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Bruno Romeo, Marine Brunet-Lecomte, Catherine Martelli, Amine Benyamina
Background: Immune system dysfunction is a hypothesis in the psychopathology of schizophrenia but the impact of antipsychotic treatment within this system is not clear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of antipsychotic treatment on cytokine levels in in vivo studies on schizophrenia. Methods: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of certain authors. Means and standard deviations were extracted to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD)...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Misuzu Tajiri, Yutaro Suzuki, Takuro Sugai, Nobuto Tsuneyama, Toshiyuki Someya
It has long been known that antipsychotic drugs (ATP) causes tachycardia, however details such as the differences between ATP are not well known. In recent years, the relationship between the rise in resting heart rate (RHR) and the increased risk of death in the general population has been garnering attention. In this study, we examined the difference in action on RHR between olanzapine (OLZ) and aripiprazole (ARP). The changes in the RHR on switching from OLZ to ARP and on increasing from the starting OLZ dose to the final one were evaluated in 19 outpatients (Study 1) and in 29 outpatients with schizophrenia (Study 2), respectively...
2018: PloS One
Marjie L Hard, Angela Y Wehr, Yangchun Du, Peter J Weiden, David Walling, Lisa von Moltke
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), a long-acting injectable antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia, requires 21 days of oral aripiprazole supplementation upon initiation. We report findings from a phase 1 study investigating a nanocrystalline milled dispersion of AL (ALNCD) as a potential 1-day initiation regimen. The 1-day initiation regimen is designed to enable rapid achievement of plasma aripiprazole concentrations that are comparable with the 21-day oral initiation regimen...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Parita Shah, Yusuke Iwata, Eric Plitman, Eric E Brown, Fernando Caravaggio, Julia Kim, Shinichiro Nakajima, Margaret Hahn, Gary Remington, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Approximately one-third of patients with schizophrenia have treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TR-SCZ), which is a condition characterized by suboptimal response to antipsychotics other than clozapine. Importantly, treatment with clozapine-the only antipsychotic with an indication for TR-SCZ-is often delayed, which could contribute to negative outcomes. Given that the specific impact of delay in clozapine initiation is not well understood, we aimed to conduct a systematic search of the Ovid Medline® database to identify English language publications exploring the impact of delay in clozapine initiation on treatment outcomes in patients with TR-SCZ...
July 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anthi Stefatos, Julie N Ha, Adrian Baranchuk, Ross J Baldessarini, Gustavo H Vázquez
Background: Aripiprazole is a widely clinically employed antipsychotic drug for a range of indications. It has unusual pharmacodynamics as a dopamine D2 receptor partial-agonist with complex interactions with serotonin receptors and, a relatively unusual long elimination half-life. Although other atypical antipsychotics have been associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, aripiprazole is considered to be relatively neutral in regard to its cardiac risk. We report a case of a 45-year-old Caucasian patient with schizoaffective disorder who developed acute atrial fibrillation (AF) several days after an intramuscular injection of a large long-acting dose of the drug after low oral doses had been well-tolerated...
June 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Katie T B Touma, Jonathan R Scarff
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a medication-induced permanent movement disorder with no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments prior to 2017. Although TD is medication-induced, patients who have responded well to antipsychotics might not be candidates for dose reduction or discontinuation due to a risk of psychiatric decompensation. Valbenazine and deutetrabenazine were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of TD. They offer a unique mechanism of action by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter type 2...
June 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Nicole C Neyt, Darren L Riley
We recently reported a novel hybrid batch-flow synthesis of the antipsychotic drug clozapine in which the reduction of a nitroaryl group is described under flow conditions using sodium dithionite. We now report the expansion of this method to include the reduction of aldehydes. The method developed affords yields which are comparable to those under batch conditions, has a reduced reaction time and improved space-time productivity. Furthermore, the approach allows the selective reduction of aldehydes in the presence of ketones and has been demonstrated as a continuous process...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Rigil K Yeung, Zheng-Hua Xiang, Shui-Ying Tsang, Rui Li, Timothy Y C Ho, Qi Li, Chok-King Hui, Pak-Chung Sham, Ming-Qi Qiao, Hong Xue
Intronic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor β2 subunit gene (GABRB2) under adaptive evolution were associated with schizophrenia and reduced expression, especially of the long isoform which differs in electrophysiological properties from the short isoform. The present study was directed to examining the gene dosage effects of Gabrb2 in knockout mice of both heterozygous (HT) and homozygous (KO) genotypes with respect to possible schizophrenia-like and comorbid phenotypes. The KO mice, and HT mice to a lesser extent, were found to display prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit, locomotor hyperactivity, stereotypy, sociability impairments, spatial-working and spatial-reference memory deficits, reduced depression and anxiety, and accelerated pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure...
July 17, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
S Damanti, C Abbate, I Chiodini, M Cesari, T Nestola, G Belloni, C Mandelli, D Mari, T Lucchi
An 81-year-old woman was hospitalised for behavioural disorders that had been progressively emerging over a period of few weeks. The symptoms appeared to worsen over time. A diagnosis of vascular dementia, complicated by psychosis, was initially hypothesised. The inefficacy of the antipsychotic/benzodiazepine medications used, along with the presence of hypertension, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis (resistant to pharmacological attempts of correction), as well as the hirsutism and the development of several infections, led us to consider Cushing's syndrome...
July 10, 2018: Age and Ageing
F Tollens, N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, C Risterucci, B Künnecke, P Lebhardt, J Reinwald, M Sack, W Weber-Fahr, A Meyer-Lindenberg, A Sartorius
One of the major challenges of cross-species translation in psychiatry is the identification of quantifiable brain phenotypes linked to drug efficacy and/or side effects. A measure that has received increasing interest is the effect of antipsychotic drugs on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in magnetic resonance imaging. However, quantitative comparisons of antipsychotic drug-induced alterations of FC patterns are missing. Consideration of receptor binding affinities provides a means for the effects of antipsychotic drugs on extended brain networks to be related directly to their molecular mechanism of action...
July 10, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Emanuela V Mooney, Jeffrey G Hamper, Robert T Willis, Tonna L Farinha, Charlotte A Ricchetti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient satisfaction with pharmacist-administered long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) in the community pharmacy. DESIGN: Prospective survey. SETTING: Albertsons Companies community pharmacies during December 2016 to February 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Patients receiving LAIAs at participating pharmacies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A survey assessed patients' satisfaction with pharmacist-administered LAIAs in the community pharmacy...
July 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Christian M Wood, Keith A Wafford, Andrew P McCarthy, Nicola Hewes, Elaine Shanks, David Lodge, Emma Sj Robinson
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. They also control sleep-wake architecture and may offer novel therapeutic targets. However, the roles of the mGluR2 versus mGluR3 subtypes are not well understood. Here, we have taken advantage of the recently described mutant strain of Han Wistar rats, which do not express mGluR2 receptors, to investigate behavioural, sleep and EEG responses to mGluR2/3 ligands. The mGluR2/3 agonist, LY354740 (10 mg/kg), reversed amphetamine- and phencyclidine-induced locomotion and rearing behaviours in control Wistar but not in mGluR2 lacking Han Wistar rats...
July 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
René Ernst Nielsen, Kristian Bjørn Hessellund, Jan Brink Valentin, Rasmus W Licht
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the associations of long-acting injectable (LAI) second generation antipsychotic drugs with number of relapses, psychiatric admissions, days hospitalized, intentional self-harm events, and costs linked to hospitalizations in incident patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: A nationwide, population-based, retrospective study utilizing mirror-image models before and after initiation of LAI SGA. RESULTS: 10,509 patients were included as study population, with analyses being conducted on 2223 patients in a six-month period, 1383 in a 12-month period, 713 in a 24-month period...
July 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Deepthi Venugopal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Manjula Subbanna, Sunil V Kalmady, Anekal C Amaresha, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Moinak Banerjee, Monojit Debnath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Immunopathogenesis of schizophrenia has emerged as one of the predominant research paradigms in recent times. Based on the altered serum levels as well as gene expression, IL-6 has been considered as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanism underlying the altered expression of IL6 in schizophrenia is inadequately known. Given the profound influence of environmental factors on schizophrenia risk, it is important to understand the effect of epigenetic changes on schizophrenia risk...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Soo-Hyun Paik, Joung-Sook Ahn, Seongho Min, Ki-Chang Park, Min-Hyuk Kim
Delirium is an acute disturbance in attention and awareness in response to one or more physiological stressors that is closely related to poor clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether delirium patients with psychotic symptoms (PS) would have unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed on the patients with delirium due to general medical conditions to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes. All patients were assessed by Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98 and classified as having PS when scored two or more on at least one of the psychotic symptom items (perceptual disturbances, delusions, and thought process abnormalities)...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Channing, Mary Mitchell, Samuele Cortese
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of studies of lurasidone in children and/or adolescents and to present a case report aimed to add further insights into its use in clinical practice with youth. METHODS: We searched the following databases for empirical studies, of any design, focusing on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or safety of lurasidone in children and/or adolescents: Pubmed (Medline), OVID (PsycInfo, EMBASE+EMBASE classic, OVID Medline), Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Ahong Huang, Tony B Amos, Kruti Joshi, Li Wang, Abigail Nash
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a serious public health problem that affects ∼1% of the US population. AIMS: To examine treatment patterns and evaluate healthcare resource utilization and costs among young adults (18-35 years) with schizophrenia who were early in the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients aged 18-64 years with ≥2 schizophrenia diagnoses in the identification period (01JAN2012-30SEPT2015) and continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and post-index date were identified from the OptumInsight Clinformatics DataMart...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the main cellular energy sensor. Activated following a depletion of cellular energy stores, AMPK will restore the energy homeostasis by increasing energy production and limiting energy waste. At a central level, the AMPK pathway will integrate peripheral signals (mostly hormones and metabolites) through neuronal networks. Hypothalamic AMPK is directly implicated in feeding behavior, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). It also participates in other metabolic functions: glucose and muscle metabolisms, as well as hepatic function...
July 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Lauren Hirsch, Scott B Patten, Lauren Bresee, Nathalie Jette, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has increased in recent years; however, their use and effect on metabolic outcomes has been poorly characterised in population-level studies.AimsThis study aimed to determine the associations between SGA use and metabolic indicators in a general population. METHOD: We used data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Canadian households. Participants were Canadians aged 3-79 years, living in one of the ten provinces...
July 2018: BJPsych Open
Jose M Rubio, Christoph U Correll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
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