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epigenetic silence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098854/lsd1-sustains-estrogen-driven-endometrial-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-via-di-demethylating-h3k9-of-cyclin%C3%A2-d1
#1
Chunqin Chen, Yanan Wang, Shiyu Wang, Yuan Liu, Jiawen Zhang, Yuyao Xu, Zhenbo Zhang, Wei Bao, Sufang Wu
A recent study reported that histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, KDM1A) is overexpressed in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) and associated with tumor progression as well as poor prognosis. However, the physiological function and mechanism of LSD1 in endometrial cancer (EC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that β-estradiol (E2) treatment increased LSD1 expression via the GPR30/PI3K/AKT pathway in endometrial cancer cells. Both siGPR30 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 block this effect...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096468/o-glcnac-expression-levels-epigenetically-regulate-colon-cancer-tumorigenesis-by-affecting-the-cancer-stem-cell-compartment-via-modulating-expression-of-transcriptional-factor-mybl1
#2
Huabei Guo, Bing Zhang, Alison V Nairn, Tamas Nagy, Kelley W Moremen, Phillip Buckhaults, Michael Pierce
To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by O-GlcNAc, we have focused on the O-GlcNAc-mediated epigenetic regulation of human colon cancer stem cells (CCSC). Xenograft tumors from colon tumor cells with OGT knockdown grew significantly slower than those formed from control cells, indicating a reduced proliferation of tumor cells due to inhibition of OGT expression. Significant reduction of CCSC population was observed in the tumor cells after OGT knockdown, while tumor cells treated with O-GlcNAcase inhibitor showed an increased CCSC population, indicating that O-GlcNAc levels regulated the CCSC compartment...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093228/ndrg2-suppressed-expression-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-is-hypermethylated-in-the-second-promoter-in-human-gastrointestinal-cancers
#3
Akihiro Yamamura, Koh Miura, Hideaki Karasawa, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Yasuhiko Mizuguchi, Yuriko Saiki, Shinichi Fukushige, Makoto Sunamura, Chikashi Shibata, Michiaki Unno, Akira Horii
Although N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is frequently downregulated in various cancers and is considered to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene, molecular mechanisms of the expressional suppression that lead to cancers are largely unknown. Recent studies indicated that epigenetic suppression of NDRG2 involved carcinogenesis and progression in several tumor types, and we demonstrated positive association with NDRG2 suppression and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we analyzed mRNA and protein expressions of NDRG2 in 26 cancer cell lines (20 colorectal and 6 gastric cancers) and found that many cell lines showed variously reduced NDRG2 expressions...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093106/genetic-and-epigenetic-aberrations-of-p16-in-feline-primary-neoplastic-diseases-and-tumor-cell-lines-of-lymphoid-and-non-lymphoid-origins
#4
H Mochizuki, A Fujiwara-Igarashi, M Sato, Y Goto-Koshino, K Ohno, H Tsujimoto
The p16 gene acts as a tumor suppressor by regulating the cell cycle and is frequently inactivated in human and canine cancers. The aim of this study was to characterize genetic and epigenetic alterations of the p16 in feline lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies, using 74 primary tumors and 11 tumor cell lines. Cloning of feline p16 and subsequent sequence analysis revealed 11 germline sequence polymorphisms in control cats. Bisulfite sequencing analysis of the p16 promoter region in a feline lymphoma cell line revealed that promoter methylation was associated with decreased mRNA expression...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091569/epigenetic-regulation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-gene-expression-during-development-in-anopheles-gambiae
#5
Elena Gómez-Díaz, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Thierry Lefèvre, Anna Cohuet, M Jordan Rowley, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Victor G Corces
P. falciparum phenotypic plasticity is linked to the variant expression of clonal multigene families such as the var genes. We have examined changes in transcription and histone modifications that occur during sporogonic development of P. falciparum in the mosquito host. All var genes are silenced or transcribed at low levels in blood stages (gametocyte/ring) of the parasite in the human host. After infection of mosquitoes, a single var gene is selected for expression in the oocyst, and transcription of this gene increases dramatically in the sporozoite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090296/endotoxin-and-mechanical-stress-induced-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulation-of-the-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promoter
#6
Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi Elangovan, Sara M Camp, Gabriel T Kelly, Ankit A Desai, Djanybek Adyshev, Xiaoguang Sun, Stephen M Black, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia
Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as well as its direct binding to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of this devastating syndrome; however, regulation of this critical gene in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is not well characterized...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078514/the-molecular-basis-of-the-organization-of-repetitive-dna-containing-constitutive-heterochromatin-in-mammals
#7
REVIEW
Gohei Nishibuchi, Jérôme Déjardin
Constitutive heterochromatin is composed mainly of repetitive elements and represents the typical inert chromatin structure in eukaryotic cells. Approximately half of the mammalian genome is made of repeat sequences, such as satellite DNA, telomeric DNA, and transposable elements. As essential genes are not present in these regions, most of these repeat sequences were considered as junk DNA in the past. However, it is now clear that these regions are essential for chromosome stability and the silencing of neighboring genes...
January 11, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077801/human-papillomavirus-type-16-e6-suppresses-microrna-23b-expression-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells-through-dna-methylation-of-the-host-gene-c9orf3
#8
Chi Lam Au Yeung, Tsun Yee Tsang, Pak Lun Yau, Tim Tak Kwok
Oncogenic protein E6 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is believed to involve in the aberrant methylation in cervical cancer as it upregulates DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) through tumor suppressor p53. In addition, DNA demethylating agent induces the expression of one of the HPV-16 E6 regulated microRNAs (miRs), miR-23b, in human cervical carcinoma SiHa cells. Thus, the importance of DNA methylation and miR-23b in HPV-16 E6 associated cervical cancer development is investigated. In the present study, however, it is found that miR-23b is not embedded in any typical CpG island...
6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077417/aid-is-a-key-regulator-of-myeloid-erythroid-differentiation-and-dna-methylation-in-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#9
Hiroyoshi Kunimoto, Anna Sophia McKenney, Cem Meydan, Kaitlyn Shank, Abbas Nazir, Franck Rapaport, Benjamin Durham, Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Elodie Pronier, Alan H Shih, Ari Melnick, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Ross L Levine
Recent studies have reported activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family members regulate active DNA demethylation. Genetic alterations of TET2 occur in myeloid malignancies and hematopoietic specific loss of Tet2 induces aberrant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal/differentiation, implicating TET2 as a master regulator of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Despite the functional link between AID and TET in epigenetic gene regulation, the role of AID loss in hematopoiesis and myeloid transformation remains to be investigated...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076698/emerging-role-of-setdb1-as-a-therapeutic-target
#10
Archana Venkataramana Karanth, Radhika Radha Maniswami, Seema Prashanth, Hemalatha Govindaraj, Ramya Padmavathy, Sooriya Kumar Jegatheesan, Ramesh Mullangi, Sriram Rajagopal
Epigenetic changes lead to aberrant gene expression in cancer. SETDB1, a histone lysine methyltransferase plays an important role in methylation and gene silencing. Aberrant histone methylation at H3K9 by SETDB1 promotes silencing of tumor suppressor genes and thus contributes to carcinogenesis. Recent studies indicate that SETDB1 is abnormally expressed in various human cancer conditions which contributed to enhanced tumor growth and metastasis. Hence, SETDB1 appears to be a promising epigenetic target for therapeutic intervention...
January 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074529/epigenetic-mediated-immune-suppression-of-positive-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#11
Ercan Cacan
The immunological response against cancer is a critical balance between immune-activating and immune-suppressing mechanisms. Ovarian cancer creates a suppressive microenvironment to escape immune elimination; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether chemotherapeutic drugs exert an immunoreactive or immunosuppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment. 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL/CD157) and OX-40 ligand (OX-40L/CD252) are important regulators of effector cytotoxic T-cells activity...
January 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072927/artificial-induction-of-native-aquaporin-1-expression-in-human-salivary-cells
#12
Z Wang, S Pradhan-Bhatt, M C Farach-Carson, M J Passineau
Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070121/nrsf-dependent-epigenetic-mechanisms-contribute-to-programming-of-stress-sensitive-neurons-by-neonatal-experience-promoting-resilience
#13
A Singh-Taylor, J Molet, S Jiang, A Korosi, J L Bolton, Y Noam, K Simeone, J Cope, Y Chen, A Mortazavi, T Z Baram
Resilience to stress-related emotional disorders is governed in part by early-life experiences. Here we demonstrate experience-dependent re-programming of stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons, which takes place through modification of neuronal gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Specifically, we found that augmented maternal care reduced glutamatergic synapses onto stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons and repressed expression of the stress-responsive gene, Crh. In hypothalamus in vitro, reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission recapitulated the repressive effects of augmented maternal care on Crh, and this required recruitment of the transcriptional repressor repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF)...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069892/post-translational-regulation-of-the-dicing-activities-of-arabidopsis-dicer-like-3-and-4-by-inorganic-phosphate-and-the-redox-state
#14
Atsushi Seta, Midori Tabara, Yuki Nishibori, Akihiro Hiraguri, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Tadashi Yokoyama, Satoshi Hara, Keisuke Yoshida, Toru Hisabori, Akihito Fukudome, Hisashi Koiwa, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
In Arabidopsis thaliana, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by two Dicer isoforms, DCL3 and DCL4, function in distinct epigenetic processes, i.e. RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing, respectively. Plants often respond to their environment by producing a distinct set of small RNAs; however, the mechanism for controlling the production of different siRNAs from the same dsRNA substrate remains unclear. We established a simple biochemical method to visualize the dsRNA-cleaving activities of DCL3 and DCL4 in cell-free extracts prepared from Arabidopsis seedlings...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069135/epigenetic-control-of-gene-expression-in-maize
#15
J Huang, J S Lynn, L Schulte, S Vendramin, K McGinnis
Epigenetic gene regulation is important for proper development and gene expression in eukaryotes. Maize has a large and complex genome that includes abundant repetitive sequences which are frequently silenced by epigenetic mechanisms, making it an ideal organism to study epigenetic gene regulation. Epigenetic modifications are chromosome-bound, heritable changes to the genome that do not affect the DNA sequence, and can include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA processing. Our appreciation and understanding of epigenetic regulation has grown with the field since its inception ∼65 years ago...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067760/dna-methylation-targeting-the-dnmt-hmt-crosstalk-challenge
#16
REVIEW
Omar Castillo-Aguilera, Patrick Depreux, Ludovic Halby, Paola B Arimondo, Laurence Goossens
Chromatin can adopt a decondensed state linked to gene transcription (euchromatin) and a condensed state linked to transcriptional repression (heterochromatin). These states are controlled by epigenetic modulators that are active on either the DNA or the histones and are tightly associated to each other. Methylation of both DNA and histones is involved in either the activation or silencing of genes and their crosstalk. Since DNA/histone methylation patterns are altered in cancers, molecules that target these modifications are interesting therapeutic tools...
January 5, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062591/epigenetic-processes-in-flowering-plant-reproduction
#17
REVIEW
Guifeng Wang, Claudia Köhler
Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062506/wnt-signaling-pathway-inhibitor-sclerostin-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-aortic-aneurysm-and-atherosclerosis
#18
Smriti Murali Krishna, Sai-Wang Seto, Roby J Jose, Jiaze Li, Susan K Morton, Erik Biros, Yutang Wang, Vianne Nsengiyumva, Jan H N Lindeman, Gabriela G Loots, Catherine M Rush, Jeffrey M Craig, Jonathan Golledge
OBJECTIVE: Sclerostin (SOST) has been identified as an important regulator of bone formation; however, it has not been previously implicated in arterial disease. The aim of this study was to assess the role of SOST in aortic aneurysm (AA) and atherosclerosis using human samples, a mouse model, and in vitro investigations. APPROACH AND RESULTS: SOST protein was downregulated in human and mouse AA samples compared with controls. Transgenic introduction of human SOST in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (SOST(Tg)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061437/keap1-nrf2-pathway-in-kidney-cancer-frequent-methylation-of-keap1-gene-promoter-in-clear-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Federico Pio Fabrizio, Manuela Costantini, Massimiliano Copetti, Annamaria la Torre, Angelo Sparaneo, Andrea Fontana, Luana Poeta, Michele Gallucci, Steno Sentinelli, Paolo Graziano, Paola Parente, Vincenzo Pompeo, Laura De Salvo, Giuseppe Simone, Rocco Papalia, Francesco Picardo, Teresa Balsamo, Gerardo Paolo Flammia, Domenico Trombetta, Angela Pantalone, Klaas Kok, Ferronika Paranita, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Vito Michele Fazio
The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is a master regulator of the cellular redox state through the induction of several antioxidant defence genes implicated in chemotherapeutic drugs resistance of tumor cells. An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney diseases and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but data concerning the molecular basis and the clinical effect of its deregulation remain incomplete.Here we present a molecular profiling of the KEAP1 and NFE2L2 genes in five different Renal Cell Carcinoma histotypes by analysing 89 tumor/normal paired tissues (clear cell Renal Carcinoma, ccRCCs; Oncocytomas; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 1, PRCC1; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 2, PRCC2; and Chromophobe Cell Carcinoma)...
4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060933/an-arabidopsis-natural-epiallele-maintained-by-a-feed-forward-silencing-loop-between-histone-and-dna
#20
Astrid Agorio, Stéphanie Durand, Elisa Fiume, Cécile Brousse, Isabelle Gy, Matthieu Simon, Sarit Anava, Oded Rechavi, Olivier Loudet, Christine Camilleri, Nicolas Bouché
The extent of epigenetic variation is currently well documented, but the number of natural epialleles described so far remains very limited. Determining the relevance of epigenetic changes for natural variation is an important question of research that we investigate by isolating natural epialleles segregating in Arabidopsis recombinant populations. We previously described a genetic incompatibility among Arabidopsis strains based on the silencing of a gene involved in fitness. Here, we isolated a new epiallele resulting from the silencing of a transfer-RNA editing gene in an Arabidopsis accession from the Netherlands (Nok-1)...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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