxin-genes-suggests-conserved-or-diversified-roles-between-the-two-species-and-leads-to-the-identification-of-tandemly-duplicated-rice-peroxiredoxin-genes-differentially-expressed-in-seeds
#19
Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ruyl Kim, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) have recently been identified as plant antioxidants. Completion of various genome sequencing projects has provided genome-wide information about PRX genes in major plant species. Two of these -- Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis -- each have 10 PRX members. Although significant progress has been made in understanding their biological roles in Arabidopsis, those functions in rice, a model crop plant, have not been well studied. RESULTS: We performed a comparative expression analysis of rice and Arabidopsis PRXs...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#20
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this study, we utilize a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize (Zea mays) seeds, B73 and Mo17. Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
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