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Radiobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325250/radiotherapy-in-the-age-of-cancer-immunology-current-concepts-and-future-developments
#1
REVIEW
Mauro Loi, Isacco Desideri, Daniela Greto, Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Icro Meattini, Carlotta Becherini, Francesca Terziani, Camilla Delli Paoli, Emanuela Olmetto, Pierluigi Bonomo, Lorenzo Livi
Major advances in the knowledge of cancer biology and its interactions with tumor immune environment led to the emergence, in the last five years of new immunotherapy-based treatment strategies in cancer patients. At the same time, improvement in radiation technique and progress in radiobiology allowed in the last decade to expand the applications of radiotherapy in a growing number of settings. At present, there are strong theoretical basis to propose immune-enhanced radiation therapy that may represent in the future a new paradigm of treatment, combining the intrinsic power of radiotherapy to elicit a specific, systemic, tumor-directed immune response with modern highly conformal and precise dose delivery, in order to maximize response at the major site of disease and obtain durable disease control...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325247/implementing-cancer-care-for-the-undeserved-globally-from-the-5-r-s-of-radiobiology-to-the-7-p-s-of-global-cancer-care
#2
EDITORIAL
Tim R Williams, C Norman Coleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323637/accelerated-monte-carlo-simulation-on-the-chemical-stage-in-water-radiolysis-using-gpu
#3
Zhen Tian, Steve B Jiang, Xun Jia
The accurate simulation of water radiolysis is an important step to understand the mechanisms of radiobiology and quantitatively test some hypotheses regarding radiobiological effects. However, the simulation of water radiolysis is highly time consuming, taking hours or even days to be completed by a conventional CPU processor. This time limitation hinders cell-level simulations for a number of research studies. We recently initiated efforts to develop gMicroMC, a GPU-based fast microscopic MC simulation package for water radiolysis...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322329/an-expanded-multi-scale-monte-carlo-simulation-method-for-personalized-radiobiological-effect-estimation-in-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#4
Ying Zhang, Yuanming Feng, Wei Wang, Chengwen Yang, Ping Wang
A novel and versatile "bottom-up" approach is developed to estimate the radiobiological effect of clinic radiotherapy. The model consists of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations from organ to cell levels. At cellular level, accumulated damages are computed using a spectrum-based accumulation algorithm and predefined cellular damage database. The damage repair mechanism is modeled by an expanded reaction-rate two-lesion kinetic model, which were calibrated through replicating a radiobiological experiment. Multi-scale modeling is then performed on a lung cancer patient under conventional fractionated irradiation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300190/a-mechanistic-study-of-gold-nanoparticle-radiosensitisation-using-targeted-microbeam-irradiation
#5
Mihaela Ghita, Stephen J McMahon, Laura E Taggart, Karl T Butterworth, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated as effective radiosensitizing agents in a range of preclinical models using broad field sources of various energies. This study aimed to distinguish between these mechanisms by applying subcellular targeting using a soft X-ray microbeam in combination with GNPs. DNA damage and repair kinetics were determined following nuclear and cytoplasmic irradiation using a soft X-ray (carbon K-shell, 278 eV) microbeam in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and AG01522 fibroblast cells with and without GNPs...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298016/a-proposed-plan-for-personalized-radiosurgery-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#6
Seyed H Mousavi, Ajay Niranjan, Berkcan Akpinar, Edward A Monaco, Jonathan Cohen, Jagdish Bhatnagar, Yue-Fang Chang, Hideyuki Kano, Sakibul Huq, John C Flickinger, L Dade Lunsford
OBJECTIVE During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients worldwide with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) have undergone stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a standard dose of radiation. However, the radiobiological effect of radiation is determined by the amount of energy delivered to the tissue (integral dose [ID] = mean dose × target volume) and is directly associated with the nerve volume. Although the trigeminal nerve volume varies among patients with TN, the clinical impact of this variation in delivered energy is unknown...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291739/a-radiobiological-model-of-metastatic-burden-reduction-for-molecular-radiotherapy-application-to-patients-with-bone-metastases
#7
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, Iain Murray, Antigoni Divoli, V Ralph McCready, David P Dearnaley, Joe M O'Sullivan, Bernadette Johnson, Glenn D Flux
Skeletal tumour burden is a biomarker of prognosis and survival in cancer patients. This study proposes a novel method based on the linear quadratic model to predict the reduction in metastatic tumour burden as a function of the absorbed doses delivered from molecular radiotherapy treatments. The range of absorbed doses necessary to eradicate all the bone lesions and to reduce the metastatic burden was investigated in a cohort of 22 patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. A metastatic burden reduction curve was generated for each patient, which predicts the reduction in metastatic burden as a function of the patient mean absorbed dose, defined as the mean of all the lesion absorbed doses in any given patient...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290489/charged-particle-therapy-in-cancer-clinical-uses-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Marco Durante, Roberto Orecchia, Jay S Loeffler
Radiotherapy with high-energy charged particles has become an attractive therapeutic option for patients with several tumour types because this approach better spares healthy tissue from radiation than conventional photon therapy. The cost associated with the delivery of charged particles, however, is higher than that of even the most elaborate photon-delivery technologies. Reliable evidence of the relative cost-effectiveness of both modalities can only come from the results of randomized clinical trials. Thus, the hurdles that currently limit direct comparisons of these two approaches in clinical trials, especially those related to insurance coverage, should be removed...
March 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285162/angular-dose-anisotropy-around-gold-nanoparticles-exposed-to-x-rays
#9
Sherif M Gadoue, Dolla Toomeh, Piotr Zygmanski, Erno Sajo
Gold nanoparticle (GNP) radiotherapy has recently emerged as a promising modality in cancer treatment. The use of high atomic number nanoparticles can lead to enhanced radiation dose in tumors due to low-energy leakage electrons depositing in the vicinity of the GNP. A single metric, the dose enhancement ratio has been used in the literature, often in substantial disagreement, to quantify the GNP's capacity to increase local energy deposition. This 1D approach neglects known sources of dose anisotropy and assumes that one average value is representative of the dose enhancement...
March 8, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284991/a-novel-multitarget-model-of-radiation-induced-cell-killing-based-on-the-gaussian-distribution
#10
Lei Zhao, Dong Mi, Yeqing Sun
The multitarget version of the traditional target theory based on the Poisson distribution is still used to describe the dose-survival curves of cells after ionizing radiation in radiobiology and radiotherapy. However, noting that the usual ionizing radiation damage is the result of two sequential stochastic processes, the probability distribution of the damage number per cell should follow a compound Poisson distribution, like e.g. Neyman's distribution of type A (N. A.). In consideration of that the Gaussian distribution can be considered as the approximation of the N...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276897/computational-modeling-of-radiobiological-effects-in-bone-metastases-for-different-radionuclides
#11
Francisco D C Guerra Liberal, Adriana Alexandre S Tavares, João Manuel R S Tavares
PURPOSE: Computational simulation is a simple and practical way to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aimed to evaluate and compare cellular effects modelled for different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. METHODS: Computational models were used to estimate the radiation-induced cellular effects (Virtual Cell Radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by Strontium-89 ((89)Sr), Samarium-153 ((153)Sm), Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu), and Radium-223 ((223)Ra)...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273921/different-definitions-of-esophagus-influence-esophageal-toxicity-prediction-for-esophageal-cancer-patients-administered-simultaneous-integrated-boost-versus-standard-dose-radiation-therapy
#12
Bao-Tian Huang, Rui-Hong Huang, Wu-Zhe Zhang, Wen Lin, Long-Jia Guo, Liang-Yu Xu, Pei-Xian Lin, Jian-Zhou Chen, De-Rui Li, Chuang-Zhen Chen
We aim to evaluate whether different definitions of esophagus (DEs) impact on the esophageal toxicity prediction for esophageal cancer (EC) patients administered intensity-modulated radiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT) vs. standard-dose IMRT (SD-IMRT). The esophagus for 21 patients diagnosed with primary EC were defined in the following four ways: the whole esophagus, including the tumor (ESOwhole); ESOwhole within the treatment field (ESOinfield); ESOinfield, excluding the tumor (ESOinfield-tumor) and ESOwhole, excluding the tumor (ESOwhole-tumor)...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273349/a-radiobiological-model-of-reoxygenation-and-fractionation-effects
#13
Mariana Guerrero, David J Carlson
PURPOSE: To develop a radiobiological model of reoxygenation that fulfills the following goals.: 1 Quantify the reoxygenation effect for different fractionations. 2 Model the hypoxic fraction in tumors as a function of the number of radiation treatments. 3 Develop a simple analytical expression for a reoxygenation term in biological effect calculations. METHOD: The model considers tumor cells in two compartments: an aerobic (or normoxic) population of cells and a hypoxic population including cells under a range of reduced oxygen concentrations...
March 8, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273210/biological-x-ray-irradiator-characterization-for-use-with-small-animals-and-cells
#14
A Colello Bruno, S J Mazaro, L L Amaral, E M Rego, H F Oliveira, J F Pavoni
This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices...
March 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271395/comparing-pre-therapeutic-124-i-and-131-i-uptake-tests-with-intra-therapeutic-131-i-uptake-in-benign-thyroid-disorders
#15
Falk Gühne, Christian Kühnel, Martin Freesmeyer
PURPOSE: (124)I-PET/CT can be used for pre-therapeutic assessment of radioactive iodine uptake in benign thyroid disorders, however systematic comparisons with intra-therapeutic uptake are still lacking for these disorders. The goals of this study were to compare (124)I RAIU and conventional (131)I RAIU tests with each other; to compare both tests with intra-therapeutic uptake (reference); and to verify the time course of radioactive iodine uptake at three time points (30, 102, and 336 h [14 days] post administration; p...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265240/optimal-planning-strategy-among-various-arc-arrangements-for-prostate-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-with-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-technique
#16
Sang Won Kang, Jin Beom Chung, Jae Sung Kim, In Ah Kim, Keun Yong Eom, Changhoon Song, Jeong Woo Lee, Jin Young Kim, Tae Suk Suh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal strategy among various arc arrangements in prostate plans of stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy (SBRT-VMAT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: To investigate how arc arrangements affect dosimetric and biological metrics, SBRT-VMAT plans for eighteen patients were generated with arrangements of single-full arc (1FA), single-partial arc (1PA), double-full arc (2FA), and double-partial arc (2PA)...
March 1, 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256151/the-emerging-potential-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-personalizing-radiotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-an-oncologist-s-perspective
#17
Kee H Wong, Rafal Panek, Shreerang A Bhide, Christopher M Nutting, Kevin J Harrington, Katie L Newbold
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a challenging tumour site for radiotherapy delivery owing to its complex anatomy and proximity to organs at risk (OARs) such as the spinal cord and optic apparatus. Despite significant advances in radiotherapy planning techniques, radiation-induced morbidities remain substantial. Further improvement would require high-quality imaging and tailored radiotherapy based on intratreatment response. For these reasons, the use of MRI in radiotherapy planning for HNC is rapidly gaining popularity...
March 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254524/experiences-of-radiological-examinations-of-buildings-in-hungary
#18
Zsolt Homoki, Péter Rell, Zsolt Déri, Gábor Kocsy
Natural radioisotopes occur everywhere in the environment, being a source of exposure to the general population. Everyone is continuously exposed to terrestrial and cosmic radiations both indoors and outdoors, which are the main contributors to external exposure of individuals. There were made many ambient dose rate and indoor gamma radiation and radon concentration measurements in Hungarian by different laboratories. The main goal of the present work is the summarisation and evaluation of the latest results of the Laboratory of National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236655/targeted-dose-enhancement-in-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer-using-gold-nanoparticles-part-1-a-radiobiological-model-study
#19
Veronica Ferrero, Giovanni Visonà, Federico Dalmasso, Andrea Gobbato, Piergiorgio Cerello, Andrea Attili, Lidia Strigari, Sonja Visentin
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being proposed in combination with radiotherapy to improve tumor control. However, the exact mechanisms underlying GNP radiosensitization are yet to be understood, thus, we present a new approach to estimate the nanoparticle-driven increase in radiosensitivity. METHODS: A stochastic radiobiological model derived from the Local Effect Model (LEM) was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations performed using to estimate the increase in radiosensitivity due to the local dose deposited by secondary electrons produced from the interaction between the photons and GNPs at a nanometric level...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236652/theoretical-effectiveness-of-cell-survival-in-fractionated-radiotherapy-with-hypoxia-targeted-dose-escalation
#20
Alexei V Chvetsov, Joseph G Rajendran, Jing Zeng, Patel A Shilpen, Stephen R Bowen, Edward Y Kim
PURPOSE: The goal of this article is to compute the cell survival during fractionated radiotherapy with non-uniform hypoxia-targeted dose distribution relative to cell survival for a uniform dose distribution with equal integral tumor dose. The analysis is performed for different parameters of radiotherapy with conventional and hypofractionated dose regimens. METHODS: Our analysis is done using a parsimonious tumor response model that describes the major components of tumor response to radiotherapy such as radiosensitivity, cell proliferation and hypoxia using as few variables as possible...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
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