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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325801/editorial-the-role-of-medical-physics-in-lung-sbrt
#1
EDITORIAL
Pietro Mancosu, Andrew Nisbet, Núria Jornet
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has become a standard treatment for non-operable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this context, medical physics community has largely helped in the starting and the growth of this technique. In fact, SBRT requires the convergence of many different features for delivering large doses in few fractions to small moving target in an heterogeneous medium. The special issue of last month, was focused on the different physics challenges in lung SBRT...
January 9, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311686/preclinical-longitudinal-imaging-of-tumor-microvascular-radiobiological-response-with-functional-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Valentin Demidov, Azusa Maeda, Mitsuro Sugita, Victoria Madge, Siddharth Sadanand, Costel Flueraru, I Alex Vitkin
Radiation therapy (RT) is widely used for cancer treatment, alone or in combination with other therapies. Recent RT advances have revived interest in delivering higher dose in fewer fractions, which may invoke both cellular and microvascular damage mechanisms. Microvasculature may thus be a potentially sensitive functional biomarker of RT early response, especially for such emerging RT treatments. However it is difficult to measure directly and non-invasively, and its time course, dose dependencies, and overall importance in tumor control are unclear...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300184/correlations-between-contouring-similarity-metrics-and-simulated-treatment-outcome-for-prostate-radiotherapy
#3
Dale Roach, Michael G Jameson, Jason A Dowling, Martin Andrew Ebert, Peter B Greer, Angel M Kennedy, Sandie Watt, Lois C Holloway
Many similarity metrics exist for inter-observer contouring variation studies, however no correlation between metric choice and prostate cancer radiotherapy dosimetry has been explored. These correlations were investigated in this study. Two separate trials were undertaken, the first a thirty-five patient cohort with three observers, the second a five patient dataset with ten observers. Clinical and planning target volumes (CTV and PTV), rectum, and bladder were independently contoured by all observers in each trial...
January 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298797/development-and-validation-of-a-gene-signature-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-treated-by-postoperative-radio-chemo-therapy
#4
Stefan Schmidt, Annett Linge, Alex Zwanenburg, Stefan Leger, Fabian Lohaus, Constanze Krenn, Steffen Appold, Volker Gudziol, Alexander Nowak, Clare von Neubeck, Ingeborg Tinhofer, Volker Budach, Ali Sak, Martin Stuschke, Panagiotis Balermpas, Claus Rödel, Hatice Bunea, Anca Ligia Grosu, Amir Abdollahi, Juergen Debus, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Steffi U Pigorsch, Stephanie Elisabeth Combs, David Mönnich, Daniel Zips, Gustavo B Baretton, Frank Buchholz, Michael Baumann, Mechthild Krause, Steffen Löck
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and independently validate a novel gene signature predicting loco-regional tumor control (LRC) for treatment individualization of patients with locally advanced HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) who are treated with postoperative radio(chemo)therapy (PORT-C). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression analyses were performed using nanoString technology on a multicenter training cohort of 130 patients and an independent validation cohort of 121 patients...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297716/radiobiological-effects-of-tritiated-water-short-term-exposure-on-v79-clonogenic-cell-survival
#5
Mattia Siragusa, Pil M Fredericia, Mikael Jensen, Torsten Groesser
PURPOSE: We set out to improve the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for in-vitro measurements of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) for the clonogenic cell survival assay, also considering the influence of the end-of-track Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of low-energy electrons. MATERIAL & METHODS: The COmputation Of Local Electron Release (COOLER) program was adopted to investigate the cell geometry and the tritium full beta-decay spectrum impact on the S-values and subsequently on the RBE of HTO for clonogenic cell survival at similar high dose rates...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296037/estimating-second-malignancy-risk-in-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-using-a-mechanistic-radiobiological-model-in-radiotherapy-for-carcinoma-of-left-breast
#6
Vasanthan Sakthivel, Ganesh Kadirampatti Mani, Sunil Mani, Raghavendiran Boopathy, Jothybasu Selvaraj
Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate second cancer risk (SCR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a mechanistic radiobiological model. The model also takes into account patient age at exposure and the gender-specific correction factors of SCR. Materials and Methods: Fifty IMRT and VMAT plans were selected for the study. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine was used for dose calculation. Appropriate model parameters were taken from the literature for the mechanistic model to calculate excess absolute risk (EAR), lifetime attributable risk, integral dose and relative risk (RR) for lungs, contralateral breast, heart, and spinal cord...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296035/grid-block-design-based-on-monte-carlo-simulated-dosimetry-the-linear-quadratic-and-hug-kellerer-radiobiological-models
#7
Somayeh Gholami, Hassan Ali Nedaie, Francesco Longo, Mohammad Reza Ay, Sharifeh A Dini, Ali S Meigooni
Purpose: The clinical efficacy of Grid therapy has been examined by several investigators. In this project, the hole diameter and hole spacing in Grid blocks were examined to determine the optimum parameters that give a therapeutic advantage. Methods: The evaluations were performed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and commonly used radiobiological models. The Geant4 MC code was used to simulate the dose distributions for 25 different Grid blocks with different hole diameters and center-to-center spacing...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288533/challenges-to-dna-replication-in-hypoxic-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Natalie Ng, Karin Purshouse, Iosifina P Foskolou, Monica M Olcina, Ester M Hammond
The term hypoxia refers to any condition where insufficient oxygen is available and therefore encompasses a range of actual oxygen concentrations. The regions of tumours adjacent to necrotic areas are at almost anoxic levels and are known to be extremely therapy resistant (radiobiological hypoxia). The biological response to radiobiological hypoxia includes the rapid accumulation of replication stress and subsequent DNA damage response, including both ATR and ATM-mediated signalling, despite the absence of detectable DNA damage...
December 30, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286494/state-institution-%C3%A2-national-research-center-for-radiation-medicine-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine%C3%A2-research-activities-and-scientific-advance-in-2016
#9
D Bazyka, V Sushko, A Chumak, V Buzunov, V Talko, L Yanovych
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2016 at the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. The report presents the results of fundamental and applied research works of the study of radiation effects and health effects of the Chornobyl accident; fulfillment of tasks of «State social program for improving safety, occupational health and working environment in 2014-2018 years»...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#10
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286257/synergy-theory-in-radiobiology
#11
Dae Woong Ham, Binglin Song, Jian Gao, Julien Yu, Rainer K Sachs
Customized open-source software is used to characterize, exemplify, compare and critically evaluate mathematical/computational synergy analysis methods currently used in biology, and used or potentially applicable in radiobiology. As examples, we reanalyze some published results on murine Harderian gland tumors and on in vitro chromosome aberrations induced by exposure to single-ion radiations that simulate components of the galactic cosmic ray field. Baseline no-synergy/no-antagonism-mixture dose-effect relationships are calculated for corresponding mixed fields...
December 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284398/mechanisms-of-radiation-bystander-and-non-targeted-effects-implications-to-radiation-carcinogenesis-and-radiotherapy
#12
Rasoul Yahyapour, Elahe Motevaseli, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Hamid Abdollahi, Bagher Farhood, Mohsen Cheki, Masoud Najafi, Vilmar Villa
Knowledge of radiobiology is of paramount importance to be able to grasp and have an in-depth understanding of the consequences of ionizing radiation. One of the most important effects of this physical stressor's interaction to targeted and non-targeted cells, tissues and organs is on the late effects on the development of primary and secondary cancers. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated, and some studies have demonstrated or proposed a role of non-targeted effect in excess risk of cancer incidence...
December 29, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281044/radiobiological-response-of-u251mg-cho-k1-and-v79-cell-lines-to-accelerator-based-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#13
Eisuke Sato, Alexander Zaboronok, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Kei Nakai, Sergey Taskaev, Olga Volkova, Ludmila Mechetina, Alexander Taranin, Vladimir Kanygin, Tomonori Isobe, Bryan J Mathis, Akira Matsumura
In the current article, we provide in vitro efficacy evaluation of a unique accelerator-based neutron source, constructed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk, Russian Federation), for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), which is particularly effective in the case of invasive cancers. U251MG, CHO-K1 and V79 cells were incubated and irradiated in various concentrations of boric acid with epithermal neutrons for 2-3 h in a plexiglass phantom, using 2.0 MeV proton energy and 1.5-3.0 mA proton current, resulting in a neutron fluence of 2...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236558/the-paradox-of-adaptive-responses-and-iso-effect-per-fraction
#14
Benjamin J Blyth
PURPOSE: Despite decades of research into radiation-induced adaptive responses, where prior irradiation changes the response to subsequent irradiations, the field of radiation oncology relies upon models of tumour control that assume that each radiation therapy fraction reproduces the same effect, known as iso-effect per fraction. Can these radiobiology principles both be true, forming a paradox, or is only one of them right? Here, the apparent co-existence of these two contradictory observations is considered, examining how adaptive responses might apply in radiotherapy scenarios which are inconsistent with the majority of adaptive response experimental designs...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233574/the-principles-and-practice-of-re-irradiation-in-clinical-oncology-an-overview
#15
W Dörr, D Gabryś
Long-term cancer survivors are at risk of the development of recurrence or a new primary cancer that requires a second (or third) radio-oncological treatment. Publications on re-irradiation have been followed and are summarised in this overview. Information from clinical and experimental animal studies suggests that specific normal tissues can tolerate a considerable retreatment radiation dose. However, the risk of normal tissue damage and the impact on the quality of life must be considered. If a second course of radiotherapy needs to be administered, this should be done with maximum care and accuracy...
December 9, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229965/transfer-of-minibeam-radiation-therapy-into-a-cost-effective-equipment-for-radiobiological-studies-a-proof-of-concept
#16
Y Prezado, M Dos Santos, W Gonzalez, G Jouvion, C Guardiola, S Heinrich, D Labiod, M Juchaux, L Jourdain, C Sebrie, F Pouzoulet
Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) is an innovative synchrotron radiotherapy technique able to shift the normal tissue complication probability curves to significantly higher doses. However, its exploration was hindered due to the limited and expensive beamtime at synchrotrons. The aim of this work was to develop a cost-effective equipment to perform systematic radiobiological studies in view of MBRT. Tumor control for various tumor entities will be addressable as well as studies to unravel the distinct biological mechanisms involved in normal and tumor tissues responses when applying MBRT...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222711/%C3%A3-gro-survey-on-radiotherapy-capacity-in-austria-status-quo-and-estimation-of-future-demands
#18
Brigitte Zurl, Anja Bayerl, Alexander De Vries, Hans Geinitz, Robert Hawliczek, Tomas-Henrik Knocke-Abulesz, Peter Lukas, Richard Pötter, Wolfgang Raunik, Brigitte Scholz, Annemarie Schratter-Sehn, Felix Sedlmayer, Dietmar Seewald, Edgar Selzer, Karin S Kapp
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of the current national and regional radiotherapy capacity in Austria with an estimation of demands for 2020 and 2030 was performed by the Austrian Society for Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology and Medical Radiophysics (ÖGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Austrian centers provided data on the number of megavoltage (MV) units, treatment series, fractions, percentage of retreatments and complex treatment techniques as well as the daily operating hours for the year 2014...
December 8, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219655/track-to-the-future-historical-perspective-on-the-importance-of-radiation-track-structure-and-dna-as-a-radiobiological-target
#19
Mark A Hill
PURPOSE: Understanding the mechanisms behind induced biological response following exposure to ionizing radiation is not only important in assessing the risk associated with human exposure, but potentially can help identify ways of improving the efficacy of radiotherapy. Over the decades, there has been much discussion on what is the key biological target for radiation action and its associated size. It was already known in the 1930s that microscopic features of radiation significantly influenced biological outcomes...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206287/high-dose-per-pulse-electron-beam-dosimetry-commissioning-of-the-oriatron-ert6-prototype-linear-accelerator-for-preclinical-use
#20
Maud Jaccard, Maria Teresa Durán, Kristoffer Petersson, Jean-François Germond, Philippe Liger, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Jean Bourhis, François Bochud, Claude Bailat
PURPOSE: The Oriatron eRT6 is an experimental high dose-per-pulse linear accelerator (linac) which was designed to deliver an electron beam with variable dose-rates, ranging from a few Gy/min up to hundreds of Gy/s. It was built to study the radiobiological effects of high dose-per-pulse/dose-rate electron beam irradiation, in the context of preclinical and cognitive studies. In this work, we report on the commissioning and beam monitoring of the Oriatron eRT6 prototype linac. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The beam was characterized in different steps...
December 5, 2017: Medical Physics
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