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Bipolar review

Kei Itagaki, Minoru Takebayashi, Chiyo Shibasaki, Naoto Kajitani, Hiromi Abe, Mami Okada-Tsuchioka, Shigeto Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment for depression is highly effective, the high rate of relapse is a critical problem. The current study investigated factors associated with the risk of relapse in mood disorders in patients in which ECT was initially effective. METHOD: The records of 100 patients with mood disorders (61 unipolar depression, 39 bipolar depression) who received and responded to an acute ECT course were retrospectively reviewed...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jacek Z Kubiak, Claude Prigent
The aim of this short review is to describe the contribution of Xenopus laevis egg extracts to the discovery and understanding of the regulation and function of the serine/threonine kinase Aurora-A. The power of these extracts to recapitulate cell cycle events makes them a precious tool to decipher complex biological processes at the molecular level, including the mechanisms that affect Aurora-A (post-translational modifications) and mechanisms in which Aurora-A plays a crucial role (bipolar spindle assembly)...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
J E Palmier-Claus, K Berry, S Bucci, W Mansell, F Varese
BACKGROUND: The relationship between childhood adversity and bipolar affective disorder remains unclear. AIMS: To understand the size and significance of this effect through a statistical synthesis of reported research. METHOD: Search terms relating to childhood adversity and bipolar disorder were entered into Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible studies included a sample diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a comparison sample and a quantitative measure of childhood adversity...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Milan V Stevanovic, Vanessa G Cuéllar, Alidad Ghiassi, Frances Sharpe
: In the upper extremity, the latissimus dorsi muscle can be used as an ipsilateral rotational muscle flap for soft-tissue coverage or functional reconstruction of arm and elbow. Patients who have both major soft-tissue loss and functional deficits can be successfully treated with a single-stage functional latissimus dorsi rotational muscle transfer that provides simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction. METHODS: Our data base was queried for all patients undergoing a rotational latissimus dorsi muscle transfer for simultaneous soft-tissue coverage and functional reconstruction of elbow flexion...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Michael W Drazer, Walter M Stadler
Most men with metastatic prostate cancer who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy will eventually develop castration-resistant disease. In this review, we examine the molecular mechanisms that constitute castration resistance and how these processes may be exploited using testosterone-based therapies. We detail how the utilization of superphysiologic doses of testosterone at regular intervals, followed by a rapid clearance of testosterone through continued chemical castration, also known as bipolar androgen therapy, offers an especially promising therapeutic approach...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Stephanie Cham, Hayley J Koslik, Beatrice A Golomb
Psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been reported with statin use, but the literature regarding statin-associated mood/behavioral changes remains limited. We sought to elicit information germane to natural history and characteristics of central nervous system/behavioral changes in apparent connection with statin and/or cholesterol-lowering drug use, and delineate mechanisms that may bear on an association. Participants (and/or proxies) self-referred with behavioral and/or mood changes in apparent association with statins completed a survey eliciting cholesterol-lowering drug history, character and impact of behavioral/mood effect, time-course of onset and recovery in relation to drug use/modification, co-occurrence of recognized statin-associated ADRs, and factors relevant to ADR causality determination...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Charles B Nemeroff
Personalized or precision medicine is a medical discipline that proposes tailoring health care to each individual by integrating data from their genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications, other biomarkers, clinical symptoms and environmental exposures. Currently, patients typically present for treatment of mood disorders relatively late in the disease course and this is of great concern both because delay in attaining remission reduces the success of subsequent treatment and depressive episodes have negative cumulative effects on the brain and body...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Amélie M Achim, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
BACKGROUND: One of the main features of bipolar disorder (BD), besides mood dysregulation, is an alteration of the structure of language. Bipolar patients present changes in semantic contents, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language highlighted with various experimental tasks. Verbal fluency tasks are widely used to assess the abilities of bipolar patients to retrieve and produce verbal material from the lexico-semantic memory. Studies using these tasks have however yielded discrepant results...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Amelia Paterson, Gordon Parker
Although a percentage of patients report cognitive side-effects when taking lithium, it can be difficult to determine from the literature whether any cognitive changes reflect lithium itself, the lithium serum level, residual mood symptoms, the underlying nature of bipolar disorder, or biological alterations such as hypothyroidism. This review was carried out to synthesize and evaluate relevant literature examining any cognitive impact of lithium in those with bipolar disorder. The effect of lithium in those with bipolar disorder was examined across the cognitive domains of attention, psychomotor speed, processing speed, working memory, intellectual functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning by reviewing the published empirical literature...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Chandni Prakash, Susan Hatters-Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Abigail North
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Edward C Lauterbach
Dextromethorphan (DM) may have ketamine-like rapid-acting, treatment-resistant, and conventional antidepressant effects.(1,2) This reports our initial experience with DM in unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A patient with treatment-resistant MDD (failing adequate trials of citalopram and vortioxetine) with loss of antidepressant response (to fluoxetine and bupropion) twice experienced a rapid-acting antidepressant effect within 48 hours of DM administration and lasting 7 days, sustained up to 20 days with daily administration, then gradually developing labile loss of antidepressant response over the ensuing 7 days...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
M Lambert, V Niehaus, C Correll
This review aims to describe the importance of i) detecting individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (schizophrenia) or bipolar disorder, especially in children and adolescents, in order to enable early intervention, and ii) evaluating different intervention strategies, especially pharmacotherapy, during the subsyndromal or "prodromal" stages of these severe and often debilitating disorders. The different approaches regarding the psychotic and bipolar clinical high-risk state are discussed, including reasons and evidence for early (pharmacological) intervention and risks of treatment vs...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Andrew W Bodrogi, Robert Sciortino, David A Fitch, Wade Gofton
BACKGROUND: Femoral neck fractures are common injuries in the geriatric population associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Studies have shown outcomes can be positively influenced by early postoperative mobilization. The supercapsular percutaneously assisted total hip (SuperPath) surgical technique has been shown to lead to early mobilization for osteoarthritic total hip replacement patients and as such has the potential to provide similar benefits in fracture patients. This manuscript provides a detailed description of this technique using hemiarthroplasty to treat femoral neck fractures and presents the first case series of this application...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
William M Greenberg, Leslie Citrome
Lurasidone hydrochloride, a benzisothiazol derivative, is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent that has received regulatory approval for the treatment of schizophrenia in the US, Canada, the EU, Switzerland, and Australia, and also for bipolar depression in the US and Canada. In addition to its principal antagonist activity at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, lurasidone has distinctive 5-HT7 antagonistic activity, and displays partial agonism at 5-HT1A receptors, as well as modest antagonism at noradrenergic α2A and α2C receptors...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
T R W Herrmann
BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years various transurethral endoscopic enucleation techniques (EEP) have been established as a substitute for open prostatectomy (OP) and TURP. Since the 2016 update of the "EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS), including Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO)", Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and bipolar enucleation being summarized as anatomical enucleating techniques are proposed as first choice for the surgical management of BPO of large volume prostates...
October 6, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Masatake Kurita
Although antidepressants may increase the risk of switching to mania in bipolar disorder (BD), clinicians have been using antidepressants to treat patients with bipolar depression. Appropriate treatments for bipolar depression remain controversial. In BD, antidepressants comprise a double-edged sword in terms of their efficacy in treating depression and the increased risk of switching. This review presents an important table outlining the benefit in terms of depression improvement and the risk of switching in the clinical setting...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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