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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792816/the-physics-of-the-metaphase-spindle
#1
David Oriola, Daniel J Needleman, Jan Brugués
The assembly of the mitotic spindle and the subsequent segregation of sister chromatids are based on the self-organized action of microtubule filaments, motor proteins, and other microtubule-associated proteins, which constitute the fundamental force-generating elements in the system. Many of the components in the spindle have been identified, but until recently it remained unclear how their collective behaviors resulted in such a robust bipolar structure. Here, we review the current understanding of the physics of the metaphase spindle that is only now starting to emerge...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790107/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-bipolar-disorder-moving-towards-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Claudia Pisanu, Urs Heilbronner, Alessio Squassina
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and disabling psychiatric condition with a severe socioeconomic impact. BD is treated with mood stabilizers, among which lithium represents the first-line treatment. Lithium alone or in combination is effective in 60% of chronically treated patients, but response remains heterogenous and a large number of patients require a change in therapy after several weeks or months. Many studies have so far tried to identify molecular and genetic markers that could help us to predict response to mood stabilizers or the risk for adverse drug reactions...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787961/functional-outcome-and-social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-is-there-a-connection
#3
Maria Vlad, Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Audrey Henry, Arthur Kaladjian
BACKGROUND: Interest in social cognition in bipolar disorder (BD) has increased considerably over the past decade, with studies highlighting major impairments, especially in mental state reasoning, even during euthymia. A causal relationship between social cognition deficits and social functioning has already been established in individuals with schizophrenia, but there is still little information about links between social cognition and social functioning in BD. Our aim was therefore to review the relationship between functional outcome and social cognition in patients with BD...
May 19, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#4
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784430/microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm-surgical-techniques-and-intraoperative-monitoring
#5
M Sindou, P Mercier
Primary hemifacial spasm with few exceptions is due to the vascular compression of the facial nerve that can be evidenced with high resolution MRI. Microvascular decompression is the only curative treatment for this pathology. According to literature review detailed in chapter "conflicting vessels", the compression is located at the facial Root Exit Zone (REZ) in 95% of the cases, and in 5% distally at the cisternal or the intrameatal portion of the root as the sole conflict or in addition to one at brainstem/REZ...
May 18, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775639/surgical-management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-attributed-to-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-aua-guideline
#6
Harris E Foster, Michael J Barry, Philipp Dahm, Manhar C Gandhi, Steven A Kaplan, Tobias S Kohler, Lori B Lerner, Deborah J Lightner, J Kellogg Parsons, Claus G Roehrborn, Charles Welliver, Timothy J Wilt, Kevin T McVary
Purpose; Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is common in men and can have negative effects on quality of life (QOL). It is the hope that this Guideline becomes a reference on the effective evidence-based surgical management of LUTS/BPH. MATERIALS/METHODS: The evidence team searched Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) database to identify studies indexed between January 2007 and September 2017...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770880/intraoperative-periprosthetic-femur-fracture-during-bipolar-hemiarthroplasty-for-displaced-femoral-neck-fractures
#7
Choon Chiet Hong, Nazrul Nashi, Jiong Hao Tan, Ruben Manohara, Wei Ting Lee, Diarmuid Paul Murphy
INTRODUCTION: We aim to review the incidence and risk factors for the development of intraoperative periprosthetic femur fractures while performing a bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced neck of femur fractures. Our secondary aim is to characterize the types of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures, the steps leading to the fractures, and the salvage treatments instituted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 271 patients treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty after traumatic displaced femoral neck fractures were retrospectively analyzed...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765790/direct-posterior-bipolar-cervical-facet-radiofrequency-rhizotomy-a-simpler-and-safer-approach-to-denervate-the-facet-capsule
#8
Ovidiu Palea, Haroon M Andar, Ramon Lugo, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root...
March 14, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764272/does-s100b-have-a-potential-role-in-affective-disorders-a-literature-review
#9
Hilda Kroksmark, Maj Vinberg
BACKGROUND: S100B is a calcium-binding protein located in glial cells; it is regarded as a potential biomarker in affective disorders. AIM: To review the literature investigating the role of S100B in patients with affective disorders. METHOD: A systematic review of original English language studies investigating S100B in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and lymphocytes, in patients with affective disorders, was conducted. The literature search was conducted within the PubMed database...
May 15, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763711/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-adult-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#10
REVIEW
Julian Mutz, Daniel R Edgcumbe, Andre R BrunoniMD, Cynthia H Y FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N  = 3,058, mean age = 44...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759891/the-putative-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-dysfunction-across-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focus-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-bipolar-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, Ken Walder, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
Sleep and circadian abnormalities are prevalent and burdensome manifestations of diverse neuro-immune diseases, and may aggravate the course of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying pathophysiology of sleep abnormalities across neuropsychiatric disorders remains unclear, and may involve the inter-play of several clinical variables and mechanistic pathways. In this review, we propose a heuristic framework in which reciprocal interactions of immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial pathways may drive sleep abnormalities across potentially neuroprogressive disorders...
April 4, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756288/mixed-states-in-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders-systematic-review-and-quality-appraisal-of-guidelines
#12
REVIEW
N Verdolini, D Hidalgo-Mazzei, A Murru, I Pacchiarotti, L Samalin, A H Young, E Vieta, A F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review provided a critical synthesis and a comprehensive overview of guidelines on the treatment of mixed states. METHOD: The MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from inception to March 21st, 2018. International guidelines covering the treatment of mixed episodes, manic/hypomanic, or depressive episodes with mixed features were considered for inclusion. A methodological quality assessment was conducted with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-AGREE II...
May 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754705/inflammatory-markers-in-the-staging-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Oscar Mauricio Castaño-Ramírez, Juan C Sepúlveda-Arias, Kelly Duica, Ana M Díaz Zuluaga, Cristian Vargas, Carlos López-Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that inflammatory molecules play an important role in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). The evidence suggests that BD may present a progressive course. Therefore there are theories that postulate the relationship between progression and stages of the disease with distinct peripheral biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature of studies about the association between peripheral inflammatory markers and clinical variables related with staging in BD patients...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748770/a-systematic-review-of-associations-between-functional-mri-activity-and-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Zalina Dezhina, Siri Ranlund, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Steve C R Williams, Danai Dima
Genetic factors account for up to 80% of the liability for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several genes associated with increased risk for both disorders. This has allowed researchers to model the aggregate effect of genes associated with disease status and create a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each individual. The interest in imaging genetics using PGRS has grown in recent years, with several studies now published. We have conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of PGRS of SCZ, BD and cross psychiatric disorders on brain function and connectivity using fMRI data...
May 10, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748160/engagement-strategies-for-self-monitoring-symptoms-of-bipolar-disorder-with-mobile-and-wearable-technology-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Amy Cochran, Livia Belman-Wells, Melvin McInnis
BACKGROUND: Monitoring signs and symptoms in bipolar disorder (BP) is typically based on regular assessments from patient-clinician interactions. Mobile and wearable technology promises to make monitoring symptoms in BP easier, but little is known about how best to engage individuals with BP in monitoring symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial that investigates engagement strategies for monitoring symptoms of BP, including the strategies of using activity trackers compared with self-reports and reviewing recorded symptoms weekly with an interviewer...
May 10, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747136/psychological-interventions-for-caregivers-of-people-with-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ella Baruch, Nancy Pistrang, Chris Barker
AIMS: Clinical guidelines recommend that psychological interventions be offered to caregivers of people with bipolar disorder. However, there is little clarity about the efficacy of such interventions. This review examined the efficacy of psychological interventions in improving caregiver-focused outcomes, including burden, psychological symptoms and knowledge. METHOD: A systematic search for controlled trials was conducted using a combination of electronic database searches (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL), and hand searches...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738189/-bipolar-androgen-therapy-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Yong-Hui Hu, Jian-Chao Guo, Meng Zhang
Bipolar androgen therapy (BAT), as a new therapeutic strategy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), can significantly reduce the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer patients and has exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. Based on the clinical trials recently published at home and abroad, this article reviews the background, action mechanism, development, and prospect of BAT.
December 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736131/the-association-of-insight-and-change-in-insight-with-clinical-symptoms-in-depressed-inpatients
#18
Hongbo He, Qing Chang, Yarong Ma
Background: Lack of insight has been extensively studied and was found to be adversely correlated with impaired treatment compliance and worse long term clinical outcomes among patients with schizophrenia, while not much is known about this phenonmenon in patients with severe depression. Aim: To explore the correlates of insight and its relation to symptom changes among the most seriously ill patients with affective disorders, those who require hospitalization. Methods: Patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric hospital in south China with either major depressive disorder (MDD)(N=55) or bipolar depression (BD) (N=85) based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ) one week after admission and at the time of discharge...
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732528/medical-comorbidities-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Aktriti Sinha, Anam Shariq, Khaled Said, Abhinav Sharma, D Jeffrey Newport, Ihsan M Salloum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bipolar disorder (BD) medical comorbidity presents significant clinical and public health concerns with serious impact on health. The aim of this article is to present an updated narrative review of original research articles (case control, longitudinal cohort, and cross-sectional studies) and meta-analyses published in English language journals from January 2013 to May 2017 focusing on general medical comorbidity in BD, including the added risks of iatrogenic factors relevant to the treatment of BD...
May 7, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730177/ankyrins-roles-in-synaptic-biology-and-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Katharine R Smith, Peter Penzes
Ankyrins are broadly expressed adaptors that organize diverse membrane proteins into specialized domains and link them to the sub-membranous cytoskeleton. In neurons, ankyrins are known to have essential roles in organizing the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. However, recent studies have revealed novel functions for ankyrins at synapses, where they organize and stabilize neurotransmitter receptors, modulate dendritic spine morphology and control adhesion to the presynaptic site. Ankyrin genes have also been highly associated with a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism, which all demonstrate overlap in their genetics, mechanisms and phenotypes...
May 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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