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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#1
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856041/the-importance-of-a-shared-definition-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-the-case-of-obese-women
#2
Luca Alessandro Gondoni, Anna Maria Titon, Mariella Montano, Ferruccio Nibbio, Gianandrea Bertone
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk factor for all-cause mortality. Left ventricular (LV) mass is usually indexed for normalizing the value to the patients phenotype and a correction by body surface area (BSA) is widely utilized being the only approved one according to the last echocardiography guidelines. However indexing LV mass by BSA may cause an underestimation of LVH prevalence in obese subjects and many authors have utilized in the obese subset of patients a correction by height(2...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824658/influences-of-resistance-training-on-physical-function-in-older-obese-men-and-women-with-sarcopenia
#3
Katja Stoever, Anke Heber, Sabine Eichberg, Klara Brixius
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability, gait problems, and falls. Activities of daily living such as walking and climbing stairs are physically difficult or impossible for the individual with severe obesity. These aspects also limit participation in recreational activities or exercise programs. However, good muscle function is crucial to maintain functional independence. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of resistance training on physical function in older, obese persons with sarcopenia...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818369/french-law-what-about-a-reasoned-reimbursement-of-serum-vitamin-d-assays
#4
Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Claude Laurent Benhamou, Bernard Cortet, Mickael Rousière, Christian Roux, Vered Abitbol, Cédric Annweiler, Maurice Audran, Justine Bacchetta, Pierre Bataille, Olivier Beauchet, Rémi Bardet, Alexandra Benachi, Francis Berenbaum, Hubert Blain, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Véronique Breuil, Karine Briot, Philippe Brunet, Jean-Claude Carel, Philippe Caron, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Roland Chapurlat, Pierre Cochat, Régis Coutant, Sophie Christin-Maitre, Martine Cohen-Solal, Christian Combe, Catherine Cormier, Marie Courbebaisse, Grégory Debrus, Brigitte Delemer, Georges Deschenes, Marc Duquenne, Guillaume Duval, Patrice Fardellone, Denis Fouque, Gérard Friedlander, Jean-Bernard Gauvain, Lionel Groussin, Pascal Guggenbuhl, Pascal Houillier, Thierry Hannedouche, William Jacot, Rose-Marie Javier, Guillaume Jean, Claude Jeandel, Dominique Joly, Peter Kamenicky, Bertrand Knebelmann, Marie-Hélène Lafage-Proust, Yves LeBouc, Erick Legrand, Florence Levy-Weil, Agnès Linglart, Laurent Machet, Emmanuel Maheu, Eric Mallet, Christian Marcelli, Pierre Marès, Christophe Mariat, Gérard Maruani, Yves Maugars, France Montagnon, Bruno Moulin, Philippe Orcel, Henri Partouche, Virginie Personne, Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Michel Polak, Claire Pouteil-Noble, Dominique Prié, Agathe Raynaud-Simon, Yves Rolland, Jean-Louis Sadoul, Bernard Salle, Corinne Sault, Anne-Marie Schott, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Martin Soubrier, Ivan Tack, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Tostivint, Philippe Touraine, Florence Tremollières, Pablo Urena-Torres, Jean-Paul Viard, Jean-Louis Wemeau, Georges Weryha, Norbert Winer, Jacques Young, Thierry Thomas
The number of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) assays has increased tenfold in France in less than 10 years, sometimes for invalidated reasons. In 2013, the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, or HAS) limited the indications for serum 25OHD measurements to rickets/osteomalacia, older adults with recurrent falls, monitoring of kidney transplant in adults, and surgical treatment of obesity in adults. Our aim here was to note that other indications for serum 25OHD measurements are supported by previous literature and by a number of national and international recommendations, in particular the following: any situation of bone fragility, any chronic renal failure <45 mL/min/1...
November 4, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818118/-medical-induced-abortion
#5
K Bettahar, A Pinton, T Boisramé, V Cavillon, S Wylomanski, I Nisand, D Hassoun
OBJECTIVE: Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. METHODS: A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. RESULTS: The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1)...
November 3, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804271/from-kindergarten-through-second-grade-u-s-children-s-obesity-prevalence-grows-only-during-summer-vacations
#6
Paul T von Hippel, Joseph Workman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of school and nonschool risk factors, this study estimated whether overweight and obesity prevalence grows faster during the school year or during summer vacation. METHODS: In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a nationally representative complex random sample of 18,170 U.S. children was followed from the fall of kindergarten in 2010 through the spring of second grade in 2013. Children's weight and heights were measured in schools each fall and spring...
November 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799700/the-effect-of-age-and-body-mass-index-on-plantar-cutaneous-sensation-in-healthy-women
#7
Eylem Tütün Yümin, Tülay Tarsuslu Şimşek, Meral Sertel, Handan Ankaralı
[Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effects of age and body mass index on plantar cutaneous sensation in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred and three healthy female volunteers over the age of 20 were included in the study. The statistical analyses were performed by considering the age and body mass index values of the individuals. The individuals were divided according to their ages and body mass index values. Foot pain was measured with a visual analogue scale and plantar cutaneous sensation using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789616/bda-410-treatment-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-content-by-enhancing-lipolysis-in-sedentary-senescent-mice
#8
Andrea S Pereyra, Zhong-Min Wang, Maria Laura Messi, Tan Zhang, Hanzhi Wu, Thomas C Register, Elizabeth Forbes, Nelmi O Devarie-Baez, Daniel Clark Files, Martin C Abba, Cristina Furdui, Osvaldo Delbono
Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response...
October 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774252/proxy-measures-of-vitamin-d-status-season-and-latitude-correlate-with-adverse-outcomes-after-bariatric-surgery-in-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample-2001-2010-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
L A Peterson, J K Canner, L J Cheskin, G P Prokopowicz, M A Schweitzer, T H Magnuson, K E Steele
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between adverse surgical outcomes following bariatric surgery and proxy measures of vitamin D (VitD) status (season and latitude) in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for VitD deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng ml(-1)). VitD deficiency compounds the chronic inflammation of obesity, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes following bariatric surgery. Epidemiology has long used season and latitude as proxies for group VitD, as VitD status is largely determined by sun exposure, which is greatest during summer and at the Equator...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751984/building-a-national-neighborhood-dataset-from-geotagged-twitter-data-for-indicators-of-happiness-diet-and-physical-activity
#10
Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743789/physical-activity-differences-for-college-students-with-disabilities
#11
Jamie Valis, Michelle Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that individuals with disabilities have increased rates of obesity and decreased participation in physical activity contributing to overall higher incidence of secondary health conditions compared to the general population without disabilities. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this research study was to examine the differences in physical activity rates for college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Learning Disabilities (LD)...
January 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739007/changes-in-energy-expenditure-with-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-in-humans
#12
REVIEW
Manfred J Müller, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736026/sarcopenic-obesity-and-its-temporal-associations-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-density-incident-falls-and-fractures-in-older-men-the-concord-health-and-ageing-in-men-project
#13
David Scott, Markus Seibel, Robert Cumming, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Louise M Waite, Vasant Hirani
Body composition and muscle function have important implications for falls and fractures in older adults. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between sarcopenic obesity and its components with bone mineral density (BMD), and incident falls and fractures, in Australian community-dwelling older men. 1,486 men aged ≥70 years from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) study were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 2 year follow-up (2007-2009; N = 1,238), and 5 year follow-up (2010-2013; N = 861)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725625/nutritional-deficiencies-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-a-therapeutic-opportunity-to-reduce-hospitalization-and-death
#14
Peter A McCullough, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Refaat M Hegazi
There is an expanding prevalence pool of heart failure (HF) due to the increasing prevalence of survivors of myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. There is increasing interest in the role of nutrition in all forms of HF, given observations concerning micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, loss of lean body mass or sarcopenia, and their relationships with hospitalization and death. This review examines the relationships among loss of lean body mass, macro- and micronutrient intake, and the natural history of HF, particularly in the elderly, in whom the risks for all-cause rehospitalization, infection, falls, and mortality are increased...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720679/fetuin-a-downregulates-adiponectin-through-wnt-ppar%C3%AE-pathway-in-lipid-induced-inflamed-adipocyte
#15
Soumik Agarwal, Mrittika Chattopadhyay, Sandip Mukherjee, Suman Dasgupta, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Samir Bhattacharya
Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes is an anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Adiponectin level is known to fall significantly in obesity induced type 2 diabetes which worsen insulin sensitivity because of aberrant lipid management. However, underlying mechanism of adiponectin decrease in obese diabetic condition is yet unclear. We report here that lowering of plasma adiponectin coincided with the higher Fetuin A (FetA) level in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. Knock down of FetA gene (FetA(KD)) elevated adiponectin level markedly in HFD mice, while reinforcement of FetA into FetA(KD)HFD mice reduced its level again...
October 6, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710994/development-of-feeding-cues-during-infancy-and-toddlerhood
#16
Eric A Hodges, Heather M Wasser, Brook K Colgan, Margaret E Bentley
PURPOSE: To enhance responsive feeding, this study aimed to characterize the development of feeding cues during infancy and toddlerhood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed on a dataset of first-time, low-income African American mother-infant pairs assessed at infant age 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. A subsample with the 15 highest, middle, and lowest infant body mass index (BMI) Z-scores at 18 months was selected (n = 45). Using video-recorded home feedings, early, active, and late receptiveness and fullness cues were assessed using the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale at each time point...
July 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685833/nutraceuticals-in-hypercholesterolaemia-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Antonello Santini, Ettore Novellino
Growing attention is now being given to the possible preventive/alternative ways to avoid illness onset. Changes in lifestyle and food habits are taking over from the conventional pharmaceutical-based approach, especially for chronic pathologies. Nutraceuticals have been proposed as key tools for the prevention and cure of some pathological conditions. This is leading research to develop new formulations based on these pharma-foods addressed in a specific way to prevent and cure health issues, which, in turn, will have an effect on therapy-related costs sustained by any National Health Organization...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680881/influence-of-sibutramine-in-addition-to-diet-and-exercise-on-the-relationship-between-weight-loss-and-blood-glucose-changes
#18
S Kamil, N Finer, W P T James, I D Caterson, C Andersson, C Torp-Pedersen
AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662178/tracking-weight-change-insulin-resistance-stress-and-aerobic-fitness-over-four-years-of-college
#19
Mari K Hopper, Shana Lynn Moninger
OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight gain is accompanied by development of insulin resistance (IR) during four years in college. PARTICIPANTS: Two cohorts of college students were enrolled in fall semesters 2009 and 2010 and tracked for four years. METHODS: Following a 12-hour fast, subjects reported for measurement of BMI, perceived stress (PSS), aerobic fitness, and blood glucose, insulin, and lipids. RESULTS: In the first year, 33% of subject were overweight or obese, and 20% were hyperinsulinemic...
September 23, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639068/regional-asymmetry-obesity-and-gender-determines-tactile-acuity-of-the-knee-regions-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Carrie Falling, Ramakrishnan Mani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alterations in central somatosensory function (e.g. cortical reorganisation) occurs secondary to chronic knee pain. The reorganization can be quantified using a clinical signatory measure, the two-point discrimination threshold (TPDT). In order to differentiate normal variability of TPDT against abnormal thresholds for clinical practice, development of body region specific reference values are required and the factors that determine the TPDT have to be established...
August 5, 2016: Manual Therapy
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