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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923763/hemispheric-specialization-for-global-and-local-processing-a-direct-comparison-of-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-stimuli
#1
Sanne G Brederoo, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Monicque M Lorist, Frans W Cornelissen
It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli...
September 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921631/validation-of-highly-accelerated-real-time-cardiac-cine-mri-with-radial-k-space-sampling-and-compressed-sensing-in-patients-at-1-5t-and-3t
#2
Hassan Haji-Valizadeh, Amir A Rahsepar, Jeremy D Collins, Elwin Bassett, Tamara Isakova, Tobias Block, Ganesh Adluru, Edward V R DiBella, Daniel C Lee, James C Carr, Daniel Kim
PURPOSE: To validate an optimal 12-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing (CS) in patients at 1.5T and 3T. METHODS: We used two strategies to reduce image artifacts arising from gradient delays and eddy currents in radial k-space sampling with balanced steady-state free precession readout. We validated this pulse sequence against a standard breath-hold cine sequence in two patient cohorts: a myocardial infarction (n = 16) group at 1...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891856/transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-pneumodissection-of-retroperitoneal-structures-eases-laparoscopic-rectal-resection
#3
Cristiano G S Hüscher, Marco Maria Lirici
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision is effective and safe but often technically challenging because of inadequate exposure. Transanal total mesorectal excision was introduced to mitigate this limitation and improve the quality of mesorectal dissection in even the most challenging cases. Currently, the technique for transanal total mesorectal excision dissection is not standardized. TECHNIQUE: The sequential approach to transanal total mesorectal excision mirrors the principles of the transanal abdominal transanal procedure...
October 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880182/pondering-the-concept-of-abstraction-in-illustrative-visualization
#4
Ivan Viola, Tobias Isenberg
We explore the concept of abstraction as it is used in visualization, with the ultimate goal of understanding and formally defining it. Researchers so far have used the concept of abstraction largely by intuition without a precise meaning. This lack of specificity left questions on the characteristics of abstraction, its variants, its control, or its ultimate potential for visualization and, in particular, illustrative visualization mostly unanswered. In this paper we thus provide a first formalization of the abstraction concept and discuss how this formalization affects the application of abstraction in a variety of visualization scenarios...
September 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868033/sturge-weber-syndrome-associated-with-monolateral-ocular-melanocytosis-iris-mammillations-and-diffuse-choroidal-haemangioma
#5
Andrea Maria Plateroti, Rocco Plateroti, Roberto Mollo, Aloisa Librando, Maria Teresa Contestabile, Vito Fenicia
We present the case of a 12-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome and ocular melanocytosis who presented with bilateral naevus flammeus of the face and hyperpigmentation of the right iris associated with ipsilateral iris mammillations. The patient had glaucoma and a diffuse choroidal haemangioma of the right eye. Optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment confirmed iris hyper-pigmentation and did not show abnormalities of the chamber angle structures. B-scan ultrasonography and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were performed and showed a marked difference in thickness and reflectance between the right and left choroid...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867757/visual-field-improvement-in-non-arteritic-posterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-a-patient-treated-with-intravenous-prostaglandin-e1-and-steroids
#6
Robert Davis Jr Steigerwalt, Paolo Giuseppe Limoli, Marcella Nebbioso
Non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-PION) is a disorder of reduced blood flow to the retrobulbar optic nerve. There is usually an acute loss of visual acuity and field. Previous studies have noted an improvement in visual acuity and in ocular and retrobulbar blood flow with the use of a potent vasodilator of the microcirculation, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and steroids. The current report describes immediate improvement in the visual fields and visual acuity in a patient with NA-PION treated with intravenous PGE1 and steroids 66 hours after onset...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861036/contralesional-trunk-rotation-dissociates-real-vs-pseudo-visual-field-defects-due-to-visual-neglect-in-stroke-patients
#7
Thomas Nyffeler, Rebecca E Paladini, Simone Hopfner, Oliver Job, Tobias Nef, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Tim Vanbellingen, Stephan Bohlhalter, René M Müri, Georg Kerkhoff, Dario Cazzoli
In stroke patients, the clinical presentation of visual field defects (VFDs) is frequently accompanied by visual neglect, i.e., the inability to attend and respond to the contralesional space. However, the diagnostic discrimination between the lack of reactions to contralesional stimuli due to VFDs or visual neglect is challenging during clinical examination. This discrimination is particularly relevant, since both clinical pictures are associated with different therapeutic approaches and outcomes. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effectiveness of trunk rotation toward the contralesional side-a manipulation dissociating the coordinate system of the trunk from that of the head and eyes-in disentangling real VFDs from "pseudo-VFDs" that occur due to visual neglect...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855858/processing-of-unattended-emotional-facial-expressions-correlates-of-visual-field-bias-in-women
#8
Dina Wittfoth, Christine Preibisch, Heinrich Lanfermann
Lateralization in emotional processing is a matter of ongoing debate. Various factors can influence lateralized emotional processing, including stimulus location, emotional valence, and gender. In the present study, we aim to elucidate how unattended emotional facial expressions shown at different locations in the visual field influence behavioral responses, eye movement, and neural responses in a sample of healthy women. Our female participants viewed fearful, happy and neutral faces presented at central and peripheral (left or right) locations while keeping their gaze locked on a central fixation crosshairs and indicating stimulus location via button presses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842864/mean-size-estimation-yields-left-side-bias-role-of-attention-on-perceptual-averaging
#9
Kuei-An Li, Su-Ling Yeh
The human visual system can estimate mean size of a set of items effectively; however, little is known about whether information on each visual field contributes equally to the mean size estimation. In this study, we examined whether a left-side bias (LSB)-perceptual judgment tends to depend more heavily on left visual field's inputs-affects mean size estimation. Participants were instructed to estimate the mean size of 16 spots. In half of the trials, the mean size of the spots on the left side was larger than that on the right side (the left-larger condition) and vice versa (the right-larger condition)...
August 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836242/-discussion-on-standardized-implementation-of-laparoscopic-radical-lymphadenectomy-for-distal-gastric-cancer
#10
Zejian Lyu, Junjiang Wang, Yong Li
Laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer has been widely applied in clinical practice, and its indications have been extended from early gastric cancer to advanced gastric cancer. It is acknowledged that laparoscopic radical gastrectomy is technically challenging because of the complexity of anatomy, rich blood supply, and extensive lymph node dissection. This paper primarily intends to share the experience of laparoscopic radical D2 gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer with details of choosing the location of Trocar, surgical approaches and the sequence of lymph node dissection...
August 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836039/fully-automated-left-ventricular-mass-and-volume-mri-analysis-in-the-uk-biobank-population-cohort-evaluation-of-initial-results
#11
Avan Suinesiaputra, Mihir M Sanghvi, Nay Aung, Jose Miguel Paiva, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Elena Lukaschuk, Aaron M Lee, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Jane Francis, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Andreas Greiser, Marie-Pierre Jolly, Carmel Hayes, Alistair A Young, Steffen E Petersen
UK Biobank, a large cohort study, plans to acquire 100,000 cardiac MRI studies by 2020. Although fully-automated left ventricular (LV) analysis was performed in the original acquisition, this was not designed for unsupervised incorporation into epidemiological studies. We sought to evaluate automated LV mass and volume (Siemens syngo InlineVF versions D13A and E11C), against manual analysis in a substantial sub-cohort of UK Biobank participants. Eight readers from two centers, trained to give consistent results, manually analyzed 4874 UK Biobank cases for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass (LVM)...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835530/rapid-visuomotor-feedback-gains-are-tuned-to-the-task-dynamics
#12
Sae Franklin, Daniel M Wolpert, David W Franklin
Adaptation to novel dynamics requires learning a motor memory, or a new pattern of predictive feedforward motor commands. Recently we demonstrated the up-regulation of rapid visuomotor feedback gains early in curl force field learning, which decrease once a predictive motor memory is learned. However, even after learning is complete, these feedback gains are higher than those observed in the null field trials. Interestingly these up-regulated feedback gains in the curl field were not observed in a constant force field...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820764/severe-case-of-renal-coloboma-syndrome-in-long-term-follow-up
#13
Lise Sels, Werner Dirven, Koenraad Devriendt, Anita Leys
PURPOSE: To characterize the ocular features of a severe case of renal coloboma syndrome in a long-term follow-up. METHODS: Observational case report over a period of 45 years. Examination under anesthesia at the age of 3 months, repeated ophthalmologic examination (age 7, 14, 25, 45 years), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, electroretinography, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, computed tomography scan orbits, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain...
August 17, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803949/measuring-temporal-summation-in-visual-detection-with-a-single-photon-source
#14
Rebecca Holmes, Michelle Victora, Ranxiao Frances Wang, Paul G Kwiat
Temporal summation is an important feature of the visual system which combines visual signals that arrive at different times. Previous research estimated complete summation to last for 100ms for stimuli judged "just detectable." We measured the full range of temporal summation for much weaker stimuli using a new paradigm and a novel light source, developed in the field of quantum optics for generating small numbers of photons with precise timing characteristics and reduced variance in photon number. Dark-adapted participants judged whether a light was presented to the left or right of their fixation in each trial...
August 19, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797898/lateralization-of-spatial-rather-than-temporal-attention-underlies-the-left-hemifield-advantage-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#15
Dariusz Asanowicz, Lena Kruse, Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Rolf Verleger
In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp.1) and its unilateral variant (Exp.1 & 2). In the bilateral task, spatial location was uncertain, thus target identification involved stimulus-driven spatial orienting...
August 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755239/prism-adaptation-speeds-reach-initiation-in-the-direction-of-the-prism-after-effect
#16
Christopher L Striemer, Carley A Borza
Damage to the temporal-parietal cortex in the right hemisphere often leads to spatial neglect-a disorder in which patients are unable to attend to sensory input from their contralesional (left) side. Neglect has been associated with both attentional and premotor deficits. That is, in addition to having difficulty with attending to the left side, patients are often slower to initiate leftward vs. rightward movements (i.e., directional hypokinesia). Previous research has indicated that a brief period of adaptation to rightward shifting prisms can reduce symptoms of neglect by adjusting the patient's movements leftward, toward the neglected field...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754489/unseen-fearful-faces-facilitate-visual-discrimination-in-the-intact-field
#17
Caterina Bertini, Roberto Cecere, Elisabetta Làdavas
Implicit visual processing of emotional stimuli has been widely investigated since the classical studies on affective blindsight, in which patients with primary visual cortex lesions showed discriminatory abilities for unseen emotional stimuli in the absence of awareness. In addition, more recent evidence from hemianopic patients showed response facilitation and enhanced early visual encoding of seen faces, only when fearful faces were presented concurrently in the blind field. However, it is still unclear whether unseen fearful faces specifically facilitate visual processing of facial stimuli, or whether the facilitatory effect constitutes an adaptive mechanism prioritizing the visual analysis of any stimulus...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739100/movement-of-retinal-vessels-toward-the-optic-nerve-head-after-increasing-intraocular-pressure-in-monkey-eyes-with-experimental-glaucoma
#18
Atsumi Kuroda, Nobuko Enomoto, Kyoko Ishida, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Tetsuro Noguchi, Naoto Horai, Hirotaka Onoe, Hideaki Hara, Goji Tomita
A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737718/experimental-study-on-the-health-benefits-of-garden-landscape
#19
Juyoung Lee
To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733050/the-optical-imaging-of-idiopathic-paracentral-acute-middle-maculopathy-in-a-chinese-young-man-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Yanyan Chen, Yuedong Hu
We report a case of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 26-year-old Chinese policeman presented with a 20-day history of paracentral scotoma in the left eye after early wake-up and long-time working in front of computer the day before. He experienced sudden-onset strong flash in his left eye. Paracentral scotoma appeared in his left eye after 6hours of rest. The general history was negative. His best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 OU. Anterior segment, dilated fundus examination, papillary evaluation and intraocular pressure were normal...
September 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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