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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941361/hepatitis-c-virus-testing-for-case-identification-in-persons-born-during-1945-1965-results-from-three-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Anthony K Yartel, David B Rein, Kimberly Ann Brown, Katherine Krauskopf, Omar I Massoud, Cynthia Jordan, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, David R Nerenz, Joanne E Brady, Danielle L Kruger, Bryce D Smith
CDC and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born during 1945-1965 (birth cohort). However, few studies estimate the effect of birth cohort (BC) testing implementation on HCV diagnoses in primary care settings. We aimed to determine the probability of identifying HCV infections in primary care using targeted BC testing compared with usual care at three academic medical centers. From December 2012 to March 2014, each center compared one of three distinct interventions to usual care using an independently-designed randomized controlled trial...
September 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938793/effects-of-protein-or-amino-acid-supplementation-on-the-physical-growth-of-young-children-in-low-income-countries
#2
Joanne E Arsenault, Kenneth H Brown
Child growth stunting is common in low-income countries, possibly due to insufficient protein intakes. Most previous studies have concluded that children's protein intakes are adequate in relation to estimated requirements, but these studies did not consider issues of protein digestibility and effects of infection on dietary protein utilization. Using an alternative approach to assess the possible role of protein inadequacy in children's growth restriction, the results of 18 intervention trials in which supplementary protein or amino acids were provided to children ages 6-35 months and growth outcomes were reviewed...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938788/cd4-t-cells-dominate-the-leukocyte-infiltration-response-initiated-by-intra-dermal-injection-of-phytohemagglutinin-into-growing-feathers-in-chickens
#3
K S Sullivan, G F Erf
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is commonly used to evaluate cell-mediated immunocompetence. In chickens, PHA is typically injected intra-dermally (i.d.) into the skin (e.g., wing web, wattle, or footpad), and the tissue swelling response is monitored, whereby the extent of tissue swelling positively relates to the individual's cell-mediated immune system capabilities. Although i.d. injected PHA was shown to stimulate mononuclear cell and basophil infiltration to the site of injection, reports on temporal, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of the local cutaneous PHA response are limited...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#4
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#5
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938469/taming-the-flames-targeting-white-adipose-tissue-browning-in-hypermetabolic-conditions
#6
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marc G Jeschke
In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the saviour of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burns and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than being beneficial...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#7
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938451/antibody-mediated-targeting-of-the-fgfr1c-isoform-increases-glucose-uptake-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-in-male-mice
#8
Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Scott Cooper, Jeni C Luckett, Alan C Perkins, James D Dunbar, Dennis P Smith, Paul J Emmerson, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
The increased prevalence of obesity and its cardiometabolic implications demonstrates the imperative to identify novel therapeutic targets able to effect meaningful metabolic changes in this population. Antibody-mediated targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c isoform (FGFR1c) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycaemia and protect from diet- and genetically-induced obesity in rodents and non-human primates. However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938415/rationalizing-thyroid-function-testing-which-tsh-cut-offs-are-optimal-for-testing-free-t4
#9
Meg Henze, Suzanne J Brown, Narelle C Hadlow, John P Walsh
Context: Thyroid function testing often utilizes TSH measurement first, then reflex testing for free T4 if TSH is outside reference range limits. The utility of different TSH cut-offs for reflex testing is unknown. Objective: To examine different TSH cut-offs for reflex free T4 testing. Design, setting and patients: We analyzed concurrent TSH and free T4 results from 120 403 individuals from a single laboratory in Western Australia (clinical cohort) and 4568 Busselton Health Study participants (community cohort)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938346/re-breast-implant-associated-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-in-australia-and-new-zealand-high-surface-area-textured-implants-are-associated-with-increased-risk
#10
Tim Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938167/a-method-for-measuring-manual-position-control
#11
Cory Adam Potts, Alexander A Brown, Stanislaw Solnik, David A Rosenbaum
There is no generally accepted method for measuring manual position control. We developed a method for doing so. We asked university students to hold a handle that had one rotational degree of freedom. The angular position of the handle depended on the degree of pronation-supination of the forearm. The subjects' task was to hold the handle as steadily as possible to keep a needle positioned in a pie-shaped target zone on a computer screen. If the needle remained in the zone for 0.5s, the gain of the feedback loop increased; otherwise the gain decreased or remained at the starting value of 1...
September 19, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937855/eggshell-biliverdin-and-protoporphyrin-pigments-in-a-songbird-are-they-derived-from-erythrocytes-blood-plasma-or-the-shell-gland
#12
Rita Hargitai, Nóra Boross, Susanne Hámori, Eszter Neuberger, Zoltán Nyiri
Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937761/helium-nanodroplet-isolation-of-the-cyclobutyl-1-methylallyl-and-allylcarbinyl-radicals-infrared-spectroscopy-and-ab-initio-computations
#13
Alaina Rachel Brown, Peter Roland Franke, Gary E Douberly
Gas phase cyclobutyl radical (∙C4H7) is produced via pyrolysis of cyclobutylmethyl nitrite (C4H7(CH2)ONO). Other ∙C4H7 radicals, such as 1-methylallyl and allylcarbinyl, are similarly produced from nitrite precursors. Nascent radicals are promptly solvated in liquid He droplets, allowing for the acquisition of infrared spectra in the CH stretching region. For the cyclobutyl and 1-methylallyl radicals, anharmonic frequencies are predicted by VPT2+K simulations based upon a hybrid CCSD(T) force field with quadratic (cubic and quartic) force constants computed using the ANO1 (ANO0) basis set...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937549/electroconvulsive-therapy-for-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#14
Jayme Ahmed, Michael Metrick, Anne Gilbert, Anita Glasson, Ranjeet Singh, Wayne Ambrous, Lori Brown, Laura Aykroyd, Karen Bobel
OBJECTIVES: Super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a stage beyond refractory status that requires general anesthesia as management. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended only as a potential treatment option beyond general anesthesia and after all other options have been exhausted. Its effect on aborting status has been minimally researched. We present the largest case series to our knowledge exploring the effect of ECT on SRSE. METHODS: Eight adults hospitalized for SRSE received ECT in an attempt to abort status after other treatment modalities were exhausted...
September 20, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937488/the-significance-of-arachnoid-granulation-in-patients-with-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#15
Gaurav Vishwasrao Watane, Bhumi Patel, Derek Brown, M Reza Taheri
PURPOSE: The aim of this article was to study the significance of arachnoid granulations (AGs) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review study, 79 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic increased intracranial pressure were compared with 63 patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Inclusion criteria also included available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, older than 18 years, and female sex...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937479/retinal-vasculitis-and-choroidopathy-in-pediatric-onset-mixed-connective-tissue-disease
#16
Bradley Postlethwaite, Henry G Wynn, Debendra Pattanaik, Shelley Ost, Charles B MacDonald, R Christopher Walton, Seunghyun Kim, Linda K Myers, Monica Brown Lobbins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937419/sports-hernia-definition-evaluation-and-treatment
#17
Justin Neal Hopkins, William Brown, Cassandra Alda Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: JBJS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937381/intrapulmonary-ectopic-liver-associated-with-scimitar-syndrome
#18
Sajna V M Kutty, M Lilly, Shalini Kuruvila, Sajan Koshy
We report a case of intrapulmonary ectopic liver associated with Scimitar syndrome. A two month old male child who presented with features of congestive cardiac failure underwent extensive cardiac and radiological investigations and was diagnosed with Scimitar syndrome. He was also found to have a mass in the lower lobe of the right lung, the possibilities being either a pulmonary sequestration or a diaphragmatic hernia. As his dyspnea progressively worsened, a right lower lobectomy was performed at the age of two years...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937311/it-s-not-as-bad-as-you-think-menopausal-representations-are-more-positive-in-postmenopausal-women
#19
Lydia Brown, Valerie Brown, Fiona Judd, Christina Bryant
INTRODUCTION: The menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Psycho-social factors including attitudes and internal representations play a central role in women's experience of the menopause, but very little is known about how representations might differ across menopausal stages. METHODS: A sample of 387 women aged 40-60 completed a postal questionnaire that included the menopausal representations questionnaire, the emotional representation subscale adapted from the illness perception questionnaire, and data on menopausal status...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936871/effect-of-drying-moisture-exposed-almonds-on-the-development-of-the-quality-defect-concealed-damage
#20
Cristian Eduardo Rogel-Castillo, Kathleen K Luo, Guangwei Huang, Alyson Elayne Mitchell
Concealed damage (CD), is a term used by the nut industry to describe a brown discoloration of kernel nutmeat that becomes visible after moderate heat treatments (e.g. roasting). CD can result in consumer rejection and product loss. Postharvest exposure of almonds to moisture (e.g. rain) is a key factor in the development of CD as it promotes hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The effect of drying moisture-exposed almonds between 45°C - 95°C, prior to roasting was evaluated as a method for controlling CD in roasted almonds...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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