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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903112/savoring-sweet-sugars-in-infant-and-toddler-feeding
#1
Robert D Murray
During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844302/interrelations-between-body-mass-index-frailty-and-clinical-adverse-events-in-older-community-dwelling-women-the-epidos-cohort-study
#2
Emmanuelle Boutin, Pierre-André Natella, Anne-Marie Schott, Sylvie Bastuji-Garin, Jean-Philippe David, Elena Paillaud, Yves Rolland, Florence Canouï-Poitrine
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of reverse epidemiology holds that, obesity may reduce the risk of clinical adverse events in older subjects. However, this association is controversial and rarely explored according to the underlying health status. We tested this phenomenon by assessing the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinical adverse events in community dwelling older women according to their frailty status. METHODS: EPIDOS is a multicenter prospective cohort of community-dwelling women aged 75 and older recruited between 1992 and 1994...
August 5, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840287/gender-and-age-specific-relationships-between-phthalate-exposures-and-obesity-in-shanghai-adults
#3
Ruihua Dong, Tong Zhou, Jingsi Chen, Meiru Zhang, Han Zhang, Min Wu, Shuguang Li, Liwen Zhang, Bo Chen
Phthalate exposure has been reported to be associated with obesity (measured by body mass index [BMI]) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference [WC]). Yet, reported associations and the potential gender and age differences are inconsistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 2330 participants in the fall of 2012. Urinary metabolites of ten phthalates were measured. Height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured using standardized methods. We performed logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between each urine phthalate metabolite (categorized into quartiles) and obesity and central obesity and conducted an additional, stratified analysis to explore the gender and age differences...
August 24, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814959/poor-sleep-is-highly-associated-with-house-dust-mite-allergic-rhinitis-in-adults-and-children
#4
Damien Leger, Bénédicte Bonnefoy, Bernard Pigearias, Bertrand de La Giclais, Antoine Chartier
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are often underreported to physicians by patients with allergies. This study aimed to characterize the sleep disorders associated with respiratory allergy to house dust mites (HDM) at the time of initiation of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 at 189 French trial sites and included 1750 participants suffering from HDM allergy who were initiating SLIT...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801963/a-preliminary-study-of-static-and-dynamic-balance-in-sedentary-obese-young-adults-the-relationship-between-bmi-posture-and-postural-balance
#5
J A do Nascimento, C C Silva, H H Dos Santos, J J de Almeida Ferreira, P R de Andrade
The aim of this study was to evaluate the postural control of obese young adults with normal body mass index during different static (bipedic and unipedic support) and dynamic postural conditions (gait velocity and limits of stability) in order to compare the static and dynamic balance of these individuals. A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out to evaluate static and dynamic balance in 25 sedentary individuals. The sample was divided into two groups, 10 in the normal-weight group (24.70 ± 3...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783757/improving-food-environments-and-tackling-obesity-a-realist-systematic-review-of-the-policy-success-of-regulatory-interventions-targeting-population-nutrition
#6
Jana Sisnowski, Jackie M Street, Tracy Merlin
BACKGROUND: This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025276) employs a realist approach to investigate the effect of "real-world" policies targeting different aspects of the food environment that shape individual and collective nutrition. OBJECTIVES: We were interested in assessing intermediate outcomes along the assumed causal pathway to "policy success", in addition to the final outcome of changed consumption patterns. DATA SOURCES: We performed a search of 16 databases through October 2015, with no initial restriction by language...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783376/which-wild-aardvarks-are-most-suitable-for-outdoor-enclosures-in-zoological-gardens-in-the-european-union
#7
Jiří Patoka, Markéta Vejtrubová, Vladimír Vrabec, Renata Masopustová
The aardvark is popular in many zoological gardens in the European Union. These creatures are nocturnal, and aardvarks in the wild are known to walk distances of 4 km to 7 km per night. Despite what is known about their biology, most aardvarks are kept in zoological gardens in indoor enclosures with little space for movement. This lack of space leads to a tendency toward obesity and compromised welfare. With their wide distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa, aardvarks are perceived as thermophilic nonhuman animals...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763444/childhood-adiposity-and-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
J C Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A Todd, Tove Fall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform. The aim of this study was to assess this hypothesis with a Mendelian randomization approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to test for causal associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a genetic instrument of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with childhood adiposity in children aged 2-10 years...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744225/is-it-time-to-begin-a-public-campaign-concerning-frailty-and-pre-frailty-a-review-article
#9
REVIEW
Jerzy Sacha, Magdalena Sacha, Jacek Soboń, Zbigniew Borysiuk, Piotr Feusette
Frailty is a state that encompasses losses in physical, psychological or social domains. Therefore, frail people demonstrate a reduced potential to manage external stressors and to respond to life incidents. Consequently, such persons are prone to various adverse consequences such as falls, cognitive decline, infections, hospitalization, disability, institutionalization, and death. Pre-frailty is a condition predisposing and usually preceding the frailty state. Early detection of frailty (i.e., pre-frailty) may present an opportunity to introduce effective management to improve outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727342/-obesity-fat-and-bones-friends-or-foes
#10
Emmanuel Biver
Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725327/prevalence-of-undiagnosed-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adults-aged-20-40-a-cross-sectional-study-in-2016-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#11
Faisal Saed Alharthi, Jamilah Saad Alrahimi, Abdulrahman Ali Alotaibi, Daniah Ahmed Alhamdi, Bashair Mohammed Ibrahim, Yasmina Aymen Badeeb
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the first leading cause of death worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, CVDs are the major killers with a mortality rate of 46%. CVD risk factors are not exclusive to old populations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to approximately find the prevalence of these risk factors, particularly high blood pressure (HBP), high blood glucose (HBG), obesity, and smoking. METHODS: This cross-sectional was conducted in May 2016 and took place in the Ambulatory Care Center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721028/frailty-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-association-with-adverse-outcomes
#12
Sergio Sánchez-García, Carmen García-Peña, Antoni Salvà, Rosalinda Sánchez-Arenas, Víctor Granados-García, Juan Cuadros-Moreno, Laura Bárbara Velázquez-Olmedo, Ángel Cárdenas-Bahena
BACKGROUND: The study of frailty is important to identify the additional needs of medical long-term care and prevent adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from April to September 2014. The population sample was 1,252 older adults (≥60 years) who were beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696535/bmi-predicts-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-asthmatic-boys
#13
Wilma J van Veen, Jean M M Driessen, Elin T G Kersten, Janneke C van Leeuwen, Marjolein G J Brusse-Keizer, Wim M C van Aalderen, Bernard J Thio
BACKGROUND: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a frustrating morbidity of asthma in children. Obesity has been associated with asthma and with more severe EIB in asthmatic children. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of BMI on the risk of the occurrence of EIB in children with asthma. METHODS: Data were collected from six studies in which exercise challenge tests were performed according to international guidelines. We included 212 Children aged 7-18 years, with a pediatrician-diagnosed mild-to-moderate asthma...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648981/leptin-s-physiologic-role-does-the-emperor-of-energy-balance-have-no-clothes
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey S Flier, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
The discovery of the obese gene and the demonstration that its encoded protein leptin can reverse obesity due to genetic deficiency of the hormone were landmark discoveries in endocrinology and metabolism. Regarding leptin's role in physiology, it is now established that falling leptin levels are a key signal of the starved state in mice and humans. Repleting leptin reverses the starvation signal both in physiologic starvation and in obesity resulting from genetic leptin deficiency. Since its discovery, it has also been hypothesized that rising leptin levels caused by overfeeding provide a physiologic signal that orchestrates resistance to obesity...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639462/onychomycosis-in-the-21st-century-an-update-on-diagnosis-epidemiology-and-treatment
#15
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg, Neil H Shear
Onychomycosis accounts for 50% of all nail disease cases and is commonly caused by dermatophytes. Diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, immunosuppression, obesity, smoking, and advancing age are predisposing factors of this fungal infection. Potassium hydroxide and culture are considered the current standard for diagnosing onychomycosis, revealing both fungal viability and species identification. Other diagnostic tests currently available include periodic acid-Schiff staining, polymerase chain reaction techniques, and fluorescent staining...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633767/temporal-variation-in-ankle-fractures-and-orthopedic-resident-program-planning-in-an-urban-level-1-trauma-center
#16
Aaron Wynkoop, Osy Ndubaku, Norman Walter, Theresa Atkinson
Previous studies have described the mechanism of ankle fractures, their seasonal variation, and fracture patterns but never in conjunction. In addition, the cohorts previously studied were either not from trauma centers or were often dominated by low-energy mechanisms. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ankle fractures presenting to an urban level 1 trauma center. The records from an urban level 1 trauma center located in the Midwestern United States were retrospectively reviewed, and the injury mechanism and energy, time of injury, day of week, month, and patient characteristics (age, gender, comorbidities, smoking status) were collected...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627815/the-levels-of-serum-irisin-as-a-predictor-of-insulin-resistance-in-han-chinese-adults-with-metabolically-healthy-obesity
#17
Bo-Wei Liu, Fu-Zai Yin, Xi-Ming Qi, Dong-Mei Fan, Yue Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels and analyze its related factors in Han adults with metabolically healthy obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 75 metabolically healthy, non-obese adults and 51 metabolically healthy, obese adults. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure, were performed. All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after 8 hours of fasting, and the levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and serum irisin were measured...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611169/morel-lavall%C3%A3-e-lesion-of-the-proximal-tibia-in-an-obese-patient-after-low-energy-trauma
#18
Dirk Pieter Hogerzeil, Joris Jansen
Morel-Lavallée lesions (MLL) are usually localised in the hip or gluteal region, but have rarely been reported at the proximal tibia. We present a case of an overweight patient, aged 59, with a MLLof the left proximal tibia after a low-energy fall in his backyard. MLL pathogenesis, history, radiographic imaging, applied treatment and relevant literature to this specific case and MLL in general are discussed. Initially the patient's MLL was managed conservatively until he presented with persisting pain and swelling...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602529/-the-use-of-social-media-modifies-teenagers-sleep-related-behavior
#19
S Royant-Parola, V Londe, S Tréhout, S Hartley
OBJECTIVE: Modification of sleep behaviors in teenagers has been observed over the past 30years with a reduction in overall sleep time and an increasing number of teenagers suffering from sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is linked to physical problems such as obesity but also to change in performance at school and mood disorders. Changes have been associated with the use of screens, cell phones, Internet and social media. Use of screens has been shown to delay sleep onset and melatonin secretion and stimulation of wake systems by interaction with social media may exacerbate these effects...
June 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591547/population-estimates-and-characteristics-of-australians-potentially-eligible-for-bariatric-surgery-findings-from-the-2011-13-australian-health-survey
#20
Melanie J Sharman, Monique C Breslin, Alexandr Kuzminov, Andrew J Palmer, Leigh Blizzard, Martin Hensher, Alison J Venn
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the potential demand for publicly and privately funded bariatric surgery in Australia.Methods Nationally representative data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey were used to estimate the numbers and characteristics of Australians meeting specific eligibility criteria as recommended in National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity.Results Of the 3352037 adult Australians (aged 18-65 years) estimated to be obese in 2011-13, 882441 (26...
June 8, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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