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Copd, asthma, phenotype

Jing Gao, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Jukka Koskela, Harri Alenius, Noboru Hattori, Nobuoki Kohno, Tarja Laitinen, Witold Mazur, Ville Pulkkinen
Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a commonly encountered chronic airway disease. However, ACOS is still a consensus-based clinical phenotype and the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are inadequately characterized. To clarify the inflammatory mediatypical for ACOS, five biomarkers, namely interleukin (IL)-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), chitinase-like protein (YKL-40), and IL-6, were selected. This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Katarzyna Górska, Katarzyna Białek-Gosk, Joanna Hermanowicz-Salamon, Rafał Krenke
Asthma and COPD are the most common obstructive lung diseases characterized by inflammation in the lower airways which contribute to airflow limitation. Different inflammatory mediators are thought to play a key role in these diseases. This study was conducted in 13 patients with asthma, 12 patients with COPD, and 13 control subjects. The expression of mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, CXCL8, TSLP, IL-33, IL-25, IL-17, ECP, mast cell tryptase, CCL24, and CCL26 was assessed in induced sputum cells by real time PCR. We found that CXCL8 was strongly related to the neutrophil percentage but differed significantly in COPD and asthma patients...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Carolyn Tubby, Ola H Negm, Timothy Harrison, Patrick J Tighe, Ian Todd, Lucy C Fairclough
OBJECTIVE: The three main types of killer cells - CD8(+) T cells, NK cells and NKT cells - have been linked to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their role in a small subset of asthma patients displaying fixed airway obstruction (FAO), similar to that seen in COPD, has not been explored. The objective of the present study was to investigate killer cell numbers, phenotype and function in peripheral blood from asthma patients with FAO, asthma patients without FAO, and healthy individuals...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Hae-Sim Park
Elderly asthma (EA) is regarded as a distinct phenotype of asthma and is associated with age-related changes in airway structure and alterations in lung function and immune responses. EA is difficult to diagnose because of aging and co-morbidities, and overlaps with fixed airway obstructive disease. Novel modalities to differentiate between EA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are necessary. A multifaceted approach, including clinical history, smoking habits, atopy, and measurement of lung function, is mandatory to differentiate asthma from COPD...
October 6, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Borja G Cosio, Joan B Soriano, Jose Luis López-Campos, Myriam Calle, Juan José Soler, Juan Pablo de-Torres, Jose Maria Marín, Cristina Martínez, Pilar de Lucas, Isabel Mir, Germán Peces-Barba, Nuria Feu-Collado, Ingrid Solanes, Inmaculada Alfageme
RATIONALE: The Spanish guideline for COPD (GesEPOC) recommends COPD treatment according to four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator phenotype with either chronic bronchitis or emphysema (NE), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), frequent exacerbator phenotype with emphysema (FEE) or frequent exacerbator phenotype with chronic bronchitis (FECB). However, little is known on the distribution and outcomes of the four suggested phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the distribution of these COPD phenotypes, and their relation with one-year clinical outcomes...
2016: PloS One
Dhamotharan Pattarayan, Rajesh K Thimmulappa, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Subbiah Rajasekaran
Lack of markers of subclinical disease state and clinical phenotype other than pulmonary function test has made the diagnosis and interventions of environmental respiratory diseases a major challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding single stranded RNAs, have emerged as potential disease-modifier in various environmental respiratory diseases. They can also be found in various body fluids and are remarkably stable. Because of their high stability, disease-specific expression, and the ease to detect and quantify them have raised the potential of miRNAs in body fluids to be useful clinical diagnostic biomarkers for lung disease phenotyping...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Nicole Marquardt, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Puran Chen, Egle Kvedaraite, Jennifer N Wilson, Martin A Ivarsson, Jenny Mjösberg, Lena Berglin, Jesper Säfholm, Martijn L Manson, Mikael Adner, Mamdoh Al-Ameri, Per Bergman, Ann-Charlotte Orre, Mattias Svensson, Barbro Dahlén, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Jakob Michaëlsson
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the extensive knowledge about human NK cells in peripheral blood, relatively little is known about NK cells in human lung. Knowledge about the composition, differentiation, and function of human lung NK cells is critical to better understand their role in diseases affecting the lung, including asthma, COPD, infections, and cancer. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze and compare the phenotypic as well as functional characteristics of NK cells in the human lung and peripheral blood at the single cell level...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Seiichi Kobayashi, Masakazu Hanagama, Shinsuke Yamanda, Masatsugu Ishida, Masaru Yanai
BACKGROUND: The clinical phenotypes and underlying mechanisms of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate a comparison of COPD patients with and without ACOS, focusing on inflammatory biomarkers, in an outpatient COPD cohort. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing prospectively collected data from the Ishinomaki COPD Network registry. All participants were diagnosed with COPD, confirmed by using spirometry, and were aged 40-90 years and former smokers...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Tetyana Kendzerska, Teresa M To, Shawn D Aaron, M Diane Lougheed, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea S Gershon
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has developed from airway remodeling due to asthma, as compared with other COPD phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We compared long-term health outcomes of individuals with COPD with and without a history of asthma in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: All individuals with physician-diagnosed COPD between the ages 40 and 55 years from 2009 and 2011 were identified and followed until March 2013 through provincial health administrative data (Ontario, Canada)...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Feisal A Al-Kassimi, Esam H Al-Hamad, Mohammed S Al-Hajjaj, Emad Raddaoui, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Ahmad A Alboukai, Ali M Somily, Joseph G Cal, Abdalla F Ibrahim, Shaffi A Shaik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Post-mortem and computed tomography (CT) studies indicated that emphysema is a feature of COPD even in the 'blue bloater/chronic bronchitis' type. We aim to test the hypothesis that the non-emphysematous patients are distinct from the main body of COPD and are more akin to asthmatic patients. METHODS: We studied 54 patients with COPD. Emphysema was measured by Goddard's visual scoring of CT scan and the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO)...
September 13, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Sevket Ozkaya, Adem Dirican, Tibel Tuna
Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS) phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Marc Miravitlles, Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Vladimir Koblizek
Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)...
September 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
Lieuwe D Bos, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds that reflect the metabolic process occurring in the host both locally in the airways and systemically. They also arise from the environment and airway microbiome. Comprehensive analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (breathomics) provides opportunities for noninvasive biomarker discovery and novel mechanistic insights. Applications in patients with obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, include not only diagnostics (especially in children and other challenging diagnostic areas) but also identification of clinical treatable traits, such as airway eosinophilia and risk of infection/exacerbation, that are not specific to diagnostic labels...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
P Ning, Y F Guo, T Y Sun, H S Zhang, D Chai, X M Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the distinct clinical phenotype of chronic airway diseases by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis. METHODS: A population sample of adult patients in Donghuamen community, Dongcheng district and Qinghe community, Haidian district, Beijing from April 2012 to January 2015, who had wheeze within the last 12 months, underwent detailed investigation, including a clinical questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, total serum IgE levels, blood eosinophil level and a peak flow diary...
September 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Paul Enright Md
Measurement of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), also known as transfer factor, is the second most important pulmonary function test (PFT), after spirometry. Previously available only in hospital-based PFT labs, DLCO testing is now available at outpatient clinics using a portable device. Compared to spirometry tests, assessments with these devices require very little effort. The patient breathes quietly, inhales the test gas, holds the breath for ten seconds, and then exhales. In adult smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction, a low DLCO greatly increases the probability of the emphysema phenotype of COPD due to cigarette smoking, while a normal DLCO makes chronic asthma more likely...
September 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Jarrett D Morrow, Michael H Cho, Craig P Hersh, Victor Pinto-Plata, Bartolome Celli, Nathaniel Marchetti, Gerard Criner, Raphael Bueno, George Washko, Kimberly Glass, Augustine M K Choi, John Quackenbush, Edwin K Silverman, Dawn L DeMeo
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a smoking-related disease characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Although association studies have identified multiple genomic regions with replicated associations to COPD, genetic variation only partially explains the susceptibility to lung disease, and suggests the relevance of epigenetic investigations. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in homogenized lung tissue samples from 46 control subjects with normal lung function and 114 subjects with COPD, all former smokers...
August 26, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Cindy Thamrin, Urs Frey, David A Kaminsky, Helen K Reddel, Andrew J E Seely, Béla Suki, Peter J Sterk
Respiratory diseases are highly complex, being driven by host-environment interactions and manifested by inflammatory, structural and functional abnormalities that vary over time. Traditional reductionist approaches have contributed vastly to our knowledge of biological systems in health and disease to date; however, they are insufficient to provide an understanding of the behavior of the system as a whole. In this Pulmonary Perspective article, we discuss systems biology approaches, especially but not limited to the study of the lung as a complex system...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Joo Hee Kim, Sunghoon Park, Yong Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Ki Suck Jung, Yun Su Sim, Cheol Hong Kim, Changhwan Kim, Dong Gyu Kim
Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) is a relatively common primary immunodeficiency disease (PI) in adults. The biological significance of IgGSCD in patients with chronic airway diseases is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the clinical features of IgGSCD in this population. This study examined the medical charts from 59 adult patients with IgGSCD who had bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from January 2007 to December 2012. Subjects were classified according to the 10 warning signs developed by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) and divided into two patient groups: group I (n = 17) met ≥ two JMF criteria, whereas group II (n = 42) met none...
October 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Annette Kainu, Paula Pallasaho, Anne Pietinalho
BACKGROUND: The age-dependent increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence caused by smoking and other inhalational exposures in the general population is well-known worldwide. However, time trends are poorly known, due to lower number of high-quality studies especially following nationwide efforts on diminishing exposure levels. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD symptoms and their major determinants in Finnish adults in 1996 and 2006. METHODS: Two identical postal surveys were conducted among two random population samples from Helsinki using identical methodologies in 1996 and 2006, with 6,062 (76%) and 2,449 (62%) participants, respectively...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Balázs Odler, Veronika Müller
Obstructive lung diseases represent a major health problem worldwide due to their high prevalence associated with elevated socioeconomic costs. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders with airway inflammation, however they are separate nosological entities based on thedifferent development, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and prognostic features. However, these diseases may coexist and can be defined as the coexistence of increased variability of airflow in a patient with incompletely reversible airway obstruction...
August 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
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