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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353450/cancer-treatment-and-bone-health
#1
REVIEW
Catherine Handforth, Stella D'Oronzo, Robert Coleman, Janet Brown
Considerable advances in oncology over recent decades have led to improved survival, while raising concerns about long-term consequences of anticancer treatments. In patients with breast or prostate malignancies, bone health is a major issue due to the high risk of bone metastases and the frequent prolonged use of hormone therapies that alter physiological bone turnover, leading to increased fracture risk. Thus, the onset of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) should be considered by clinicians and recent guidelines should be routinely applied to these patients...
January 20, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353263/subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology-in-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Ishwarlal Jialal, Sridevi Devaraj
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common global problem that comprises the cardio-metabolic cluster and predisposes to both diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although the pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated, both increased inflammation and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. It appears that both monocyte/macrophages and adipose tissue (AT) conspire to accentuate both the pro-inflammatory state and increased insulin resistance. Whilst there are scant data on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) biology, there are data on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) dysregulation...
January 20, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353198/a-tiered-approach-to-assess-effects-of-diclofenac-on-the-brown-mussel-perna-perna-a-contribution-to-characterize-the-hazard
#3
Mayana Karoline Fontes, Paloma Kachel Gusso-Choueri, Luciane Alves Maranho, Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa, Wesley Almeida Mazur, Bruno Galvão de Campos, Luciana Lopes Guimarães, Marcos Sergio de Toledo, Daniel Lebre, Joyce Rodrigues Marques, Andreia Arantes Felicio, Augusto Cesar, Eduardo Alves Almeida, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira
Pharmaceutical discharges into the aquatic ecosystem are of environmental concern and sewage treatment plants (STPs) have been pointed out as the major source of these compounds to coastal zones, where oceanic disposal of sewage occurs through submarine outfalls. Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in water, but little is known about the effects on marine organisms. In this study, we employed a tiered approach involving the determination of environmental concentrations of DCF in marine water and the adverse biological effects for fertilization, embryo-larval development and biomarker responses of the mussel Perna perna...
December 29, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352918/structural-characteristics-and-anticancer-activity-in-vitro-of-fucoidan-from-brown-alga-padina-boryana
#4
Roza V Usoltseva, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Irina A Ishina, Vladimir V Isakov, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Pham Duc Thinh, Pavel A Zadorozhny, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Svetlana P Ermakova
The sulfated and acetylated fucoidan fraction, containing fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose and uronic acid residues, was isolated from the brown alga Padina boryana. The structure of galactofucan part was studied after different modifications by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. It was shown that galactofucan contained the main chain of alternating 1,4-linked α-l-fucopyranose and 1,3-linked β-d-Galactopyranose. Single fucose residues were found as branches at C4 of galactose residues. Also, fucoidan contained 1,3- or 1,4-linked Fuc-Fuc and Gal-Gal fragments...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352654/resistance-training-during-a-12-week-protein-supplemented-vlcd-treatment-enhances-weight-loss-outcomes-in-obese-patients
#5
Edward Jo, Phillip R Worts, Marcus L Elam, Ann Frost Brown, Andy V Khamoui, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla M Prado, Angelina Cain, Katie Snyder, Jeong-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6)...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352647/ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pre-licensing-protects-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-the-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-palmitate
#6
Lauren Boland, Anthony J Burand, Alex J Brown, Devlin Boyt, Vitor A Lira, James A Ankrum
The use of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D complications is promising; however, the investigation of MSC function in the setting of T2D has not been thoroughly explored. In our current study, we investigated the phenotype and function of MSCs in a simulated in vitro T2D environment. We show that palmitate, but not glucose, exposure impairs MSC metabolic activity with moderate increases in apoptosis, while drastically affecting proliferation and morphology...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352569/patient-navigation-reduces-time-to-care-for-patients-with-breast-symptoms-and-abnormal-screening-mammograms
#7
Elaine McKevitt, Carol Dingee, Rebecca Warburton, Jin-Si Pao, Carl J Brown, Christine Wilson, Urve Kuusk
INTRODUCTION: Concern has been raised about delays for patients presenting with breast symptoms in Canada. Our objective was to determine if our Rapid Access Breast Clinic (RABC) improved care for patients presenting with breast symptoms compared to the traditional system (TS). METHODS: A retrospective chart review tabulated demographic, surgical, pathology and radiologic information. Wait times to care were determined for patients presenting with symptomatic and screen detected breast problems...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352448/mesenchymal-stem-cell-deformability-and-implications-for-microvascular-sequestration
#8
Herbert H Lipowsky, Daniel T Bowers, Britany L Banik, Justin L Brown
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine, particularly in light of prospects for targeted delivery by intra-arterial injection. However, little is known about the mechanics of MSC sequestration in the microvasculature and the yield pressure (PY), above which MSCs will pass through microvessels of a given diameter. The objectives of the current study were to delineate the dependency of PY on cell size and the heterogeneity of cell mechanical properties and diameters (DCELL) of cultured MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352400/project-date-smart-a-dating-violence-dv-and-sexual-risk-prevention-program-for-adolescent-girls-with-prior-dv-exposure
#9
Christie J Rizzo, Meredith Joppa, David Barker, Charlene Collibee, Caron Zlotnick, Larry K Brown
This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later...
January 20, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352147/pre-conception-maternal-erythrocyte-saturated-to-unsaturated-fatty-acid-ratio-predicts-pregnancy-after-natural-cycle-frozen-embryo-transfer
#10
Christopher C Onyiaodike, Heather M Murray, Ruiqi Zhang, Barbara J Meyer, Fiona Jordan, E Ann Brown, Robert J B Nibbs, Helen Lyall, Naveed Sattar, Scott M Nelson, Dilys J Freeman
The environment for embryo implantation and fetal growth and development is affected by maternal nutritional, metabolic and health status. The aim of this prospective, cohort study was to test whether plasma metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers can predict pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Women with a natural menstrual cycle undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET) were recruited and fasting baseline blood samples were collected a mean of 3.4 days prior to the luteinising hormone (LH) surge and a non-fasting blood sample was taken on the day of FET...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352029/dissociable-temporal-effects-of-bupropion-on-behavioural-measures-of-emotional-and-reward-processing-in-depression
#11
Annabel E L Walsh, Michael Browning, Wayne C Drevets, Maura Furey, Catherine J Harmer
Antidepressants remediate negative biases in emotional processing early in treatment, prior to mood improvement. However, the effects on reward processing potentially relevant to the treatment of anhedonia are less clear. Here we investigate the early and sustained effects of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor bupropion on behavioural measures of emotional and reward processing in currently depressed individuals. Forty-six currently depressed patients and 42 healthy controls participated in a repeated measures study, during which open-label bupropion was administered to only the patient group over a six week period without a placebo group...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351989/iterative-random-forests-to-discover-predictive-and-stable-high-order-interactions
#12
Sumanta Basu, Karl Kumbier, James B Brown, Bin Yu
Genomics has revolutionized biology, enabling the interrogation of whole transcriptomes, genome-wide binding sites for proteins, and many other molecular processes. However, individual genomic assays measure elements that interact in vivo as components of larger molecular machines. Understanding how these high-order interactions drive gene expression presents a substantial statistical challenge. Building on random forests (RFs) and random intersection trees (RITs) and through extensive, biologically inspired simulations, we developed the iterative random forest algorithm (iRF)...
January 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351987/cd83-is-a-new-potential-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-for-hodgkin-lymphoma
#13
Ziduo Li, Xinsheng Ju, Kenneth Lee, Candice Clarke, Jennifer L Hsu, Edward Abadir, Christian E Bryant, Suzanne Pears, Neroli Sunderland, Scott Heffernan, Annemarie Hennessy, Tsun-Ho Lo, Geoffrey A Pietersz, Fiona Kupresanin, Phillip D Fromm, Pablo A Silveira, Con Tsonis, Wendy A Cooper, Ilona Cunningham, Christina Brown, Georgina J Clark, Derek N J Hart
Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are effective treatments for most Hodgkin lymphoma patients, however there remains a need for better tumor-specific target therapy in Hodgkin lymphoma patients with refractory or relapsed disease. We demonstrate that membrane CD83 is a diagnostic and therapeutic target, highly expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in 29/35 (82.9%) Hodgkin lymphoma patient lymph node biopsies. CD83 from Hodgkin lymphoma tumor cells was able to trogocytose to surrounding T cells and interestingly, the trogocytosing CD83+T cells expressed significantly more PD-1 compared to CD83- T cells...
January 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351901/xiap-regulation-by-mnk-links-mapk-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-to-determine-an-aggressive-breast-cancer-phenotype
#14
Myron K Evans, Michael C Brown, Joseph Geradts, Xuhui Bao, Timothy J Robinson, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Peter Vermeulen, Gregory M Palmer, Matthias Gromeier, Herbert Levine, Michael A Morse, Steven Van Laere, Gayathri R Devi
Hyperactivation of the NFκB pathway is a distinct feature of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), a highly proliferative and lethal disease. Gene expression studies in IBC patient tissue have linked epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER2)-mediated MAPK signaling to NFκB hyperactivity, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs remain unclear. Here, we report that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) plays a central role in linking these two pathways. XIAP overexpression correlated with poor prognoses in breast cancer patients and was frequently observed in untreated IBC patient primary tumors...
January 19, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351847/phosphorylation-of-ezh2-by-ampk-suppresses-prc2-methyltransferase-activity-and-oncogenic-function
#15
Lixin Wan, Kexin Xu, Yongkun Wei, Jinfang Zhang, Tao Han, Christopher Fry, Zhao Zhang, Yao Vickie Wang, Liyu Huang, Min Yuan, Weiya Xia, Wei-Chao Chang, Wen-Chien Huang, Chien-Liang Liu, Yuan-Ching Chang, Jinsong Liu, Yun Wu, Victor X Jin, Xiangpeng Dai, Jianfeng Guo, Jia Liu, Shulong Jiang, Jin Li, John M Asara, Myles Brown, Mien-Chie Hung, Wenyi Wei
Sustained energy starvation leads to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which coordinates energy status with numerous cellular processes including metabolism, protein synthesis, and autophagy. Here, we report that AMPK phosphorylates the histone methyltransferase EZH2 at T311 to disrupt the interaction between EZH2 and SUZ12, another core component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), leading to attenuated PRC2-dependent methylation of histone H3 at Lys27. As such, PRC2 target genes, many of which are known tumor suppressors, were upregulated upon T311-EZH2 phosphorylation, which suppressed tumor cell growth both in cell culture and mouse xenografts...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351737/identifying-genome-wide-immune-gene-variation-underlying-infectious-disease-in-wildlife-populations-a-next-generation-sequencing-approach-in-the-gopher-tortoise
#16
Jean P Elbers, Mary B Brown, Sabrina S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), Tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). Although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and Toll-like receptor genes. To better understand the genetic basis of infectious disease susceptibility in a species of conservation concern, we sequenced all known/predicted immune response genes (i...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351677/use-of-risk-model-for-assessment-of-residents-perception-of-complexity-of-surgical-steps-example-of-modular-component-steps-of-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery
#17
Jeffrey S Raskin, Jesse J Liu, Katherine Holste, Sarah Brown, Fran Hardaway, Priscilla Pang, Ahmed M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement projects increasingly emphasize standardization of surgical work flow to optimize operative room efficiency. Removing special cause variability resulting from nonsurgical waste is an obvious target; however, resident surgical education must be maintained, even in the setting of process improvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of resident-identified "risky" or "uncomfortable" procedural steps on operative time during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351577/effects-of-excess-thromboxane-a2-on-placental-development-and-nutrient-transporters-in-a-mus-musculus-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#18
Karen J Gibbins, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Ashley S Brown, Matthew Wieben, Richard C Law, Camille M Fung
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) with placental insufficiency is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the developed world. Despite the known negative consequences of HDP both to the mother and fetus, little is known about the longitudinal placental changes that occur as HDP progresses in pregnancy. This is because longitudinal sampling of human placentae during each gestation is impossible. Therefore, using a mouse model of thromboxane A2-analog infusion to mimic human HDP in the last trimester, we calculated placental efficiencies based on fetal and placental weights, quantified spongiotrophoblast and labyrinth thicknesses and vascular density within these layers, examined whether hypoxia signaling pathway involving vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributed to vascular change, and examined nutrient transporter abundance including glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), neutral amino acid transporters 1, 2, and 4 (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4), fatty acid transporters 2 and 4 (FATP2, FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) from embryonic day 15...
January 17, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351569/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-body-mass-index-a-study-of-residential-relocation
#19
Jerome N Rachele, Anne Kavanagh, Wendy J Brown, Aislinn M Healy, Gavin Turrell
Natural experiments, such as longitudinal observational studies which follow-up residents as they relocate, provide a strong basis to infer causation between the neighborhood environment and health. This study examined whether changes in the level of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) following residential relocation. This analysis included data from 928 residents who relocated between 2007 and 2013, across four waves of the HABITAT study in Brisbane, Australia. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived composite index...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#20
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
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