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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926859/rapamycin-reverses-metabolic-deficits-in-lamin-a-c-deficient-mice
#1
Chen-Yu Liao, Sydney S Anderson, Nicole H Chicoine, Jarrott R Mayfield, Emmeline C Academia, Joy A Wilson, Chalermkwan Pongkietisak, Morgan A Thompson, Earl P Lagmay, Delana M Miller, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark A McCormick, Monique N O'Leary, Brian K Kennedy
The role of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in regulation of adiposity remains controversial. Here, we evaluate mTOR signaling in lipid metabolism in adipose tissues of Lmna(-/-) mice, a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Lifespan extension by rapamycin is associated with increased body weight and fat content, two phenotypes we link to suppression of elevated energy expenditure. In both white and brown adipose tissue of Lmna(-/-) mice, we find that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 but not mTORC2, leading to suppression of elevated lipolysis and restoration of thermogenic protein UCP1 levels, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926791/high-prevalence-of-mitf-staining-in-undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-caution-in-use-of-melanocytic-markers-in-sarcoma
#2
Bonnie Choy, Elizabeth Hyjek, Anthony G Montag, Peter Pytel, Rex Haydon, Hue H Luu, Chao Jie Zhen, Bradley C Long, Sabah Kadri, Jeremy P Segal, Larissa V Furtado, Nicole A Cipriani
AIMS: Diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) may be challenging, as other lesions with undifferentiated spindle cell morphology must be excluded, including melanoma. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) stains nevi and epithelioid melanomas, as well as some mesenchymal neoplasms. We evaluated the prevalence of MiTF and melanocytic markers in UPS and a subset of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). METHODS AND RESULTS: MiTF, SOX10, Melan-A, HMB45, and S100 immunostains were performed on resection specimens from 19 UPS and 5 AFX...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926670/clinical-and-radiographical-differences-between-thoracic-idiopathic-spinal-cord-herniation-and-spinal-arachnoid-cyst
#3
Hiroaki Nakashima, Shiro Imagama, Hideki Yagi, Fumihiko Kato, Tokumi Kanemura, Koji Sato, Noriaki Kawakami, Mitsuhiro Kamiya, Hisatake Yoshihara, Kenyu Ito, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter case-controlled study OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiographical differences between thoracic idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) and spinal arachnoid cyst (SAC). SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: ISCH and SAC are relatively rare diseases. Preoperative misdiagnose was frequently reported in both, however these clinical and radiographical differences remain unclear. METHODS: Out of 30,469 patients who underwent spinal surgery, 18 (0...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926648/connecting-police-violence-with-reproductive-health
#4
Ashish Premkumar, Onouwem Nseyo, Andrea V Jackson
Since the police-involved deaths of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray, activists have argued for connecting police violence with reproductive justice. We argue that systematic violence, including police violence, should be evaluated in relation to reproductive health outcomes of individual patients and communities. Beyond emphasizing the relationship between violence and health outcomes, both qualitative and epidemiologic data can be used by activists and caregivers to effectively care for individuals from socially marginalized communities...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926380/out-of-hours-workload-management-bayesian-inference-for-decision-support-in-secondary-care
#5
Iker Perez, Michael Brown, James Pinchin, Sarah Martindale, Sarah Sharples, Dominick Shaw, John Blakey
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we aim to evaluate the use of electronic technologies in out of hours (OoH) task-management for assisting the design of effective support systems in health care; targeting local facilities, wards or specific working groups. In addition, we seek to draw and validate conclusions with relevance to a frequently revised service, subject to increasing pressures. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We have analysed 4 years of digitised demand-data extracted from a recently deployed electronic task-management system, within the Hospital at Night setting in two jointly coordinated hospitals in the United Kingdom...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925585/using-contact-forces-and-robot-arm-accelerations-to-automatically-rate-surgeon-skill-at-peg-transfer
#6
Jeremy Brown, Conor O'Brien, Sarah Leung, Kristoffel Dumon, David Lee, Katherine Kuchenbecker
OBJECTIVE: Most trainees begin learning robotic minimally invasive surgery by performing inanimate practice tasks with clinical robots such as the Intuitive Surgical da Vinci. Expert surgeons are commonly asked to evaluate these performances using standardized five-point rating scales, but doing such ratings is time consuming, tedious, and somewhat subjective. This article presents an automatic skill evaluation system that analyzes only the contact force with the task materials, the broad-bandwidth accelerations of the robotic instruments and camera, and the task completion time...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925487/a-novel-safer-conception-counseling-toolkit-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-in-kisumu-kenya
#7
Joelle Brown, Betty Njoroge, Eliud Akama, Brooke Breitnauer, Anna Leddy, Lynae Darbes, Richard Omondi, Okeoma Mmeje
Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics...
December 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925301/atypical-case-of-perimesencephalic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Konark Malhotra, Shino D Magaki, Maria Inmaculada Cobos Sillero, Harry V Vinters, Reza Jahan, Robert D Brown, David S Liebeskind
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-SAH) refers to intracranial hemorrhage located in the perimesencephalic cistern. The etiology remains mainly unclear, although venous leakage or rupture has been postulated. We report an interesting case of a 57-year-old healthy man who presented initially with PM-SAH with worsening of subcortical lesions on follow-up neuroimaging. Histopathological examination demonstrated cerebral amyloid angiopathy with perivascular inflammation.
December 7, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925263/improved-consistency-in-2d-gel-electrophoresis-sheep-plasma-as-a-test-case
#9
Stuart Brown, Gillian Norris
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a well proven proteomic technique, however sample specific optimization can often be necessary in order to get consistent quantitation. In particular, plasma samples are often smeared on 2D gels which makes spot matching difficult. A variety of different sample preparation and 2D methods were tested using sheep plasma, and it was found that lowering sample pH prior to precipitation, using a long voltage gradient for isoelectric focusing and the inclusion of carrier ampholytes in the electrode wicks, improved both the quality and consistency of spot resolution...
December 7, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925113/accidental-falls-in-urgent-and-emergency-care-results-of-the-2014-viva-survey
#10
Adalgisa Peixoto Ribeiro, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Carlos Augusto Moreira de Sousa, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the cases of falls in urgent and emergency care services of 24 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District participating in the 2014 VIVA Survey. We sought to describe the epidemiological profile of victims, characterizing the event and the severity of injuries it caused and to perform an association study. We calculated the simple and relative frequencies of variables and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for complex sample data in order to verify associations between falls and selected variables...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925108/urgent-and-emergency-care-for-pedestrians-injured-in-brazilian-traffic
#11
Liana Wernersbach Pinto, Adalgisa Peixoto Ribeiro, Camila Alves Bahia, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
This paper aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of pedestrians injured in traffic accidents treated at urgent and emergency facilities participating in the 2014VIVA Survey and the characterization of these events and consequences for these victims. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the period from September to November 2014 in 24 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We analyzed variables that characterize the victim, the accident and its severity and case outcome. We calculated simple and relative frequencies and performed a bivariate analysis by gender and age group...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925107/characteristics-of-motorcyclists-involved-in-road-traffic-accidents-attended-at-public-urgent-and-emergency-services
#12
Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Cheila Marina de Lima, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro
Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924841/virus-altered-rice-attractiveness-to-planthoppers-is-mediated-by-volatiles-and-related-to-virus-titre-and-expression-of-defence-and-volatile-biosynthesis-genes
#13
Guanghua Lu, Tong Zhang, Yuange He, Guohui Zhou
Viruses may induce changes in plant hosts and vectors to enhance their transmission. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown planthopper (BPH) are vectors of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), respectively, which cause serious rice diseases. We herein describe the effects of SRBSDV and RRSV infections on host-selection behaviour of vector and non-vector planthoppers at different disease stages. The Y-tube olfactometer choice and free-choice tests indicated that SRBSDV and RRSV infections altered the attractiveness of rice plants to vector and non-vector planthoppers...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924635/performance-feedback-self-esteem-and-cardiovascular-adaptation-to-recurring-stressors
#14
Eoin G Brown, Ann-Marie Creaven
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the effects of performance feedback and individual differences in self-esteem on cardiovascular habituation to repeat stress exposure. METHODS: Sixty-six university students (n = 39 female) completed a self-esteem measure and completed a cardiovascular stress-testing protocol involving repeated exposure to a mental arithmetic task. Cardiovascular functioning was sampled across four phases: resting baseline, initial stress exposure, a recovery period, and repeated stress exposure...
December 7, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924551/mycotoxins-a-fungal-genomics-perspective
#15
Daren W Brown, Scott E Baker
The chemical and enzymatic diversity in the fungal kingdom is staggering. Large-scale fungal genome sequencing projects are generating a massive catalog of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and pathways. Fungal natural products are a boon and bane to man as valuable pharmaceuticals and harmful toxins. Understanding how these chemicals are synthesized will aid the development of new strategies to limit mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds as well as expand drug discovery programs. A survey of work focused on the fumonisin family of mycotoxins highlights technological advances and provides a blueprint for future studies of other fungal natural products...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924537/targeting-aflatoxin-biosynthetic-genes
#16
Ali Y Srour, Ahmad M Fakhoury, Robert L Brown
Chemical detoxification and physical destruction of aflatoxins in foods and feed commodities are mostly unattainable in a way that preserves the edibility of the food. Therefore, preventing mycotoxins in general and aflatoxins in particular from entering the food chain is a better approach. This requires early detection of the aflatoxin-causing organisms. Detection and quantification of aflatoxin-producing fungi has always been a challenge, especially within species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Culture-based methods require a high level of expertise and a list of sophisticated equipment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924322/a-cu-ii-complex-targeting-the-translocator-protein-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-potential-and-mechanistic-insights
#17
D Montagner, B Fresch, K Browne, V Gandin, A Erxleben
A new Cu-based anticancer metallodrug which targets the translocator protein is reported. [CuBr2(TZ6)] elicits a remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity in sensitive and multidrug resistant cell lines and induces a 98% reduction of tumor mass in a murine tumor model. Target binding was studied by experimental and computational methods.
December 7, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923944/membrane-oxygenator-use-with-biventricular-assist-device-facilitation-of-support-and-lung-recovery
#18
Kristen Nelson-McMillan, William J Ravekes, William R Thompson, Kristen M Brown, Larry Wolff, Rajeev S Wadia, LeAnn M McNamara, Donald H Shaffner, Ivor D Berkowitz, Marshall L Jacobs, Luca A Vricella
We present the use of a low-resistance membrane oxygenator (Quadrox D, Maquet) in series with a pulsatile right ventricular assist device (Berlin Heart EXCOR, Berlin Heart) in a patient with biventricular support who required high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), due to refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia. The high mean airway pressure associated with the use of HFOV resulted in a significant negative impact on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) filling that led to a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis and the need for vasopressor support...
December 6, 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923872/dopamine-directly-increases-mitochondrial-mass-and-thermogenesis-in-brown-adipocytes
#19
Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian Michael Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, Karl Alexander Iwen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is key to energy homeostasis. By virtue of its thermogenic potential it may dissipate excessive energy, regulate body weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. Catecholamines are critically involved in the regulation of BAT-thermogenesis, yet research has focussed on the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Some evidence suggests a role of dopamine (DA) in BAT-thermogenesis but the cellular mechanisms involved have not been addressed. We employed our extensively characterised murine brown adipocyte cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923809/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-chronic-cns-mediated-antidiabetic-action-of-leptin
#20
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Sydney P Moak, Jackson Browning, Haley J Houghton, Giovana C Micheloni, Jussara M do Carmo
This study tested whether chronic ganglionic blockade or hepatic vagotomy attenuates the chronic CNS-mediated antidiabetic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry probes and arterial and venous catheters for determination of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), blood sampling and intravenous (IV) infusions. An intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for infusion of leptin or vehicle. After control measurements, streptozotocin (STZ) was injected IV (50 mg/kg) to induce diabetes and 5 days later leptin (n=6) or saline vehicle (n=5) was infused ICV for 12 days via osmotic pumps...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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