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Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sethulakshmi Sreevalsam Anil, Badr Ratnakaran, Nisha Suresh
Hyponatremia has been reported with the use of psychotropic drugs. Olanzapine does not find much mention as a cause of hyponatremia in literature; however, it has been found to be the second most frequently reported atypical antipsychotic to cause it. We report a case of hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion which occurred at a rapid onset following the administration of low-dose olanzapine during inpatient treatment of a patient with bipolar disorder. We would like to highlight our case for the need to be vigil about such fatal side complications apart from metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ching-Yen Chen, Tze-Chun Tang, Tzu-Ting Chen, Ya Mei Bai, Huei-Huang Tsai, Hou-Liang Chen, Chun-Jen Huang, Chih-Ken Chen, Chun-Chih Chen, Mei-Chun Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Hong-Shiow Yeh, Nan-Ying Chiu, Cheng-Chen Hsiao, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Tung-Ping Su
Purpose: Paliperidone extended release (ER) is an oral psychotropic treatment formulated to release paliperidone at a controlled, gradually ascending rate. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of switching to paliperidone ER in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia who were unresponsive or intolerant to previous antipsychotic therapy. Patients and methods: This was a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, Phase IV trial. Based on consulting psychiatrists' judgment, patients were deemed eligible for the switch to paliperidone ER; the switch was achieved by cross-tapering, using a recommended starting dose of 6 mg...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jeff Lapoint, Seth Meyer, Charles K Yu, Kristi L Koenig, Roneet Lev, Sayone Thihalolipavan, Katherine Staats, Christopher A Kahn
Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. They are exposed to an array of pharmacologic interventions including opioids that not only lack evidence, but may also be harmful...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Thiago M P Fernandes, Michael J Oliveira de Andrade, Jessica B Santana, Renata M Toscano Barreto Lyra Nogueira, Natanael A Dos Santos
Smoking prevalence in patients who are diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) is higher than in the general population. Chronic tobacco use in SCZ patients may reduce the side effects of antipsychotic drugs, thus serving as a self-medication for such side effects. Understanding the ways in which chronic tobacco use influences visual sensitivity has clinical implications, which may serve as a tool for non-invasively diagnosing early-stage visual processing deficits. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic tobacco use on visual sensitivity in SCZ patients...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jesus Sainz, Carlos Prieto, Fulgencio Ruso-Julve, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Antipsychotic drugs are one of the largest types of prescribed drugs and have large inter-individual differences in efficacy, but there is no methodology to predict their clinical effect. Here we show a four-gene blood expression profile to predict the response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients before treatment. We sequenced total mRNA from blood samples of antipsychotic naïve patients who, after 3 months of treatment, were in the top 40% with the best response (15 patients) and in the bottom 40% with the worst response (15 patients) according to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Clare Whicher, Hermione Clare Price, Richard Ig Holt
Objective There have been concerns about the effects of antipsychotics on weight gain and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This article aims to provide an up to date review on the evidence addressing this issue and the practical implications for the management of people taking antipsychotics in the context of T2DM. Methods We carried out searches on MEDLINE/PUBMED and the website in August 2017 using the terms 'antipsychotic' and 'diabetes' or 'glucose' citing articles published after 2006 preferentially...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Aleksi Hamina, Piia Lavikainen, Antti Tanskanen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Heidi Taipale
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the impact of opioid initiation on the prevalence of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine and related drug (BZDR) use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We utilized the register-based Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohort for this study. We included all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2010-2011 in Finland initiating opioid use (n = 3,327) and a matched cohort of persons not initiating opioids (n = 3,325)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Xinyuan Li, Lijun Zhu, Chunkui Zhou, Jing Liu, Heqian Du, Chenglin Wang, Shaokuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine during short-term treatment in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials databases for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) comparing duloxetine or duloxetine plus other antipsychotics with placebo for the treatment of GAD in adults...
2018: PloS One
Kah Kheng Goh, Chun-Hsin Chen, Mong-Liang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain is one of the most challenging issues in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Several meta-analyses have been conducted to review the efficacy of topiramate in reducing weight, however, several issues regarding the methodology had arisen of which make the results remain ambiguous. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials about the use of topiramate in patients with schizophrenia for weight reduction...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Md Saiful Islam Roney, Song-Kyu Park
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Despite extensive studies, treating metastatic cancers remains challenging. Years of research have linked a rare set of cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) to drug resistance, leading to the suggestion that eradication of CSCs might be an effective therapeutic strategy. However, few drug candidates are active against CSCs. New drug discovery is often a lengthy process. Drug screening has been advantageous in identifying drug candidates. Current understanding of cancer biology has revealed various clues to target cancer from different points of view...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Lee Schwartzberg
Recent years have witnessed significant improvements in the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), allowing patients to complete their prescribed chemotherapy regimens without compromising quality of life. This reduction in the incidence of CINV can be primarily attributed to the emergence of effective, well-tolerated antiemetic therapies, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT3) receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, and the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine...
March 19, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Cathrin Rohleder, Dagmar Koethe, Stefan Fritze, Cristina E Topor, F Markus Leweke, Dusan Hirjak
OBJECTIVES: Binocular depth inversion illusion (BDII), a visual, 'top-down'-driven information process, is impaired in schizophrenia and particularly in its early stages. BDII is a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing and represents a valid diagnostic tool for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, neurobiological underpinnings of aberrant BDII in first-episode schizophrenia are largely unknown at present. METHODS: In this study, 22 right-handed, first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients underwent BDII assessment and MRI scanning at 1...
March 19, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Lisa Maier, Mihaela Pruteanu, Michael Kuhn, Georg Zeller, Anja Telzerow, Exene Erin Anderson, Ana Rita Brochado, Keith Conrad Fernandez, Hitomi Dose, Hirotada Mori, Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Peer Bork, Athanasios Typas
A few commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have recently been associated with changes in gut microbiome composition, but the extent of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we screened more than 1,000 marketed drugs against 40 representative gut bacterial strains, and found that 24% of the drugs with human targets, including members of all therapeutic classes, inhibited the growth of at least one strain in vitro. Particular classes, such as the chemically diverse antipsychotics, were overrepresented in this group...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Ana Carolina Issy, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, João Francisco Cordeiro Pedrazzi, Regina Celia Cussa Kubrusly, Elaine Del-Bel
Pharmacological manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested as a promising treatment for schizophrenia symptoms. A single infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor with short half-life, was found to improve schizophrenia symptoms. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of both NO donors and inhibitors. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of sub-effective doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the NO inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole (7NI) combined with clozapine, a standard atypical antipsychotic, on counteracting amphetamine or MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviors...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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