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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919336/tissue-reactions-to-ionizing-radiation-oral-mucosa
#1
Sylvia Gruber, Wolfgang Dörr
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment strategies for solid malignancies, including head-and-neck tumors (HNT). Oral mucositis is the most frequent, often dose-limiting early adverse event of radio(chemo)therapy for HNT. The oral mucosal response is - like that of typical turnover tissues - based on radiation-induced impairment of epithelial proliferation and cell production, in face of ongoing physiological cell differentiation and cell loss, consequently resulting in hypoplasia and eventually mucosal ulceration...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913065/hpv-status-cancer-stem-cell-marker-expression-hypoxia-gene-signatures-and-tumour-volume-identify-good-prognosis-subgroups-in-patients-with-hnscc-after-primary-radiochemotherapy-a-multicentre-retrospective-study-of-the-german-cancer-consortium-radiation-oncology
#2
Annett Linge, Fabian Lohaus, Steffen Löck, Alexander Nowak, Volker Gudziol, Chiara Valentini, Cläre von Neubeck, Martin Jütz, Inge Tinhofer, Volker Budach, Ali Sak, Martin Stuschke, Panagiotis Balermpas, Claus Rödel, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Steffi Pigorsch, Stephanie E Combs, David Mönnich, Daniel Zips, Frank Buchholz, Daniela E Aust, Gustavo B Baretton, Howard D Thames, Anna Dubrovska, Jan Alsner, Jens Overgaard, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed...
November 29, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895382/non-invasive-measurement-of-melanin-derived-radicals-in-living-mouse-tail-using-x-band-epr
#3
Yukihiro Ogawa, Megumi Ueno, Emiko Sekine-Suzuki, Ikuo Nakanishi, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Shingo Fujisaki
The aim of this experiment is to measure in vivo generation of melanin-derived radicals non-invasively, as a quantifiable index of radio-biological effect. Melanin-derived radicals in a living intact mouse tail tip were non-invasively measured in very simple way using an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Colored mouse strains, C57BL/6NCr, BDF1, and C3H/He, have clear EPR signal corresponding to melanin-derived radicals in the tail tip; however, albino mouse strains, BALB/cCr, ddY, ICR, have no EPR signals...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886989/u-s-department-of-defense-multiple-parameter-biodosimetry-network
#4
William F Blakely, Alexander Romanyukha, Selena M Hayes, Ricardo A Reyes, H Michael Stewart, Matthew H Hoefer, Anthony Williams, Thad Sharp, L Andrew Huff
The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) service members are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to radiation accidents, terrorist attacks and national defense activities. The use of biodosimetry is a standard of care for the triage and treatment of radiation injuries. Resources and procedures need to be established to implement a multiple-parameter biodosimetry system coupled with expert medial guidance to provide an integrated radiation diagnostic system to meet USDOD requirements. Current USDOD biodosimetry capabilities were identified and recommendations to fill the identified gaps are provided...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885618/pre-clinical-quantitative-imaging-and-mouse-specific-dosimetry-for-111-in-labelled-radiotracers
#5
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah E Cronin, Chiara Da Pieve, Rowena L Paul, Sue A Eccles, Terence J Spinks, Carol Box, Adrian Hall, Jane K Sosabowski, Gabriela Kramer-Marek, Glenn D Flux
BACKGROUND: Accurate quantification in molecular imaging is essential to improve the assessment of novel drugs and compare the radiobiological effects of therapeutic agents prior to in-human studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges and feasibility of pre-clinical quantitative imaging and mouse-specific dosimetry of (111)In-labelled radiotracers. Attenuation, scatter and partial volume effects were studied using phantom experiments, and an activity calibration curve was obtained for varying sphere sizes...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884938/the-russian-human-radiobiological-tissue-repository-a-unique-resource-for-studies-of-plutonium-exposed-workers
#6
Christopher Loffredo, David Goerlitz, Svetlana Sokolova, Leonidas Leondaridis, Mariya Zakharova, Valentina Revina, Evgeniya Kirillova
The Russian Radiobiological Human Tissue Repository (RHTR) at the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute in Ozyorsk, Russia, was established to collect and store biospecimens supporting research on health consequences of chronic, low-dose radiation exposures. The purpose of this paper is to describe the RHTR resources and the availability of high-quality biological specimens. RHTR has enrolled two groups of subjects from 1951 to the present time: exposed workers at the Mayak Production Association facilities and residents of Ozyorsk who were never occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (controls)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874325/mixed-beam-murine-harderian-gland-tumorigenesis-predicted-dose-effect-relationships-if-neither-synergism-nor-antagonism-occurs
#7
Nopphon Siranart, Eleanor A Blakely, Alden Cheng, Naval Handa, Rainer K Sachs
Complex mixed radiation fields exist in interplanetary space, and little is known about their late effects on space travelers. In silico synergy analysis default predictions are useful when planning relevant mixed-ion-beam experiments and interpreting their results. These predictions are based on individual dose-effect relationships (IDER) for each component of the mixed-ion beam, assuming no synergy or antagonism. For example, a default hypothesis of simple effect additivity has often been used throughout the study of biology...
November 22, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871671/tumor-control-probability-modeling-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-of-early-stage-lung-cancer-using-multiple-bio-physical-models
#8
REVIEW
Feng Liu, An Tai, Percy Lee, Tithi Biswas, George X Ding, Isaam El Naqa, Jimm Grimm, Andrew Jackson, Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Tamara LaCouture, Billy Loo, Moyed Miften, Timothy Solberg, X Allen Li
This work is to analyze pooled clinical data using different radiobiological models and to understand the relationship between biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor control probability (TCP) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical data of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial or Kaplan-Meier TCP from 46 selected studies were collected for SBRT of NSCLC in the literature. The TCP data were separated for Stage T1 and T2 tumors if possible, otherwise collected for combined stages...
November 18, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847266/the-dosimetric-and-radiobiological-impact-of-calculation-grid-size-on-head-and-neck-imrt
#9
Shiv P Srivastava, Chee-Wai Cheng, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: Small-volume structures usually found in the head and neck may be susceptible to dose-volume averaging, which has not been studied. Here, the impact of calculation grid size on dose distribution for tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is investigated for head and neck (H&N) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: IMRT plans were generated for H&N patients with different grid sizes (1-5 mm) to calculate dose and related TCP and NTCP...
October 11, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846757/accuracy-requirements-and-uncertainties-in-radiotherapy-a-report-of-the-international-atomic-energy-agency
#10
Debbie van der Merwe, Jacob Van Dyk, Brendan Healy, Eduardo Zubizarreta, Joanna Izewska, Ben Mijnheer, Ahmed Meghzifene
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy technology continues to advance and the expectation of improved outcomes requires greater accuracy in various radiotherapy steps. Different factors affect the overall accuracy of dose delivery. Institutional comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programs should ensure that uncertainties are maintained at acceptable levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency has recently developed a report summarizing the accuracy achievable and the suggested action levels, for each step in the radiotherapy process...
November 16, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825202/absolute-cross-sections-for-electronic-excitation-of-condensed-tetrahydrofuran-thf-by-11-16-ev-electrons
#11
V Lemelin, A D Bass, P Cloutier, L Sanche
Absolute cross section (CS) data on the interaction of low energy electrons with DNA and its molecular constituents are required as input parameters in Monte-Carlo type simulations, for several radiobiological applications. Previously [V. Lemelin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 074701 (2016)], we measured absolute vibrational CSs for low-energy electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran, a convenient surrogate for the deoxyribose. Here we report absolute electronic CSs for energy losses of between 6 and 11...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823821/prostate-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-as-monotherapy-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-early-toxicity-and-quality-of-life-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-clinical-trial-of-one-fraction-of-19gy-or-two-fractions-of-13-5gy
#12
Gerard Morton, Hans T Chung, Merrylee McGuffin, Joelle Helou, Laura D'Alimonte, Ananth Ravi, Patrick Cheung, Ewa Szumacher, Stanley Liu, Motasem Al-Hanaqta, Liying Zhang, Alexandre Mamedov, Andrew Loblaw
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multi-fraction high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is safe and effective for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer. Two or single fraction regimens have some radiobiological rationale. The purpose is to determine toxicity and effect on health related quality of life (HRQOL) of single fraction 19Gy or 13.5Gy×2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had low or intermediate risk prostate cancer, prostate volume <60cc, and no androgen deprivation use...
November 4, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813704/temporal-variability-of-the-quality-of-taraxacum-officinale-seed-progeny-from-the-east-ural-radioactive-trace-is-there-an-interaction-between-low-level-radiation-and-weather-conditions
#13
Vera N Pozolotina, Elena V Antonova
Hypothesis The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. Results During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811200/alpha-particle-fluence-in-radiobiological-experiments
#14
Dragoslav Nikezic, Kwan Ngok Yu
Two methods were proposed for determining alpha-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for alpha particles emitted from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched alpha-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an alpha-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by alpha particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806610/on-the-new-metrics-for-imrt-qa-verification
#15
Alejandro Garcia-Romero, Araceli Hernandez-Vitoria, Esther Millan-Cebrian, Veronica Alba-Escorihuela, Sonia Serrano-Zabaleta, Pablo Ortega-Pardina
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to search for new metrics that could give more reliable acceptance/rejection criteria on the IMRT verification process and to offer solutions to the discrepancies found among different conventional metrics. Therefore, besides conventional metrics, new ones are proposed and evaluated with new tools to find correlations among them. These new metrics are based on the processing of the dose-volume histogram information, evaluating the absorbed dose differences, the dose constraint fulfillment, or modified biomathematical treatment outcome models such as tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792921/lower-thresholds-for-lifetime-health-effects-in-mammals-from-high-let-radiation-comparison-with-chronic-low-let-radiation
#16
Tatiana G Sazykina, Alexander I Kryshev
Lower threshold dose rates and confidence limits are quantified for lifetime radiation effects in mammalian animals from internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides. Extensive datasets on effects from internal alpha-emitters are compiled from the International Radiobiological Archives. In total, the compiled database includes 257 records, which are analyzed by means of non-parametric order statistics. The generic lower threshold for alpha-emitters in mammalian animals (combined datasets) is 6.6·10(-5) Gy day(-1)...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785933/a-kernel-based-dose-calculation-algorithm-for-kv-photon-beams-with-explicit-handling-of-energy-and-material-dependencies
#17
Anna Merle Reinhart, Martin F Fast, Peter Ziegenhein, Simeon Nill, Uwe Oelfke
OBJECTIVES: Mimicking state-of-the-art patient radiotherapy with high precision irradiators for small animals is expected to advance the understanding of dose-effect relationships and radiobiology in general. We work on the implementation of intensity modulated radiotherapy-like irradiation schemes for small animals. As a first step we present a fast analytical dose calculation algorithm for keV photon beams. METHODS: We follow a superposition-convolution approach adapted to kV x-rays, based on previous work for microbeam therapy...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774318/radium-223-therapy-for-patients-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-an-update-on-literature-with-case-presentation
#18
REVIEW
Nghi C Nguyen, Muhammad Shah, Leonard J Appleman, Rahul Parikh, James M Mountz
Background and Purpose. Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.) is the first α-particle emitter therapeutic agent approved by the FDA, with benefits in overall survival and delay in symptomatic skeletal event for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent post hoc analyses of the phase III ALSYMPCA trial support the previously established safety profile as well as therapeutic effect and clinical outcome of Radium-223. Currently, Radium-223 is approved as a single agent therapy for metastatic CRPC...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771366/molecular-targeting-of-hypoxia-in-radiotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Sergio Rey, Luana Schito, Marianne Koritzinsky, Bradly G Wouters
Hypoxia (low O2) is an essential microenvironmental driver of phenotypic diversity in human solid cancers. Hypoxic cancer cells hijack evolutionarily conserved, O2- sensitive pathways eliciting molecular adaptations that impact responses to radiotherapy, tumor recurrence and patient survival. In this review, we summarize the radiobiological, genetic, epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms orchestrating oncogenic responses to hypoxia. In addition, we outline emerging hypoxia- targeting strategies that hold promise for individualized cancer therapy in the context of radiotherapy and drug delivery...
October 19, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770265/hadrontherapy-from-the-italian-radiation-oncologist-point-of-view-face-the-reality-the-italian-society-of-oncological-radiotherapy-airo-survey
#20
Giulia Marvaso, Barbara Vischioni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Delia Ciardo, Piero Fossati, Tommaso Giandini, Sara Morlino, Mauro Carrara, Paola Romanelli, Elvio Russi, Francesca Valvo, Riccardo Valdagni, Roberto Orecchia
Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items)...
October 21, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
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