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Lorenzo Manganaro, Germano Russo, Faiza Bourhaleb, Federico Fausti, Simona Giordanengo, Vincenzo Monaco, Roberto Sacchi, Anna Vignati, Roberto Cirio, Andrea Attili
One major rationale for the application of heavy ion beams in tumour therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The complex dependencies of the RBE on dose, biological endpoint, position in the field etc. require the use of biophysical models in treatment planning and clinical analysis. This study aims at introducing a new software, named "Survival", to facilitate the radiobiological computations needed in ion therapy. The simulation toolkit was written in C++ and it was developed with a modular architecture in order to easily incorporate different radiobiological models...
March 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Reza Taleei, Fada Guan, Chris Peeler, Lawrence Bronk, Darshana Patel, Dragan Mirkovic, David R Grosshans, Radhe Mohan, Uwe Titt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Medical Physics
Xiaojing Chang, Xiaoying Xue, Yafang Zhang, Ge Zhang, Huandi Zhou, Yanling Yang, Yuge Ran, Zhiqing Xiao, Xiaohui Ge, Huizhi Liu
Background: Neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE homolog (NRAGE) has been considered as a tumor suppressor. In the previous study, we established human esophageal carcinoma resistance cell line TE13R120 and found the difference of NRAGE expression between TE13 and TE13R120 cells by gene microarray. Herein, we further discuss the possible molecular mechanism of NRAGE on participating the radiation sensitivity of esophageal carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: We used colony formation assay to measure the surviving fraction and relevant radiobiological parameters...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Osama Mohamad, Hirokazu Makishima, Tadashi Kamada
Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology...
March 6, 2018: Cancers
Radhe Mohan, Kathryn D Held, Michael D Story, David Grosshans, Jacek Capala
In April 2016, the National Cancer Institute hosted a multidisciplinary workshop to discuss the current knowledge of the radiobiological aspects of charged particles used in cancer therapy to identify gaps in that knowledge that might hinder the effective clinical use of charged particles and to propose research that could help fill those gaps. The workshop was organized into 10 topics ranging from biophysical models to clinical trials and included treatment optimization, relative biological effectiveness of tumors and normal tissues, hypofractionation with particles, combination with immunotherapy, "omics," hypoxia, and particle-induced second malignancies...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Aisling Barry, Anthony Fyles
Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has a role as definitive therapy in many tumor sites; however, its role in the treatment of breast cancer is less well explored. Currently, SABR has been investigated in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting with a number of ongoing feasibility studies. However, its use comes with a number of radiobiological and technical challenges that require further evaluation. We have learned much from other extracranial disease sites such as lung, brain, and spine, where definitive treatment with SABR has shown encouraging outcomes...
2018: International Journal of Breast Cancer
Adrien Paix, Delphine Antoni, Waisse Waissi, Marie-Pierre Ledoux, Karin Bilger, Luc Fornecker, Georges Noel
Hematologic malignancies may require, at one point during their treatment, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Total body irradiation combined with chemotherapy or radiomimetic used in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is known to be very toxic. Total body irradiation (TBI) induces immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of donor marrow. TBI is also used to eradicate malignant cells and is in sanctuary organs that are not reached by chemotherapy drugs. TBI has evolved since its introduction in the late fifties, but acute and late toxicities remain...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Nobuyuki Kanematsu, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Taku Inaniwa
A treatment of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is generally evaluated using the dose weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) while ignoring the radiation quality varying in the patient. In this study, we have developed a method of estimating linear energy transfer (LET) from the RBE in an archived treatment plan to represent the radiation quality of the treatment. The LET in a beam database was associated with the RBE by two fitting functions per energy, one for the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) and the other for shallower depths, to be differentiated by RBE per energy per modulation...
February 22, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Mohsen Cheki, Rasoul Yahyapour, Bagher Farhood, Abolhassan Rezaeyan, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapoor, Masoud Najafi
BACKGROUND: Each year, millions of people die from cancer. Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment strategies for cancer patients. Despite the beneficial roles of treatment with radiation, several side effects may threaten normal tissues of patients in the years after treatment. Moreover, high incidences of second primary cancers may reduce therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. The search for appropriate targets of radiosensitization of tumor cells as well as radioprotection of normal tissues is one of the most interesting aims in radiobiology...
February 18, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Seán Walsh, Erik Roelofs, Peter Kuess, Yvonka van Wijk, Ben Vanneste, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Bleddyn Jones, Dietmar Georg, Frank Verhaegen
We present a methodology which can be utilized to select proton or photon radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Four state-of-the-art competing treatment modalities were compared (by way of an in silico trial) for a cohort of 25 prostate cancer patients, with and without correction strategies for prostate displacements. Metrics measured from clinical image guidance systems were used. Three correction strategies were investigated; no-correction, extended-no-action-limit, and online-correction. Clinical efficacy was estimated via radiobiological models incorporating robustness (how probable a given treatment plan was delivered) and stability (the consistency between the probable best and worst delivered treatments at the 95% confidence limit)...
February 18, 2018: Cancers
B Jones, S J McMahon, K M Prise
With the current UK expansion of proton therapy there is a great opportunity for clinical oncologists to develop a translational interest in the associated scientific base and clinical results. In particular, the underpinning controversy regarding the conversion of photon dose to proton dose by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) must be understood, including its important implications. At the present time, the proton prescribed dose includes an RBE of 1.1 regardless of tissue, tumour and dose fractionation...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Jasper G Steverink, Stefan M Willems, Marielle E P Philippens, Nicolien Kasperts, Wietse S C Eppinga, Anne L Versteeg, Joanne M van der Velden, Salman Faruqi, Arjun Sahgal, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a highly effective and potentially ablative treatment for complex spinal metastases. Recent data have suggested radiobiologic effects of SBRT that expand beyond the traditional concept of DNA damage. Antitumor immunity, vascular damage leading to tumor necrosis, and increased rates of tumor apoptosis have been implied; however, in-human evidence remains scarce. The present study reports unique pathologic confirmation of SBRT-induced biological effects within spinal metastases treated with preoperative SBRT...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Hsiang-Cheng Chi, Chung-Ying Tsai, Ming-Ming Tsai, Kwang-Huei Lin
Radiotherapy is a well-established regimen for nearly half the cancer patients worldwide. However, not all cancer patients respond to irradiation treatment, and radioresistance is highly associated with poor prognosis and risk of recurrence. Elucidation of the biological characteristics of radioresistance and development of effective prognostic markers to guide clinical decision making clearly remain an urgent medical requirement. In tumorigenic and radioresistant cancer cell populations, phenotypic switch is observed during the course of irradiation treatment, which is associated with both stable genetic and epigenetic changes...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Afkar Al-Ramadan, Anja C Mortensen, Jörgen Carlsson, Marika V Nestor
Multicellular spheroids have proven suitable as three-dimensional in vivo-like models of non-vascularized micrometastases. Unlike monolayer-based models, spheroids mirror the cellular milieu and the pathophysiological gradients inside tumor nodules. However, there is limited knowledge of the radiation effects at the molecular level in spheroids of human origin. The present study is a presentation of selected cell biological processes that may easily be analyzed with methods available at routine pathology laboratories...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
S Di Maria, A Belchior, Y Romanets, A Paulo, P Vaz
The distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in tumor cells represents a fundamental aspect for a successful molecular targeted radiotherapy. It was largely demonstrated at microscopic level that only a fraction of cells in tumoral tissues incorporate the radiolabel. In addition, the distribution of the radionuclides at sub-cellular level, namely inside each nucleus, should also be investigated for accurate dosimetry estimation. The most used method to perform cellular dosimetry is the MIRD one, where S-values are able to estimate cellular absorbed doses for several electron energies, nucleus diameters, and considering homogeneous source distributions...
January 17, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Naser Jafarzadeh, Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Kambiz Gilany, Samira Eynali, Habib Ghaznavi, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh
Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of cancer treatment. The utility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) for detecting the distinct radiobiological responses in human cancer cells is currently under investigation. RS holds great promises to provide good opportunities for personalizing radiotherapy treatments. Here, we report the effects of the radiation dose and post-irradiation time on the molecular changes in the human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, using RS. The SKBR3 cells were irradiated by gamma radiation with different doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Oleg N Vassiliev, Stephen F Kry, David R Grosshans, Radhe Mohan
This study concerns calculation of the average electronic stopping power for photon and electron sources. It addresses two problems that have not yet been fully resolved. The first is defining the electron spectrum used for averaging in a way that is most suitable for radiobiological modeling. We define it as the spectrum of electrons entering the sensitive to radiation volume (SV) within the cell nucleus, at the moment they enter the SV. For this spectrum we derive a formula that combines linearly the fluence spectrum and the source spectrum...
February 7, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Carmel Mothersill, Michael Abend, François Bréchignac, George Iliakis, Nathalie Impens, Munira Kadhim, Anders Pape Møller, Deborah Oughton, Gibin Powathil, Eline Saenen, Colin Seymour, Jill Sutcliffe, Fen-Ru Tang, Paul N Schofield
This consensus paper presents the results of a workshop held in Essen, Germany in September 2017, called to examine critically the current approach to radiological environmental protection. The meeting brought together participants from the field of low dose radiobiology and those working in radioecology. Both groups have a common aim of identifying radiation exposures and protecting populations and individuals from harmful effects of ionising radiation exposure, but rarely work closely together. A key question in radiobiology is to understand mechanisms triggered by low doses or dose rates, leading to adverse outcomes of individuals while in radioecology a key objective is to recognise when harm is occurring at the level of the ecosystem...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Research
Panayiotis Mavroidis, Kevin A Pearlstein, John Dooley, Jasmine Sun, Srinivas Saripalli, Shiva K Das, Andrew Z Wang, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of three popular normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models, which describe the dose-response relations of bladder regarding different acute urinary symptoms during post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (RT). To evaluate the goodness-of-fit and the correlation of those models with those symptoms. METHODS: Ninety-three consecutive patients treated from 2010 to 2015 with post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were included in this study...
February 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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