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Joceline Lega, Heidi E Brown
Recent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiological data sets, does not require knowledge or estimation of disease transmission parameters, is robust to noise and to small data sets, and runs quickly due to its mathematical simplicity...
October 11, 2016: Epidemics
Espen Mariussen, Lene Sørlie Heier, Hans Christian Teien, Marit Nandrup Pettersen, Tor Fredrik Holth, Brit Salbu, Bjørn Olav Rosseland
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtjønn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtjønn the total water concentrations of Pb (14µg/L), Cu (6.1µg/L) and Sb (1.3µg/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitjønn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12µg/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtjønn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Joanne E Brady, Danielle K Liffmann, Anthony Yartel, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, Joseph Kannry, Cynthia Jordan, Omar I Massoud, David R Nerenz, Kimberly A Brown, Bryce D Smith, Claudia Vellozzi, David B Rein
BACKGROUND: From December 2012-March 2014, three randomized trials, each implementing a unique intervention in primary care settings (mail recruitment [repeated-mailing], an electronic health record best practice alert [BPA], and patient-solicitation [patient-solicitation]), evaluated HCV antibody testing, diagnosis, and costs for each of the interventions compared to standard-of-care testing. Multilevel multivariable models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and costs were estimated using activity-based costing...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
William T Obremskey, Norele Cutrera, Christopher M Kidd
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Sofia Morfopoulou, Edward T Mee, Sarah M Connaughton, Julianne R Brown, Kimberly Gilmour, W K 'Kling' Chong, W Paul Duprex, Deborah Ferguson, Mike Hubank, Ciaran Hutchinson, Marios Kaliakatsos, Stephen McQuaid, Simon Paine, Vincent Plagnol, Christopher Ruis, Alex Virasami, Hong Zhan, Thomas S Jacques, Silke Schepelmann, Waseem Qasim, Judith Breuer
Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuV(JL5)) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuV(JL5) associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Kazuo Saito, Hitoshi Kihara
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized clinical trial, with patients treated either by new 2-step orthosis or by the figure-eight-type orthosis with the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint extended. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To report on our new orthosis and to evaluate the treatment efficacy of using a 2-step orthosis for the treatment of a mallet finger of tendinous origin compared with a conventional orthosis. METHODS: Forty-four patients were randomized into the 2-step or conventional orthosis groups...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Alan P Brown, Philip Drew, Brian Knight, Philippe Marc, Sean Troth, Kuno Wuersch, Joyce Zandee
Histopathology data comprise a critical component of pharmaceutical toxicology studies and are typically presented as finding incidence counts and severity scores per organ, tabulated on multiple pages which can be challenging for review and aggregation of results. However, the SEND (Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data) standard provides a means for collecting and managing histopathology data in a uniform fashion which can allow informatics systems to archive, display and analyze data in novel ways. Various software applications have become available to convert histopathology data into graphical displays for analyses...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
C Garcia-Benitez, P Melgarejo, A De Cal
Brown rot caused by the fungi Monilinia laxa (Aderhold and Ruhland) Honey, M. fructicola (Winter) Honey, or M. fructigena (Aderhold and Ruhland) is a serious fungal disease of peaches. The fungal infection process begins when fungal conidia germinate on the fruit surface to produce germ tubes and/or appressoria, and the incidence of brown rot increases as fruit approaches maturity. The interaction between the fungal infection process, peach maturity, and the environmental conditions is not well understood. Accordingly, the objectives of this investigation were to investigate germ tube and appressorial formation by M...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Julia Elisabeth von Oettingen, Tesha Dawn Brathwaite, Christopher Carpenter, Ric Bonnell, Xuemei He, Lewis E Braverman, Elizabeth N Pearce, Philippe Larco, Nancy Charles Larco, Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Rosalind S Brown
CONTEXT: Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide. It is a possible public health concern in Haiti. OBJECTIVE: To perform a population iodine survey in Haitian young children, and its influence by environmental factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, March-June 2015. SETTING: Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. PARTICIPANTS: 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; 100 enrolled in coastal (C) and mountainous (M) regions, and 99 in an urban region (U)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christopher D Morrone, Lynsie A M Thomason, Mary E Brown, Isabelle Aubert, JoAnne McLaurin
Although it is recognized that multi-drug therapies may be necessary to combat AD, there is a paucity of preclinical proof of concept studies. We present a combination treatment paradigm, which temporally affects different aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, specifically Aβ-toxicity and neurogenesis. At early stages of AD-like pathology, in TgCRND8 mice, we found that combating Aβ pathology with scyllo-inositol ameliorated deficits in neurogenesis. Older TgCRND8 mice with established amyloid load had decreased progenitor cell proliferation and survival compared to non-transgenic mice, regardless of scyllo-inositol treatment...
2016: PloS One
Tobias Dornheim, Simon Groth, Travis Sjostrom, Fionn D Malone, W M C Foulkes, Michael Bonitz
We perform ab initio quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the warm dense uniform electron gas in the thermodynamic limit. By combining QMC data with the linear response theory, we are able to remove finite-size errors from the potential energy over the substantial parts of the warm dense regime, overcoming the deficiencies of the existing finite-size corrections by Brown et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013)]. Extensive new QMC results for up to N=1000 electrons enable us to compute the potential energy V and the exchange-correlation free energy F_{xc} of the macroscopic electron gas with an unprecedented accuracy of |ΔV|/|V|,|ΔF_{xc}|/|F|_{xc}∼10^{-3}...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Michael E Rezaee, Elizabeth L Nichols, Mandeep Sidhu, Jeremiah R Brown
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a well-recognized complication of left ventricular heart failure (HF). HYPOTHESIS: Differences exist in demographic, clinical, hemodynamic, and survival characteristics of patients with left ventricular HF who have combined postcapillary and precapillary PH (CpcPH), isolated postcapillary PH, or no PH. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large prospective database of patients undergoing right heart catheterization from 1994 to 2012...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Loren E Clarke, Darl D Flake, Klaus Busam, Clay Cockerell, Klaus Helm, Jennifer McNiff, Jon Reed, Jaime Tschen, Jinah Kim, Raymond Barnhill, Rosalie Elenitsas, Victor G Prieto, Jonathan Nelson, Hillary Kimbrell, Kathryn A Kolquist, Krystal L Brown, M Bryan Warf, Benjamin B Roa, Richard J Wenstrup
BACKGROUND: Recently, a 23-gene signature was developed to produce a melanoma diagnostic score capable of differentiating malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. The primary objective of this study was to independently assess the ability of the gene signature to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi in clinically relevant lesions. METHODS: A set of 1400 melanocytic lesions was selected from samples prospectively submitted for gene expression testing at a clinical laboratory...
October 21, 2016: Cancer
Michelle E Roley-Roberts, Melissa J Zielinski, Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Jon D Elhai
Research into factors for suicide has revealed relations between trauma exposure and suicidality (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, ; Joiner, Sachs-Ericson, Wingate, Brown, Anestis, & Selby, ) wherein painful and provocative experiences (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) are an important link (e.g., Van Orden, Witte, Cukrowicz, Braithwaite, Selby, & Joiner, ; Smith, ). No prior research has assessed the relationship between functions of NSSI and suicidality among childhood trauma survivors. Participants who endorsed childhood trauma exposure (N = 121; Mage  = 18...
October 21, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Angie D Ambers, Jennifer D Churchill, Jonathan L King, Monika Stoljarova, Harrell Gill-King, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Bruce Budowle
BACKGROUND: Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha, Marcia Leonardi Baldisserotto, Ana Claudia Santos Amaral Fraga, Susan Ayers, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Sarah Elizabeth Skerratt, Mark D Andrews, Sharan K Bagal, James Bilsland, David Brown, Peter J Bungay, Susan Cole, Karl R Gibson, Russell Jones, Inaki Morao, Angus Nedderman, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Colin Robinson, Thomas Ryckmans, Kimberly Skinner, Paul Anthony Stupple, Gareth Waldron
The neurotrophin family of growth factors, comprised of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4), is implicated in the physiology of chronic pain. Given the clinical efficacy of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies, there is significant interest in the development of small molecule modulators of neurotrophin activity. Neurotrophins signal through the tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors, hence Trk kinase inhibition represents a potentially "druggable" point of intervention...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fiona C Brown, Paolo Cifani, Esther Drill, Jie He, Eric Still, Shan Zhong, Sohail Balasubramanian, Dean Pavlick, Bahar Yilmazel, Kristina M Knapp, Todd A Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi, Richard M Stone, Steven M Kornblau, Guido Marcucci, Alan S Gamis, John C Byrd, Mithat Gonen, Ross L Levine, Alex Kentsis
Cure rates of children and adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remain unsatisfactory partly due to chemotherapy resistance. We investigated the genetic basis of AML in 107 primary cases by sequencing 670 genes mutated in haematological malignancies. SETBP1, ASXL1 and RELN mutations were significantly associated with primary chemoresistance. We identified genomic alterations not previously described in AML, together with distinct genes that were significantly overexpressed in therapy-resistant AML. Defined gene mutations were sufficient to explain primary induction failure in only a minority of cases...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
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