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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#1
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808791/consumption-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-improves-body-composition-and-blood-pressure-in-women-with-excess-body-fat-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Laís Emilia da Silva, Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
PURPOSE: Despite the fact that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely used in obese individuals to treat cardiovascular diseases, the role of EVOO on weight/fat reduction remains unclear. We investigated the effects of energy-restricted diet containing EVOO on body composition and metabolic disruptions related to obesity. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 41 adult women with excess body fat (mean ± SD 27...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806347/pediatric-pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome
#3
Paul H Phillips, Claire A Sheldon
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, otherwise known as primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), most frequently occurs in obese women of childbearing age. However, children may be affected as well. This review will address recent findings regarding demographics, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric PTCS. Prepubertal children with primary PTCS have an equal sex distribution and less frequent obesity compared with adult patients. However, female gender and obesity are risk factors for primary PTCS in postpubertal children...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802566/alcohol-use-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Lisa B VanWagner, Hongyan Ning, Norrina B Allen, Veeral Ajmera, Cora E Lewis, John Jeffrey Carr, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Norah A Terrault, Juned Siddique
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Moderate drinking (vs abstinence) is associated with lower risk of CVD in the general population. We assessed whether alcohol use is associated with CVD risk in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We analyzed data from participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults longitudinal cohort study of 5115 black and white young adults, 18-30 years old, recruited from 4 cities in the United States from 1985 through 1986...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794957/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-young-adults-a-pooled-analysis
#5
Paul B Nolan, Graeme Carrick-Ranson, James W Stinear, Stacey A Reading, Lance C Dalleck
Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774668/chronic-exposure-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-induces-an-obesogenic-effect-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Axelle Brulport, Ludovic Le Corre, Marie-Christine Chagnon
Contaminant involvement in the pathophysiology of obesity is widely recognized. It has been shown that low dose and chronic exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) potentiated diet- induced obesity. High and acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and an EDC with anti-estrogenic property, causes wasting syndrome . However at lower doses, the TCDD metabolic effects remain poorly understood. We investigated the obesogenic effect during chronic exposure of TCDD at 1μg/kg body weight (bw)/week in adult C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) and exposed from 10 to 42 weeks old to TCDD or equal volume of vehicle by intragastric gavage...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763926/-analysis-of-association-between-appendicular-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-and-main-anthropometric-parameters-among-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-china
#7
Z H Wang, Y D Yang, S Wang, Y H Dong, X J Wang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the associations between the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and main anthropometric parameters, and to provide clues for preventing the reduction of skeletal muscle mass among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: 1 488 volunteered participants who resided in Beijing longer than one year, between 22 and 55 years old, with self-report BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) were recruited from April to May 2014. 171 participants whose BMI ≤24 kg/m(2) or with organic diseases at the first physical examination were excluded, finally 1 317 overweight/obese participants (male and female were 507, and 810, respectively) were enrolled into the present study...
August 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762361/prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-its-risk-factors-among-adults-in-a-semi-urban-community-of-south-east-nigeria
#8
Chimezie Godswill Okwuonu, Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye, Oluseyi Ademola Adejumo, Emmanuel Idoko Agaba, Louis Ikechukwu Ojogwu
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly prevalent problem worldwide. Treatment of end-stage kidney disease is beyond the reach of an average Nigerian. The prevention and early detection are imperative to reducing its burden. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CKD and some of its risk factors among adults in a representative semi-urban Nigerian population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 400 randomly selected adults...
April 2017: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760137/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-longevity-study-from-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-china
#9
Xianghua He, Wei Zhang, Guofang Pang, Yuan Lv, Caiyou Hu, Ze Yang
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, yet the prevalence of MetS among nonagenarians and centenarians was rarely reported. Here we investigated the prevalence of MetS and its components among nonagenarians and centenarians in our Zhuang population from Bama, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. METHOD: In Bama area, there registered 881 individuals who lived more than 90 years old in 269,800 local residents and our study involved 307 long-lived participants and 486 local younger (35-68 years) persons, as controls...
July 31, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752055/maternal-obesity-programs-increased-leptin-gene-expression-in-rat-male-offspring-via-epigenetic-modifications-in-a-depot-specific-manner
#10
Simon Lecoutre, Frederik Oger, Charlène Pourpe, Laura Butruille, Lucie Marousez, Anne Dickes-Coopman, Christine Laborie, Céline Guinez, Jean Lesage, Didier Vieau, Claudine Junien, Delphine Eberlé, Anne Gabory, Jérôme Eeckhoute, Christophe Breton
OBJECTIVE: According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates predispose offspring to white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation. In rodents, adipogenesis mainly develops during lactation. The mechanisms underlying the phenomenon known as developmental programming remain elusive. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams (called HF) exhibited hypertrophic adipocyte, hyperleptinemia and increased leptin mRNA levels in a depot-specific manner...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749643/non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-and-their-trends-in-india
#11
Suzanne Nethan, Dhirendra Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Background: India is a populous country of about 1.3 billion. Non communicable diseases (NCDs) contribute to around 5.87 million (60%) of all deaths in India. Hence, the objectives of this paper are to find baseline information on different NCD risk factors coverage and to determine their trends in India. Methods: For this systematic review, PubMed, Google and different surveillance systems were searched. Of the search results, 41 papers/survey reports were eventually assessed for eligibility. National and state representative data on NCD risk factors (for the major NCDs like cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and diabetes) having World Health Organization(WHO) indicator definitions, covering rural and urban population, were included in the study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746811/the-acute-effects-of-different-spironolactone-doses-on-cardiac-function-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Aleksandra Vranic, Stefan Simovic, Petar Ristic, Tamara R Nikolic, Isidora Stojic, Ivan M Srejovic, Vladimir I Zivkovic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Dusan Djuric
Currently, cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of global mortality, while diabetes mellitus remains an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity. Findings suggest that obesity and diabetes mellitus are closely interconnected with high aldosterone levels, while mineralocorticoid receptors antagonist therapy has shown positive effects on cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus. A recent study showed that patients with diabetes mellitus treated with mineralocorticoid receptors antagonist have improved coronary microvascular function, leading to improved diastolic dysfunction...
July 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743403/obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-and-associated-factors
#13
Ana Espínola Rodríguez, Luis Lores Obradors, Neus Parellada Esquius, Felisa Rubio Muñoz, Neus Espinosa Gonzalez, Elisabet Arellano Marcuello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity causes important alterations in the respiratory physiology like sleep obstructive apnoea (SOA) and obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), both associated with high morbidity and mortality. Also, these entities are clearly infradiagnosed and in the case of OHS the prevalence is unknown in the general obese population. To determine the prevalence of OHS in the population of patients with morbid obesity and to know the comorbidity related with OHS, the associated respiratory symptoms and the pulse oximetry alterations...
July 22, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738068/age-dependent-relationships-between-body-mass-index-and-mortality-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-study
#14
Tze Pin Ng, Aizhen Jin, Khuan Yew Chow, Liang Feng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Keng Bee Yap
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) with mortality risk, in particular the BMI category associated with the lowest all-cause and CVD-and-stroke mortality and the BMI threshold for defining overweight or obesity in older persons is controversial. This study investigated the age-dependent associations of BMI categories with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke mortality. METHOD: Prospective cohort study (Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies) of older adults aged 55 and above, followed up from 2003 to 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733927/nut-intake-and-5-year-changes-in-body-weight-and-obesity-risk-in-adults-results-from-the-epic-panacea-study
#15
Heinz Freisling, Hwayoung Noh, Nadia Slimani, Véronique Chajès, Anne M May, Petra H Peeters, Elisabete Weiderpass, Amanda J Cross, Guri Skeie, Mazda Jenab, Francesca R Mancini, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi, Verena A Katzke, Tilman Kühn, Annika Steffen, Heiner Boeing, Anne Tjønneland, Cecilie Kyrø, Camilla P Hansen, Kim Overvad, Eric J Duell, Daniel Redondo-Sánchez, Pilar Amiano, Carmen Navarro, Aurelio Barricarte, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Dagfinn Aune, Heather Ward, Antonia Trichopoulou, Androniki Naska, Philippos Orfanos, Giovanna Masala, Claudia Agnoli, Franco Berrino, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Amalia Mattiello, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Anna Winkvist, Tonje Braaten, Isabelle Romieu, Joan Sabaté
PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733781/bitc-and-s-carvone-restrain-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Sary Alsanea, Dexi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728620/insulin-resistance-and-hypertension-in-obese-youth-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-treated-with-positive-airway-pressure-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#17
Sherri L Katz, Joanna E MacLean, Lynda Hoey, Linda Horwood, Nicholas Barrowman, Bethany Foster, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Laurent Legault, Glenda N Bendiak, Valerie G Kirk, Evelyn Constantin
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that cardiometabolic disease associated with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults is present in youth. SDB is often treated with positive airway pressure (PAP) in youth with obesity. Our aims were to determine: (1) the prevalence of cardiometabolic disease and (2) whether PAP improves markers of cardiometabolic disease, in youth with obesity and newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in youth (8 to 16 years old) with obesity, prescribed PAP therapy for newly diagnosed moderate-severe SDB...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725448/differential-prevalence-and-associations-of-overweight-and-obesity-by-gender-and-population-group-among-school-learners-in-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Sarah Negash, Charles Agyemang, Tandi E Matsha, Nasheeta Peer, Rajiv T Erasmus, Andre P Kengne
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725327/prevalence-of-undiagnosed-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adults-aged-20-40-a-cross-sectional-study-in-2016-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#19
Faisal Saed Alharthi, Jamilah Saad Alrahimi, Abdulrahman Ali Alotaibi, Daniah Ahmed Alhamdi, Bashair Mohammed Ibrahim, Yasmina Aymen Badeeb
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the first leading cause of death worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, CVDs are the major killers with a mortality rate of 46%. CVD risk factors are not exclusive to old populations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to approximately find the prevalence of these risk factors, particularly high blood pressure (HBP), high blood glucose (HBG), obesity, and smoking. METHODS: This cross-sectional was conducted in May 2016 and took place in the Ambulatory Care Center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725215/prolyl-hydroxylase-domain-2-inhibition-improves-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-in-a-male-murine-model-of-obesity
#20
Indranil Sinha, Dharaniya Sakthivel, Benjamin A Olenchock, Carla R Kruse, Jeremy Williams, David E Varon, Jessica D Smith, Arin L Madenci, Kristo Nuutila, Amy J Wagers
Obesity leads to a loss of muscle mass and impaired muscle regeneration. In obese individuals, pathologically elevated levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme 2 (PHD2) limit skeletal muscle hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Loss of local VEGF may further impair skeletal muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that PHD2 inhibition would restore vigorous muscle regeneration in a murine model of obesity. Adult (22-week-old) male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), with 60% of calories derived from fat, or a regular diet (RD), with 10% of calories derived from fat, for 16 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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