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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336466/global-trends-and-predictions-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-mortality
#1
Paola Bertuccio, Federica Turati, Greta Carioli, Teresa Rodriguez, Carlo La Vecchia, Matteo Malvezzi, Eva Negri
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been one of the few cancers showing upward trends over recent decades in most countries, and is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We updated global trends in HCC mortality to 2014, and predicted trends in rates in the EU, USA and Japan to 2020, using data from the World Health Organization database. RESULTS: In EU men, mortality rates were stable in the last decade around 3...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334220/effect-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-developed-countries
#2
Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Martin Hewison, Neil J Gittoes
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Sources of data: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Systematic Reviews...
March 9, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299341/hepatic-cholesterol-25-hydroxylase-overexpression-improves-systemic-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice
#3
Britta Noebauer, Alexander Jais, Jelena Todoric, Klaus Gossens, Hedwig Sutterlüty-Fall, Elisa Einwallner
Obesity is a major risk factor for several diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer and due to its rapidly increasing prevalence it has become one of the biggest problems medicine is facing today. All the more surprising, a substantial percentage of obese patients are metabolically healthy when classified based on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Oxysterols are naturally occurring molecules that play important role in various metabolic and inflammatory processes and their levels are elevated in patients suffering from obesity and diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293271/a-mouse-model-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-is-there-a-relationship-between-25-oh-vitamin-d-levels-and-obesity
#4
Kenneth L Seldeen, Manhui Pang, Maria Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Mireya Hernandez, Zachary Sheridan, Ping Yu, Bruce R Troen
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-OH vitamin D > 10 ng/ml and < 30 ng/ml) is prevalent in the obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2)), yet relationships between the two are poorly understood. Objectives of this study include identification of the impact of obesity on reducing serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, particularly in response to altered vitamin D3 supplementation, and to elucidate the longitudinal impact of serum 25-OH vitamin D on body mass index...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283181/the-changing-epidemiology-of-fall-related-fractures-in-adults
#5
REVIEW
C M Court-Brown, N D Clement, A D Duckworth, L C Biant, M M McQueen
There has been very little analysis of the epidemiology of adult fall-related fractures outwith the osteoporotic population. We have analysed all in-patient and out-patient fall-related fractures in a one-year period in a defined population and documented their epidemiology. The overall prevalence of non-spinal fall-related fractures is 63.1% with 40.7% and 82.7% occurring in males and females respectively. In females aged 20-29 years >50% of fractures follow falls, the equivalent age range in males being 50-59 years...
March 2, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280846/obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-bone-in-adults
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer S Walsh, Tatiane Vilaca
In an increasingly obese and ageing population, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and osteoporotic fracture are major public health concerns. Understanding how obesity and type 2 diabetes modulate fracture risk is important to identify and treat people at risk of fracture. Additionally, the study of the mechanisms of action of obesity and T2DM on bone has already offered insights that may be applicable to osteoporosis in the general population. Most available evidence indicates lower risk of proximal femur and vertebral fracture in obese adults...
March 9, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267267/peripheral-neuropathy-in-prediabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Amro M Stino, A Gordon Smith
Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with nondiabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) to risk of both DPN and CSPN (CSPN-MetS)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263373/falls-and-frailty-in-prostate-cancer-survivors-current-past-and-never-users-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#8
Kerri M Winters-Stone, Esther Moe, Julie N Graff, Nathan F Dieckmann, Sydnee Stoyles, Carolyn Borsch, Joshi J Alumkal, Christopher L Amling, Tomasz M Beer
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of and association between falls and frailty of prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) who were current, past or never users of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Mail and electronic survey. PARTICIPANTS: PCSs (N = 280; mean age 72 ± 8). MEASUREMENTS: Cancer history, falls, and frailty status (robust, prefrail, frail) using traditionally defined and obese phenotypes...
March 6, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258366/risk-factors-for-distal-radius-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women
#9
Wenting Xu, Cheng Ni, Ren Yu, Guoqing Gu, Zheren Wang, Guoqing Zheng
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to explore the risk factors for distal radius fracture in postmenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 611 postmenopausal women with distal radius fractures were included. In all, 173 patients with unstable distal radius fractures were included (unstable fracture group), while there were 438 patients with stable distal radius fractures (stable fracture group). The control group comprised 800 postmenopausal women with no fracture...
March 3, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253947/-periprosthetic-femoral-fractures-after-total-hip-replacement-our-results-and-treatment-complications
#10
T Pavelka, M Salášek, D Weisová
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study consists of a retroactive evaluation of results of surgical treatment in patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after total hip replacement and a comparison with results reported in the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2003 to 2013, a total of 83 patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after total hip replacement were treated at our clinic, namely 69 women and 14 men. The mean age in the cohort was 74 years (range 47-87). The Vancouver classification was used to grade the fractures...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244552/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-community-dwelling-chilean-elders-according-to-an-adapted-version-of-the-european-working-group-on-sarcopenia-in-older-people-ewgsop-criteria
#11
L Lera, C Albala, H Sánchez, B Angel, M J Hormazabal, C Márquez, P Arroyo
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of mass and skeletal muscle strength and has serious consequences on older people's health. The Chilean older population has a high life-expectancy, but the prevalence of functional dependence is also high. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chilean older adults and its relationship with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230360/capsaicin-reduces-blood-glucose-by-increasing-insulin-levels-and-glycogen-content-better-than-capsiate-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Shiqi Zhang, Xiaohan Ma, Lei Zhang, Hui Sun, Xiong Liu
Chili peppers exhibit antiobesity, anticancer, antidiabetic, and pain- and itch-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue, is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223429/cancer-mortality-in-hispanic-ethnic-groups
#13
Paulo S Pinheiro, Karen E Callahan, Rebecca L Siegel, Hongbin Jin, Cyllene R Morris, Edward J Trapido, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics. The burden of cancer mortality within Hispanic groups has not been well quantified.Methods: Cancer mortality rates for 2008-2012 in Florida were computed on the basis of race, ethnicity, and birthplace, specifically focusing on major Hispanic groups-Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central Americans, South Americans, and Dominicans. Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios derived from negative binomial regression were used to compare Hispanics, aggregated and by group, to nonHispanic whites (NHW)...
March 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217587/is-small-town-india-falling-into-the-nutritional-trap-of-metro-cities-a-study-in-school-going-adolescents
#14
Tabassum Nawab, Zulfia Khan, Iqbal Mohammed Khan, Mohammed Athar Ansari
INTRODUCTION: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214526/recent-advances-in-human-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-adiposity-pathway-to-precision-medicine
#15
Tove Fall, Michael Mendelson, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the last decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions are now known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist to hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Expression of genes associated with general adiposity are enriched in the nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192499/vitamin-d-status-in-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Louise Maranda, Ninfa Candela
IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. AIM: To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185772/impact-of-weight-loss-management-in-osa
#17
REVIEW
Simon A Joosten, Garun S Hamilton, Matthew T Naughton
The interaction between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complex. Whilst it is often assumed that obesity is the major cause of OSA, and that treatment of the OSA might mitigate further weight gain, new evidence is emerging that suggest these statements may not be the case. Obesity explains about 60% of the variance of the apnea hypopnea index definition of OSA, mainly in those < 50 years and less so in the elderly. Moreover, long term treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure is associated with small but significant weight gain...
February 6, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176303/association-between-age-and-access-to-immediate-breast-reconstruction-in-women-undergoing-mastectomy-for-breast-cancer
#18
R Jeevan, J P Browne, C Gulliver-Clarke, J Pereira, C M Caddy, J H P van der Meulen, D A Cromwell
BACKGROUND: National guidelines state that patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy in England should be offered immediate breast reconstruction (IR), unless precluded by their fitness for surgery or the need for adjuvant therapies. METHODS: A national study investigated factors that influenced clinicians' decision to offer IR, and collected data on case mix, operative procedures and reconstructive decision-making among women with breast cancer having a mastectomy with or without IR in the English National Health Service between 1 January 2008 and 31 March 2009...
April 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168767/lifestyle-change-reduces-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-obese-first-degree-relatives-of-people-with-diabetes
#19
A Bowes, J Begley, D Kerr
BACKGROUND: Preventing type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting remains challenging. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle-based programme for individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes as assessed by achieved weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: Sixty-six obese individuals with history of diabetes in first-degree relatives participated in an 8-month lifestyle programme consisting of 12 × 1...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165758/early-antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-childhood-obesity-in-latinos
#20
Annette P Ville, Melvin B Heyman, Rosalinda Medrano, Janet M Wojcicki
We investigated the relationship between early antibiotic exposure before 6 months age and risk for obesity at 2 years in a high-risk, low-income, urban Latino cohort (n = 97), with the hypothesis that antibiotic exposure would increase risk for obesity by 2 years. Data were collected through maternal report of infant 24-hour dietary intake at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years; and food frequency questionnaires at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years. Antibiotic use data, including type and frequency, were collected through maternal self-report at 6 months and 1 year...
February 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
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