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Radiobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713681/the-use-of-tcp-based-eud-to-rank-and-compare-lung-radiotherapy-plans-in-silico-study-to-evaluate-the-correlation-between-tcp-with-physical-quality-indices
#1
Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso
BACKGROUND: To apply the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) radiobiological model to estimate the tumor control probability (TCP) scores for treatment plans using different radiobiological parameter settings, and to evaluate the correlation between TCP and physical quality indices of the treatment plans. METHODS: Ten radiotherapy treatment plans for lung cancer were generated. The dose distributions were calculated using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Dose parameters and quality indices derived from dose volume histograms (DVH) for target volumes were evaluated...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712717/radiobiological-evaluation-of-prostate-cancer-imrt-and-conformal-rt-plans-using-different-treatment-protocols
#2
Panayiotis Mavroidis, Georgios Komisopoulos, Courtney Buckey, Margarita Mavroeidi, Gregory P Swanson, Dimos Baltas, Nikos Papanikolaou, Sotirios Stathakis
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of both step-and-shoot IMRT and 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy modalities (CRT) in treating prostate cancer using radiobiological measures. Another aim was to estimate the risks for developing secondary malignancies in bladder and rectum due to radiotherapy from the corresponding modalities. The treatment plans of ten prostate cancer patients were developed using IMRT and CRT. For the IMRT plans, two beam energies and two treatment protocols were used (the RTOG 0415 and a most restrictive one proposed by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC))...
July 13, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712533/dose-volume-toxicity-modeling-for-de-intensified-chemo-radiation-therapy-for-hpv-positive-oropharynx-cancer
#3
Panayiotis Mavroidis, Alex Price, David Fried, Mark Kostich, Robert Amdur, William Mendenhall, Chihray Liu, Shiva Das, Lawrence B Marks, Bhishamjit Chera
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim is to determine the radiobiological parameters of four popular normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models that describe the dose-response relations of salivary glands and pharyngeal constrictors to the severity of patient reported xerostomia and dysphagia, respectively 6 and 12months post chemo-radiotherapy, furthermore, to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the NTCP models for different combinations of glands and constrictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-three patients were treated on a prospective multi-institutional phase II study (ClinicalTrials...
July 13, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709028/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-dose-rate-effect-on-the-biological-effectiveness-of-megavoltage-x-ray-radiation-doses
#4
Sianne Oktaria, Michael L F Lerch, Anatoly B Rosenfeld, Moeava Tehei, Stéphanie Corde
Radiation therapy is rapidly evolving toward the delivery of higher dose rates to improve cancer treatment. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the response of 9L and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, exposed to 10MV X-ray radiations. Up to 8Gy was delivered at a dose-rate of 50cGy/min compared to 5Gy/min. The data obtained emphasizes the importance of taking into account not only the physical, but also the radiobiological parameters, when planning a particular cancer treatment.
July 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704557/monte-carlo-studies-on-neutron-interactions-in-radiobiological-experiments
#5
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, Tak Cheong Hau, D Krstic, D Nikezic, K N Yu
Monte Carlo method was used to study the characteristics of neutron interactions with cells underneath a water medium layer with varying thickness. The following results were obtained. (1) The fractions of neutron interaction with 1H, 12C, 14N and 16O nuclei in the cell layer were studied. The fraction with 1H increased with increasing medium thickness, while decreased for 12C, 14N and 16O nuclei. The bulges in the interaction fractions with 12C, 14N and 16O nuclei were explained by the resonance spikes in the interaction cross-section data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697853/inhibition-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-related-3-atr-improves-therapeutic-index-in-preclinical-models-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-radiotherapy
#6
Victoria Dunne, Mihaela Ghita, Donna M Small, Caroline B M Coffey, Sinead Weldon, Clifford C Taggart, Sarah O Osman, Conor K McGarry, Kevin M Prise, Gerard G Hanna, Karl T Butterworth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of ATR inhibition using AZD6738 in combination with radiotherapy on the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumour models and a murine model of radiation induced fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AZD6738 was evaluated as a monotherapy and in combination with radiation in vitro and in vivo using A549 and H460 NSCLC models. Radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histological staining...
July 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686531/microenvironment-and-dose-delivery-dependent-response-after-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Vaidotas Stankevicius, Gintautas Vasauskas, Ryte Rynkeviciene, Jonas Venius, Vita Pasukoniene, Eduardas Aleknaviciusa, Kestutis Suziedelisa
A significant body of knowledge about radiobiology is based on studies of single dose cellular irradiation, despite the fact that conventional clinical applications using dose fractionation. In addition, cellular radiation response strongly depends on cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, which are poorly established in cancer cells grown under standard 2D cell culture conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) DLD1 and HT29 cell lines, bearing distinct p53 mutations, to a single 2 or 10 Gy dose or fractionated 5 × 2 Gy doses of radiation using global transcriptomics analysis...
July 7, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681150/predicting-patient-specific-radiotherapy-protocols-based-on-mathematical-model-choice-for-proliferation-saturation-index
#8
Jan Poleszczuk, Rachel Walker, Eduardo G Moros, Kujtim Latifi, Jimmy J Caudell, Heiko Enderling
Radiation is commonly used in cancer treatment. Over 50% of all cancer patients will undergo radiotherapy (RT) as part of cancer care. Scientific advances in RT have primarily focused on the physical characteristics of treatment including beam quality and delivery. Only recently have inroads been made into utilizing tumor biology and radiobiology to design more appropriate RT protocols. Tumors are composites of proliferating and growth-arrested cells, and overall response depends on their respective proportions at irradiation...
July 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657906/radiogenomics-and-radiotherapy-response-modeling
#9
Issam El Naqa, Sarah L Kerns, James Coates, Yi Luo, Corey Speers, Catharine M L West, Barry S Rosenstein, Randall K Ten Haken
Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques...
June 28, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644558/current-understanding-of-cancer-stem-cells-review-of-their-radiobiology-and-role-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak
Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose...
June 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621586/the-cooler-code-a-novel-analytical-approach-to-calculate-subcellular-energy-deposition-by-internal-electron-emitters
#11
Mattia Siragusa, Giorgio Baiocco, Pil M Fredericia, Werner Friedland, Torsten Groesser, Andrea Ottolenghi, Mikael Jensen
COmputation Of Local Electron Release (COOLER), a software program has been designed for dosimetry assessment at the cellular/subcellular scale, with a given distribution of administered low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides in cellular compartments, which remains a critical step in risk/benefit analysis for advancements in internal radiotherapy. The software is intended to overcome the main limitations of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism for calculations of cellular S-values (i.e., dose to a target region in the cell per decay in a given source region), namely, the use of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) and the assumption of a spherical cell geometry...
August 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621265/improving-radiotherapy-in-cancer-treatment-promises-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Effective radiotherapy for cancer has relied on the promise of maximally eradicating tumor cells while minimally killing normal cells. Technological advancement has provided state-of-the-art instrumentation that enables delivery of radiotherapy with great precision to tumor lesions with substantial reduced injury to normal tissues. Moreover, better understanding of radiobiology, particularly the mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and resistance in tumor lesions and toxicity in normal tissues, has improved the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600830/brief-report-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-teratomas
#13
Andrew S Lee, Chad Tang, Wan Xing Hong, Sujin Park, Magdalena Bazalova-Carter, Geoff Nelson, Veronica Sanchez-Freire, Isaac Bakerman, Wendy Zhang, Evgenios Neofytou, Andrew J Connolly, Charles K Chan, Edward E Graves, Irving L Weissman, Patricia K Nguyen, Joseph C Wu
Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein, we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by using a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals...
June 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599420/gene-and-mirna-expression-profiles-of-mouse-lewis-lung-carcinoma-llc1-cells-following-single-or-fractionated-dose-irradiation
#14
Vaidotas Stankevicius, Karolina Kuodyte, Diana Schveigert, Danute Bulotiene, Tomas Paulauskas, Kristina Daniunaite, Kestutis Suziedelis
In clinical practice ionizing radiation (IR) is primarily applied to cancer treatment in the form of fractionated dose (FD) irradiation. Despite this fact, a substantially higher amount of current knowledge in the field of radiobiology comes from in vitro studies based on the cellular response to single dose (SD) irradiation. In addition, intrinsic and acquired resistance to IR remains an issue in clinical practice, leading to radiotherapy treatment failure. Numerous previous studies suggest that an improved understanding of the molecular processes involved in the radiation-induced DNA damage response to FD irradiation could improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598362/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-a-review-of-clinical-experiences-and-preclinical-research-with-an-emphasis-on-dna-damage-repair
#15
REVIEW
Osama Mohamad, Brock J Sishc, Janapriya Saha, Arnold Pompos, Asal Rahimi, Michael D Story, Anthony J Davis, D W Nathan Kim
Compared to conventional photon-based external beam radiation (PhXRT), carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) has superior dose distribution, higher linear energy transfer (LET), and a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This enhanced RBE is driven by a unique DNA damage signature characterized by clustered lesions that overwhelm the DNA repair capacity of malignant cells. These physical and radiobiological characteristics imbue heavy ions with potent tumoricidal capacity, while having the potential for simultaneously maximally sparing normal tissues...
June 9, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592116/radionuclides-in-radiation-induced-bystander-effect-may-it-share-in-radionuclide-therapy
#16
M Widel
For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583632/alternative-imaging-strategy-of-solitary-pulmonary-nodule-by-fdg-pet-ct-can-be-imagined-a-tailored-pet
#17
Marco Spadafora, Laura Evangelista, Cesare Gridelli, Alberto Cuocolo
OBJECTIVE: Patients with solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) are usually sent to total-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, a segmental scan strategy may improve cost/effectiveness in this category of patients. CONCLUSION: A segmental PET/CT scan only at the chest level could be performed in patients with indeterminate SPN. Limiting the PET/CT field to the thoracic region would greatly affect on radiobiology, department organization and health-care costs...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581384/radiobiology-and-the-renewed-potential-for-nanoparticles
#18
Brian Marples, Shanta Dhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577834/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Amar U Kishan, Christopher R King
With over a decade׳s worth of clinical experience to guide stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa), sufficient data exist for robust conclusions to be made regarding its efficacy and the toxicities associated with this treatment. We briefly review the fundamental radiobiological basis of SBRT for PCa and provide a comprehensive synthesis of the medical literature to date, focusing on clinical outcomes and toxicities. When possible, we draw comparisons to comparable data for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566240/frontiers-in-planning-optimization-for-lung-sbrt
#20
Francesca Romana Giglioli, Stefania Clemente, Marco Esposito, Christian Fiandra, Carmelo Marino, Serenella Russo, Lidia Strigari, Elena Villaggi, Michele Stasi, Pietro Mancosu
Emerging data are showing the safety and the efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer management. In this context, the very high doses delivered to the Planning Target Volume, make the planning phase essential for achieving high dose levels conformed to the shape of the target in order to have a good prognosis for tumor control and to avoid an overdose in relevant healthy adjacent tissue. In this non-systematic review we analyzed the technological and the physics aspects of SBRT planning for lung cancer...
May 26, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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