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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621586/the-cooler-code-a-novel-analytical-approach-to-calculate-subcellular-energy-deposition-by-internal-electron-emitters
#1
Mattia Siragusa, Giorgio Baiocco, Pil M Fredericia, Werner Friedland, Torsten Groesser, Andrea Ottolenghi, Mikael Jensen
COmputation of Local Electron Release (COOLER), a software program designed for dosimetry assessment at the cellular/subcellular scale, with a given distribution of administered low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides in cellular compartments, which remains a critical step in risk/benefit analysis for advancements in internal radiotherapy. The software is intended to overcome the main limitations of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism for calculations of cellular S-values (i.e., dose to a target region in the cell per decay in a given source region), namely, the use of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the assumption of a spherical cell geometry...
June 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621265/improving-radiotherapy-in-cancer-treatment-promises-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Effective radiotherapy for cancer has relied on the promise of maximally eradicating tumor cells while minimally killing normal cells. Technological advancement has provided state-of-the-art instrumentation that enables delivery of radiotherapy with great precision to tumor lesions with substantial reduced injury to normal tissues. Moreover, better understanding of radiobiology, particularly the mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and resistance in tumor lesions and toxicity in normal tissues, has improved the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600830/external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-teratomas
#3
Andrew S Lee, Chad Tang, Wan Xing Hong, Sujin Park, Magdalena Bazalova, Geoff Nelson, Veronica Sanchez-Freire, Isaac Bakerman, Wendy Zhang, Evgenios Neofytou, Andrew J Connolly, Charles K Chan, Edward E Graves, Irving L Weissman, Patricia K Nguyen, Joseph C Wu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present the evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by utilizing a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals...
June 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599420/gene-and-mirna-expression-profiles-of-mouse-lewis-lung-carcinoma-llc1-cells-following-single-or-fractionated-dose-irradiation
#4
Vaidotas Stankevicius, Karolina Kuodyte, Diana Schveigert, Danute Bulotiene, Tomas Paulauskas, Kristina Daniunaite, Kestutis Suziedelis
In clinical practice ionizing radiation (IR) is primarily applied to cancer treatment in the form of fractionated dose (FD) irradiation. Despite this fact, a substantially higher amount of current knowledge in the field of radiobiology comes from in vitro studies based on the cellular response to single dose (SD) irradiation. In addition, intrinsic and acquired resistance to IR remains an issue in clinical practice, leading to radiotherapy treatment failure. Numerous previous studies suggest that an improved understanding of the molecular processes involved in the radiation-induced DNA damage response to FD irradiation could improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598362/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-a-review-of-clinical-experiences-and-preclinical-research-with-an-emphasis-on-dna-damage-repair
#5
REVIEW
Osama Mohamad, Brock J Sishc, Janapriya Saha, Arnold Pompos, Asal Rahimi, Michael D Story, Anthony J Davis, D W Nathan Kim
Compared to conventional photon-based external beam radiation (PhXRT), carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) has superior dose distribution, higher linear energy transfer (LET), and a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This enhanced RBE is driven by a unique DNA damage signature characterized by clustered lesions that overwhelm the DNA repair capacity of malignant cells. These physical and radiobiological characteristics imbue heavy ions with potent tumoricidal capacity, while having the potential for simultaneously maximally sparing normal tissues...
June 9, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592116/radionuclides-in-radiation-induced-bystander-effect-may-it-share-in-radionuclide-therapy
#6
M Widel
For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583632/alternative-imaging-strategy-of-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-by-fdg-pet-ct-can-be-imagined-a-tailored-pet
#7
Marco Spadafora, Laura Evangelista, Cesare Gridelli, Alberto Cuocolo
OBJECTIVE: Patients with solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) are usually sent to total-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, a segmental scan strategy may improve cost/effectiveness in this category of patients. CONCLUSION: A segmental PET/CT scan only at the chest level could be performed in patients with indeterminate SPN. Limiting the PET/CT field to the thoracic region would greatly affect on radiobiology, department organization and health-care costs...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581384/radiobiology-and-the-renewed-potential-for-nanoparticles
#8
Brian Marples, Shanta Dhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577834/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Amar U Kishan, Christopher R King
With over a decade׳s worth of clinical experience to guide stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), sufficient data exist for robust conclusions to be made regarding its efficacy and the toxicities associated with this treatment. We briefly review the fundamental radiobiological basis of SBRT for PCa and provide a comprehensive synthesis of the medical literature to date, focusing on clinical outcomes and toxicities. When possible, we draw comparisons to comparable data for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566240/frontiers-in-planning-optimization-for-lung-sbrt
#10
Francesca Romana Giglioli, Stefania Clemente, Marco Esposito, Christian Fiandra, Carmelo Marino, Serenella Russo, Lidia Strigari, Elena Villaggi, Michele Stasi, Pietro Mancosu
Emerging data are showing the safety and the efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer management. In this context, the very high doses delivered to the Planning Target Volume, make the planning phase essential for achieving high dose levels conformed to the shape of the target in order to have a good prognosis for tumor control and to avoid an overdose in relevant healthy adjacent tissue. In this non-systematic review we analyzed the technological and the physics aspects of SBRT planning for lung cancer...
May 26, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561011/rapid-implementation-of-the-repair-misrepair-fixation-rmf-model-facilitating-online-adaption-of-radiosensitivity-parameters-in-ion-therapy
#11
F Kamp, D J Carlson, J J Wilkens
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning for ion therapy must account for physical properties of the beam as well as differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions compared to photons. In this work, we present a fast RBE calculation approach, based on the decoupling of physical properties and the [Formula: see text] ratio commonly used to describe the radiosensitivity of irradiated cells or organs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the framework of the mechanistic repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model, the biological modeling can be decoupled from the physical dose...
July 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557800/lateral-variations-of-radiobiological-properties-of-therapeutic-fields-of-sup-1-sup-h-sup-4-sup-he-sup-12-sup-c-and-sup-16-sup-o-ions-studied-with-geant4-and-microdosimetric-kinetic-model
#12
Sophie Dewey, Lucas Burigo, Igor A Pshenichnov, Igor Mishustin, Marcus Bleicher
As known, in cancer therapy with ion beams the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions changes in the course of their propagation in tissues. Such changes are caused not only by increasing the linear energy transfer (LET) of beam particles with the penetration depth towards the Bragg peak, but also by nuclear reactions induced by beam nuclei leading to the production of various secondary particles. Although the changes of RBE along the beam axis have been studied quite well, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of RBE in the transverse direction, perpendicular to the beam axis...
May 30, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556241/carbon-and-oxygen-minibeam-radiation-therapy-an-experimental-dosimetric-evaluation
#13
Immaculada Martínez-Rovira, Wilfredo González, Stephan Brons, Yolanda Prezado
PURPOSE: To perform dosimetric characterization of a minibeam collimator in both carbon and oxygen ion beams to guide optimal set up geometry and irradiation for future radiobiological studies using these beams. METHODS: Carbon and oxygen minibeams were generated using a prototype tungsten multislit collimator presenting line apertures 700 μm wide, which are spaced 3500 μm centre-to-centre distance apart. Several radiation beam spots generated the desired field size of 15X15 mm(2) and production of a 50 mm long spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) centered at 80 mm-depth in water...
May 29, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554510/cosmic-ray-interaction-data-for-designing-biological-experiments-in-space
#14
T Straume, T C Slaba, S Bhattacharya, L A Braby
There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel-type missions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide physical cosmic-ray interaction data and related information useful to biologists who may be planning such experiments...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553585/dosimetric-and-radiobiological-evaluation-of-multiparametric-mri-guided-dose-painting-in-radiotherapy-of-prostate-cancer
#15
Iraj Abedi, Mohammad B Tavakkoli, Keyvan Jabbari, Alireza Amouheidari, Ghasem Yadegarfard
Radiotherapy is one of the treatment options for locally advanced prostate cancer; however, with standard radiation doses, it is not always very effective. One of the strategies to improve the efficiency of radiotherapy is increasing the dose. In this study, to increase tumor local control rates, a new radiotherapy method, known as dose painting (DP), was investigated. To compare 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with DP for prostate cancer. Twenty-four consecutive patients with locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent an multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) (T2w, diffusion weighted image, dynamic contrast enhancement, and MRS) scan before a diagnostic biopsy from September 2015 to April 2016 were invited to take part in this study...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552859/radiobiological-implications-of-fukushima-nuclear-accident-for-personalized-medical-approach
#16
Hisanori Fukunaga, Akinari Yokoya, Yasuyuki Taki, Kevin M Prise
On March 11, 2011, a devastating earthquake and subsequent tsunami caused serious damage to areas of the Pacific coast in Fukushima prefecture and prompted fears among the residents about a possible meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactors. As of 2017, over six years have passed since the Fukushima nuclear crisis and yet the full ramifications of the biological exposures to this accidental release of radioactive substances remain unclear. Furthermore, although several genetic studies have determined that the variation in radiation sensitivity among different individuals is wider than expected, personalized medical approaches for Fukushima victims have seemed to be insufficient...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545054/an-optimized-small-animal-tumour-model-for-experimentation-with-low-energy-protons
#17
Elke Beyreuther, Kerstin Brüchner, Mechthild Krause, Margret Schmidt, Rita Szabo, Jörg Pawelke
BACKGROUND: The long-term aim of developing laser based particle acceleration towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short and ultra-intensive particle beam pulses. After comprehensive cell studies a mouse ear tumour model was established allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~20 MeV) currently available at laser driven accelerators. The model was successfully applied for a first tumour growth delay study with laser driven electrons, whereby the need of improvements crop out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541775/cellular-response-to-exponentially-increasing-and-decreasing-dose-rates-implications-for-treatment-planning-in-targeted-radionuclide-therapy
#18
Jay H Solanki, Thomas Tritt, Jordan B Pasternack, Julia J Kim, Calvin N Leung, Jason D Domogauer, Nicholas W Colangelo, Venkat R Narra, Roger W Howell
The treatment of cancer using targeted radionuclide therapy is of interest to nuclear medicine and radiation oncology because of its potential for killing tumor cells while minimizing dose-limiting toxicities to normal tissue. The ionizing radiations emitted by radiopharmaceuticals deliver radiation absorbed doses over protracted periods of time with continuously varying dose rates. As targeted radionuclide therapy becomes a more prominent part of cancer therapy, accurate models for estimating the biologically effective dose (BED) or equieffective dose given in 2 fractions (EQD2α/β) will become essential for treatment planning...
May 25, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540813/measurement-and-analysis-of-the-impact-of-time-interval-temperature-and-radiation-dose-on-tumour-cell-survival-and-its-application-in-thermoradiotherapy-plan-evaluation
#19
C M van Leeuwen, A L Oei, R Ten Cate, N A P Franken, A Bel, L J A Stalpers, J Crezee, H P Kok
PURPOSE: Biological modelling of thermoradiotherapy may further improve patient selection and treatment plan optimisation, but requires a model that describes the biological effect as a function of variables that affect treatment outcome (e.g. temperature, radiation dose). This study aimed to establish such a model and its parameters. Additionally, a clinical example was presented to illustrate the application. METHODS: Cell survival assays were performed at various combinations of radiation dose (0-8 Gy), temperature (37-42 °C), time interval (0-4 h) and treatment sequence (radiotherapy before/after hyperthermia) for two cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa and HeLa)...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540739/hypoxia-imaging-and-radiotherapy-bridging-the-resolution-gap
#20
David Robert Grimes, Daniel R Warren, Samantha Warren
Oxygen distribution is a major determinant of treatment success in radiotherapy, with well-oxygenated tumour regions responding by up to a factor of three relative to anoxic volumes. Conversely, tumour hypoxia is associated with treatment resistance and negative prognosis. Tumour oxygenation is highly heterogeneous and difficult to measure directly. The recent advent of functional hypoxia imaging modalities such as fluorine-18 fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography have shown promise in non-invasively determining regions of low oxygen tension...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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