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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340448/structural-correlates-of-creative-thinking-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#1
Pei-Chi Tu, Yi-Hsuan Kuan, Cheng-Ta Li, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. METHODS: We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340425/increased-nucleus-accumbens-volume-in-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Mireia Forns-Nadal, Daniel Bergé, Federico Sem, Anna Mané, Laura Igual, Dani Guinart, Oscar Vilarroya
Nucleus accumbens has been reported as a key structure in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Studies analyzing structural abnormalities have shown conflicting results, possibly related to confounding factors. We investigated the nucleus accumbens volume using manual delimitation in first-episode psychosis (FEP) controlling for age, cannabis use and medication. Thirty-one FEP subjects who were naive or minimally exposed to antipsychotics and a control group were MRI scanned and clinically assessed from baseline to 6 months of follow-up...
March 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340259/sedative-prescriptions-are-common-at-opioid-initiation-an-observational-study-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#3
Hilary J Mosher, Kelly K Richardson, Brian C Lund
Background.:  Concurrent use of sedatives, especially anxiolytics, and opioids is associated with increased risk of medication-related harms. To the extent that multiple prescribers are involved, approaches to influence patterns of coprescribing will differ from those to influence prescribing within a single drug class. Objectives.:  Describe the proportion of new opioid recipients with concurrent sedative medications at opioid initiation and determine whether these medications were prescribed by the same prescriber...
March 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340122/potential-role-of-patients-cyp3a-status-in-clozapine-pharmacokinetics
#4
Katalin Tóth, Gábor Csukly, Dávid Sirok, Ales Belic, Ádám Kiss, Edit Háfra, Máté Déri, Ádám Menus, István Bitter, Katalin Monostory
Background: The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia; however, the success or failure of clozapine therapy is substantially affected by the variables that impact the clozapine blood concentration. Thus, elucidating the inter-individual differences in clozapine pharmacokinetics can facilitate the personalized therapy. Methods: Since potential role in clozapine metabolism is assigned to CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes, the association between the patients' CYP-status (CYP genotypes, CYP expression) and clozapine clearance was evaluated in 92 psychiatric patients...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339282/melatonin-for-reducing-weight-gain-following-administration-of-atypical-antipsychotic-olanzapine-for-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Seyed-Ali Mostafavi, Mahmoud Solhi, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate melatonin effectiveness in weight gain reduction following olanzapine use for 11-17-year-old bipolar disorder patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-seven adolescent outpatients, subsequent to their initial diagnosis of bipolar I disorder by a psychiatrist, entered this study. After assessing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients consented to participate. Twenty-four patients were allocated to receive olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and melatonin, and 24 patients were allocated to receive olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and placebo by simple randomization...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338897/specialized-information-processing-deficits-and-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-following-tm-domain-disruption-of-nrg1
#6
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Naina Mathur, Matthew J O'Callaghan, Lynsey MacIntyre, Richard Harvey, Donna Lai, John L Waddington, Benjamin S Pickard, David G Watson, Paula M Moran
Although there is considerable genetic and pathologic evidence for an association between neuregulin 1 (NRG1) dysregulation and schizophrenia, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Mutant mice containing disruption of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the NRG1 gene constitute a heuristic model for dysregulation of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in schizophrenia. The present study focused on hitherto uncharacterized information processing phenotypes in this mutant line. Using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we also quantified levels of unique metabolites in brain...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338545/risperidone-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-children-and-adolescents-clinical-and-instrumental-issues
#7
Emilia Matera, Lucia Margari, Vincenzo Ostilio Palmieri, Giuseppina Zagaria, Roberto Palumbi, Francesco Margari
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Although second-generation antipsychotics are used to treat and manage symptoms for several psychiatric disorders, data about their adverse effects in developmental age are limited. The aim of this prospective observational study was to verify the cardiovascular and metabolic risk in a sample of antipsychotic-naive children/adolescent patients starting risperidone therapy. METHODS: Twenty-two patients, younger than 18 years, were recruited. The assessment included anthropometric data, cardiovascular parameters, blood tests, and ultrasonographic abdominal study...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338544/associations-between-medication-class-and-subsequent-augmentation-of-depression-treatment-in-privately-insured-us-adults
#8
Omid Ameli, Rene Soria-Saucedo, Eric G Smith, Howard J Cabral, Marina Soley-Bori, Lewis E Kazis
IMPORTANCE: Treatment augmentation is an important clinical decision in the pharmacotherapy for depression, yet few studies have examined the rates of treatment augmentation by medication class. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine which initial pharmacotherapies for depression are more likely than others to result in subsequent treatment augmentation. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of administrative data of 214,705 privately insured US adults between the age of 18 and 64 years who were diagnosed with a new episode of depression in 2009...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337845/nurses-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-prn-psychotropic-medications-in-acute-and-forensic-mental-health-settings
#9
Lesley Barr, Dianne Wynaden, Karen Heslop
Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336140/corrigendum-to-synthesis-and-preliminary-pharmacological-evaluation-of-n-2-4-4-2-substitutedthiazol-4-yl-piperazin-1-yl-2-oxoethyl-acetamides-as-novel-atypical-antipsychotic-agents-bioorg-med-chem-lett-18-2008-6054-6057
#10
K V G Chandra Sekhar, V S Rao, Ravi Kumar Vyas Devambatla, M Murali Krishna Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335763/identification-of-drug-combinations-administered-by-continuous-subcutaneous-infusion-that-require-analysis-for-compatibility-and-stability
#11
Andrew Dickman, Matthew Bickerstaff, Richard Jackson, Jennifer Schneider, Stephen Mason, John Ellershaw
BACKGROUND: A continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) delivered via syringe pump is a method of drug administration used to maintain symptom control when a patient is no longer able to tolerate oral medication. Several classes of drugs, such as opioids, antiemetics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are routinely administered by CSCI alone or in combinations. Previous studies attempting to identify the most-common CSCI combinations are now several years old and no longer reflect current clinical practice...
March 23, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335658/dopamine-antagonists-for-treatment-resistance-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-review-and-focus-on-bdnf-stimulators-loxapine-and-amitriptyline
#12
Jessica A Hellings, L Eugene Arnold, Joan Han
Drug development is urgently needed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and psychiatric comorbidity, which often presents as aggression and self-injury. At the same time, most psychiatric medications are drugs that have been repurposed following clinical observations of efficacy for a new treatment purpose. Areas Covered: This review aims to provide an overview of dopamine antagonists, including classical and atypical, as well as unconventional antipsychotics in ASD, since they are a mainstay of treatment for such problems...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335437/effect-of-clozapine-on-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-leukocytes-from-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#13
Makoto Kinoshita, Shusuke Numata, Atsushi Tajima, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Shinya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Shinji Shimodera, Takanobu Nakazawa, Masataka Kikuchi, Akihiro Nakaya, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Issei Imoto, Ryota Hashimoto, Tetsuro Ohmori
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides) from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21) in a longitudinal study...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334978/therapeutic-window-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-to-treat-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Suzanne Reeves, Emma McLachlan, Julie Bertrand, Fabrizia D Antonio, Stuart Brownings, Akshay Nair, Suki Greaves, Alan Smith, David Taylor, Joel Dunn, Paul Marsden, Robert Kessler, Robert Howard
Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334840/review-of-caffeine-related-fatalities-along-with-postmortem-blood-concentrations-in-51-poisoning-deaths
#15
Alan Wayne Jones
Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (±SD) of the victims was 39 ± 17.8 years (range 18-84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age of males (42 ± 17...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334045/plasma-soluble-l-selectin-in-medicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#16
Satyajit Mohite, Fang Yang, Pooja A Amin, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Gabriela D Colpo, Laura Stertz, Ajaykumar N Sharma, Gabriel R Fries, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Jair C Soares, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
Immune dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation is a fundamental step of immune response which involves P-, E-, and L-selectins. Elevated selectin levels have been reported in un-medicated first-episode patients with schizophrenia but not in medicated patients with multi-episode schizophrenia. We measured fasting plasma soluble P-, E-, and L-selectin in 39 medicated patients with multi-episode schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332704/risk-of-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-long-acting-injections-vs-oral-antipsychotics-in-real-life-prescribing-practice-a-community-based-study
#18
H Verdoux, E Pambrun, M Tournier, J Bezin, A Pariente
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of discontinuation of ambulatory antipsychotic treatment in persons treated with antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) or by oral antipsychotics (OAPs). METHODS: The study was performed in a representative sample of persons newly treated with OAPs (n = 6904) affiliated to the French Insurance Healthcare system. The risk of all-cause discontinuation was compared in patients prescribed OAPs (n = 246) vs. matched patients prescribed LAIs (n = 246) using multivariate survival analyses...
March 23, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332124/use-of-physical-restraints-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-ethiopian-mental-specialized-hospital-outpatient-department-cross-sectional-study
#19
Habte Belete
BACKGROUND: Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332123/self-poisoning-suicide-deaths-in-people-with-bipolar-disorder-characterizing-a-subgroup-and-identifying-treatment-patterns
#20
Ayal Schaffer, Lauren M Weinstock, Mark Sinyor, Catherine Reis, Benjamin I Goldstein, Lakshmi N Yatham, Anthony J Levitt
OBJECTIVE: To characterize self-poisoning suicide deaths in BD compared to other suicide decedents. METHODS: Extracted coroner data from all suicide deaths (n = 3319) in Toronto, Canada from 1998 to 2012. Analyses of demographics, clinical history, recent stressors, and suicide details were conducted in 5 subgroups of suicide decedents: BD self-poisoning, BD other methods, non-BD self-poisoning, non-BD other methods, and unipolar depression self-poisoning. Toxicology results for lethal and present substances were also compared between BD and non-BD self-poisoning subgroups as well as between BD and unipolar depression self-poisoning subgroups...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
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