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atypical mycobacteria

Amanda M Krantz, Meera Varnam, Cristina Fernandez
Atypical mycobacteria, also known as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) includes acid-fast bacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NTM can be isolated from a variety of environmental sources including water, food products, domestic animals, and soil; human exposure is typically from soil to the oral cavity and respiratory tract. Diagnosis of NTM is suspected in children less than five years old with subacute, unilateral, non-tender cervicofacial lymphadenitis in combination with a history of water exposure, penetrating injection, as well as negative routine cultures or response to antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal antibiotics...
October 25, 2016: Curēus
Christian Konrads, Kilian Rückl, Mohammed El Tabbakh, Maximilian Rudert, Stefan Kircher, Piet Plumhoff
INTRODUCTION: Septic olecranon bursitis due to atypical mycobacteria is rare. An insidious beginning can delay diagnosis and treatment. Antibacterial therapy recommendations are not well-defined for bursitis caused by atypical mycobacteria. We present a rare case of olecranon bursitis caused by Mycobacterium gordonae, reporting our experiences regarding pathogen identification and antibiotic therapy, which differs from regimes used in common septic bursitis mostly caused by staphylococcus aureus...
2016: SICOT-J
Maria J Gutierrez, Neelu Kalra, Alexandra Horwitz, Gustavo Nino
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Vinayak Singh, Neeraj Dhar, János Pató, Gaëlle S Kolly, Jana Korduláková, Martin Forbak, Joanna C Evans, Rita Székely, Jan Rybniker, Zuzana Palčeková, Júlia Zemanová, Isabella Santi, François Signorino-Gelo, Liliana Rodrigues, Anthony Vocat, Adrian S Covarrubias, Monica G Rengifo, Kai Johnsson, Sherry Mowbray, Joseph Buechler, Vincent Delorme, Priscille Brodin, Graham W Knott, José A Aínsa, Digby F Warner, György Kéri, Katarína Mikušová, John D McKinney, Stewart T Cole, Valerie Mizrahi, Ruben C Hartkoorn
There is an urgent need to discover new anti-tubercular agents with novel mechanisms of action in order to tackle the scourge of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Here, we report the identification of such a molecule - an AminoPYrimidine-Sulfonamide (APYS1) that has potent, bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis. Mutations in APYS1-resistant M. tuberculosis mapped exclusively to wag31, a gene that encodes a scaffolding protein thought to orchestrate cell elongation. Recombineering confirmed that a Gln201Arg mutation in Wag31 was sufficient to cause resistance to APYS1, however, neither overexpression nor conditional depletion of wag31 impacted M...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
D Huet, B Godbert, J Hermann, J-M Zordan, F Chabot, C Andréjak
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium malmoense can be difficult to diagnose. These difficulties can be responsible for a delay in the implementation of optimal treatment. Moreover, the treatment is not standardized. OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed a Mycobacterium malmoense pulmonary infection whose diagnosis was delayed due to initial suspicion of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Once the diagnosis was confirmed, the patient was treated empirically with rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin for 12 months after culture conversion, giving a total of 15 months...
September 14, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Zaid Saffo, Anthony Ognjan
The most common organisms causing prosthetic knee joint infections are staphylococci. However, arthroplasty infections with atypical microbial pathogens, such as Mycobacteria can occur. Due to the rarity of mycobacterial prosthetic joint infections, diagnosis, treatment, and management of these atypical infections represent a clinical challenge. A 71-year old female post-operative day 40 after a left total knee arthroplasty was hospitalized secondary to left knee pain and suspected arthroplasty infection. She had failed outpatient oral antimicrobial treatment for superficial stitch abscess; and outpatient IV/Oral antimicrobials for a clinical postoperative septic bursitis...
2016: IDCases
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
B Braun, A P Karl, C Dierkes, M Schenk, J Braess
A 19-year old woman with acute myeloid leukemia presented with newly observed liver lesions during ongoing consolidation therapy. Due to unexplained cholestasis during induction, biliary duct drainage was performed. Microbiologic and histologic examinations revealed the presence of atypical mycobacteria, namely Mycobacterium abscessus. With an appropriate antiinfective regime which was continuously administered using a portable pump in the outpatient setting, further mycobacterial spread during simultaneous chemotherapy-associated neutropenia was prevented...
July 13, 2016: Der Internist
Livio G Moccia, Sabrina Castaldo, Emanuela Sirignano, Maddalena Napolitano, Enrica Barra, Alessandro Sanduzzi
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown origin, characterized by the formation of granulomas without central necrosis. Each organ and tissue can be affected by the disease, but in most cases mainly the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes but also skin, heart, eyes and joints are involved, the latter are mainly the metacarpophalangeal joints and bone lesions are often associated with involvement of the overlying skin. The diagnosis is often of exclusion, based on clinical and radiological suspicion, and should be confirmed by biopsy, although in each case it is necessary to exclude other possible causes of granulomatosis, including infections by mycobacteria...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Simone A Joosten, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Franca Del Nonno, Andrea Baiocchini, Linda Petrone, Valentina Vanini, Hermelijn H Smits, Fabrizio Palmieri, Delia Goletti, Tom H M Ottenhoff
B-cells not only produce immunoglobulins and present antigens to T-cells, but also additional key roles in the immune system. Current knowledge on the role of B-cells in infections caused by intracellular bacteria is fragmentary and contradictory. We therefore analysed the phenotypical and functional properties of B-cells during infection and disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacillus causing tuberculosis (TB), and included individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), active TB, individuals treated successfully for TB, and healthy controls...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Olga Szaluś-Jordanow, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Michał Czopowicz, Arkadiusz Olkowski, Andrzej Łobaczewski, Magdalena Rzewuska, Rafał Sapierzyński, Elżbieta Wiatr, Magdalena Garncarz, Tadeusz Frymus
BACKGROUND: This paper presents an unusual form of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a dog. The infection lasted at least one year and its main gross lesions were massive cardiac tuberculomas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heart tuberculomas in a dog. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old mixed-breed male dog weighing 10 kg was referred to the clinic for cardiological evaluation before general anesthesia. The echocardiography revealed a lump of about 20 mm in diameter in the area of the left atrium...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Nanpeng Gong, Yang Tan, Min Li, Weiping Lu, Xia Lei
Atypical mycobacterial skin infection is rare in clinical practice. Because atypical mycobacteria are highly hydrophobic, the permeability of the outer membrane of the bacterial wall is very low, which makes it difficult for drugs to cross the barrier. Additionally, atypical mycobacteria are resistant to many drugs, and thus, infection tends to last for a long time and become recurrent and difficult to treat. Thus, it is very important to find new, more effective treatment methods. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a type of fast-growing atypical mycobacterium that is resistant to all of the primary anti-TB drugs and thus is very difficult to treat...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Foteini Chatzinasiou, Dimitrios Polymeros, Maro Panagiotou, Konstadinos Theodoropoulos, Dimitrios Rigopoulos
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative skin disease, part of the spectrum of neutrophilic and auto-inflammatory dermatoses. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although immune pathways have been implicated. Lesion biopsies show a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate. The incidence of PG is uncertain, but it is estimated to be 3-10 per million per year, occurring at any age but most commonly between 20 and 50 years with a possible slightly higher incidence in women. Approximately 50% of patients with PG also have another disease associated with PG...
April 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Sugata Narayan Biswas, Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi Satpathi, Shinjan Patra
A 45-year-old, non-obese male presented with low-grade, remittent fever and a fluctuant swelling over the posterior aspect of his lower left flank. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, raised ESR, hyperglycemia and raised HbA1C levels. Light microscopy of Ziehl-Neelsen-stained pus sample revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli. After 72 h of incubating aspirated pus in Löwenstein-Jensen media, non-pigmented, cream-colored colonies were observed, suggestive of rapid-growing atypical forms of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction of isolated bacteria identified Mycobacterium chelonae as causative organism...
April 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
M I Garvey, R Ashford, C W Bradley, C R Bradley, T A Martin, J Walker, P Jumaa
BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium chimaera are found widely in hospital water systems. Invasive M. chimaera infections have recently been attributed to heater-cooler units (HCUs) of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment. AIM: To assess the extent of microbiological contamination within the HCUs and to inform decontamination strategies for reducing the microbial load. METHODS: Water samples taken from HCUs used at University Hospitals Birmingham for cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were sampled to determine the number of micro-organisms by membrane filtration...
July 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Marco Bonali, Francesco Mattioli, Matteo Alicandri-Ciufelli, Livio Presutti
The incidence of retro-parapharyngeal localization of cervical adenitis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is very rare. We present a case of an 18-months-old child with an involvement of parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal areas, right parotid and submandibular regions by atypical mycobacteriosis in the CT and MRI scan. The masses were surgically removed and the frozen-section histological exam upheld their atypical mycobacterial origin.
April 20, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Mansher Singh, Caitlin M Dugdale, Isaac H Solomon, Anne Huang, Mary W Montgomery, Bohdan Pomahac, Sigal Yawetz, James H Maguire, Simon G Talbot
BACKGROUND: "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively...
September 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Juraj Berkovic, John A Vanchiere, Anil Gungor
OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. STUDY DESIGN/SUBJECT: Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision...
March 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Guillaume Sapriel, Julie Konjek, Mickael Orgeur, Laurent Bouri, Lise Frézal, Anne-Laure Roux, Emilie Dumas, Roland Brosch, Christiane Bouchier, Sylvain Brisse, Mathias Vandenbogaert, Jean-Michel Thiberge, Valérie Caro, Yun Fong Ngeow, Joon Liang Tan, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Beate Heym, Thierry Wirth
BACKGROUND: In mycobacteria, conjugation differs from the canonical Hfr model, but is still poorly understood. Here, we quantified this evolutionary processe in a natural mycobacterial population, taking advantage of a large clinical strain collection of the emerging pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB). RESULTS: Multilocus sequence typing confirmed the existence of three M. abscessus subspecies, and unravelled extensive allelic exchange between them. Furthermore, an asymmetrical gene flow occurring between these main lineages was detected, resulting in highly admixed strains...
2016: BMC Genomics
Michael A Peabody, Matthew R Laird, Caitlyn Vlasschaert, Raymond Lo, Fiona S L Brinkman
Protein subcellular localization (SCL) is important for understanding protein function, genome annotation, and has practical applications such as identification of potential vaccine components or diagnostic/drug targets. PSORTdb ( comprises manually curated SCLs for proteins which have been experimentally verified (ePSORTdb), as well as pre-computed SCL predictions for deduced proteomes from bacterial and archaeal complete genomes available from NCBI (cPSORTdb). We now report PSORTdb 3.0...
January 4, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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