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Daniel G Bichet
Recent experiments using optogenetic tools allow the identification and functional analysis of thirst neurons and vasopressin producing neurons. Two major advances provide a detailed anatomy of taste for water and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release: (1) thirst and AVP release are regulated not only by the classical homeostatic, intero-sensory plasma osmolality negative feedback, but also by novel, extero-sensory, anticipatory signals. These anticipatory signals for thirst and vasopressin release converge on the same homeostatic neurons of circumventricular organs that monitor the composition of the blood; (2) acid-sensing taste receptor cells (which express polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 protein) on the tongue that were previously suggested as the sour taste sensors also mediate taste responses to water...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Łukasz Zandecki, Marcin Sadowski, Marianna Janion, Jacek Kurzawski, Marek Gierlotka, Lech Poloński, Mariusz Gąsior
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the majority of patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) are treated with primary percutaneous coronary interventions (pPCI). In recent years, there have been ongoing improvements in PCI techniques, devices and concomitant pharmacotherapy. However, reports on further mortality reduction among PCI-treated STEMI patients remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to compare changes in management and mortality in PCI-treated STEMI patients between 2005 and 2011 in a real-life setting...
June 20, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Brandon A Kemp, Nancy L Howell, Shetal H Padia
The intrarenal ghrelin receptor (GR) is localized to collecting duct (CD) cells where it increases αENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption in rodents. We hypothesized that chronic GR inhibition with intrarenal GR siRNA lowers blood pressure (BP) in Angiotensin II-dependent hypertension via reductions in αENaC-dependent sodium reabsorption. Uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (N=121) received subcutaneous osmotic pumps for chronic systemic delivery of Angiotensin II or vehicle (5% dextrose in water). Rats also received intrarenal infusion of vehicle, GR siRNA, or scrambled (SCR) siRNA...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Roberta Fernanda da Silva, Riccardo Lacchini, Lucas Cezar Pinheiro, Thiago José Dionísio, AndréMourão Jacomini, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos, Sandra Lia Amaral, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Anderson Saranz Zago
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are associated with increases in blood pressure (BP). Physical exercise has been considered the main strategy to prevent this increase. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between estimated training status (TS), BP and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in elderly people classified as low or high risk to develop hypertension according to genetic profile. METHODS: A total of 155 elderly participants performed the following assessments: general functional fitness index (GFFI), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), blood collection for ACE activity and analyses of the RAS polymorphisms...
April 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Yun Liu, Huan-Jia Shen, Xin-Qiu-Yue Wang, Hai-Qi Liu, Ling-Yun Zheng, Jian-Dong Luo
Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the major risk factors for chronic heart failure. The role of endophilinA2 (EndoA2) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent endocytosis is well documented. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EndoA2 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy by mediating intracellular angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by using cell surface area and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) analyses...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
A F Korystova, L N Kublik, M Kh Levitman, T V Samokhvalova, V V Shaposhnikova, Yu N Korystov
We analyzed changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in rat aorta at the early terms after irradiation in doses equal to one fraction dose used in tumor radiotherapy. Male Wistar rats were exposed to whole body or local (chest) X-ray irradiation (200 kV, 1-7.5 Gy). The activity of the enzyme in aorta segments was measured in 1-48 h after irradiation by hydrolysis of hippuryl-histidine-leucine. Activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in rat aorta was increased 1-24 h after whole body irradiation in a dose of 2...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kirin Tan, Aaron H J Withers, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
The pathogenesis of Dupuytren's disease (DD) remains unclear although there is increasing evidence supporting the role of stem cells in this and other fibrotic conditions. This review examines the role of DD tissue-associated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and circulating fibrocytes and circulating MSCs, in the biology of DD. It is exciting to infer that dysfunction of an upstream ESC-like population within the affected tissue leads to the downstream development and proliferation of aberrant myofibroblasts through a putative MSC intermediate...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Shihui Fu, Ping Ping, Qiwei Zhu, Ping Ye, Leiming Luo
Heart failure (HF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the most widely studied and commonly applied natriuretic peptide (NP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has the effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation, anti-hypertrophy, and anti-fibrosis and it inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems to maintain cardiorenal homeostasis and counteract the effects of HF. Both BNP and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are applied as diagnostic, managing, and prognostic tools for HF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Huijie Ma 马会杰, Shao-Rui Chen 陈少瑞, Hong Chen 陈红, Lingyong Li 李令勇, De-Pei Li 李德培李德培, Jing-Jing Zhou 周京京, Hui-Lin Pan 潘惠麟
Both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1 ), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Masamichi Nogi, Kimio Satoh, Shinichiro Sunamura, Nobuhiro Kikuchi, Taijyu Satoh, Ryo Kurosawa, Junichi Omura, Md Elias Al-Mamun, Mohammad Abdul Hai Siddique, Kazuhiko Numano, Shun Kudo, Satoshi Miyata, Masatoshi Akiyama, Kiichiro Kumagai, Shunsuke Kawamoto, Yoshikatsu Saiki, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Background -Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and dissection (TAD) are fatal diseases, which cause aortic rupture and sudden death. The small GTP-binding protein GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) is a crucial mediator of the pleiotropic effects of statins. Previous studies revealed that reduced force generation in AoSMCs causes TAA and TAD. Methods -To examine the role of SmgGDS in TAA formation, we employed an angiotensin II (AngII, 1,000 ng/min/kg, 4 weeks)-induced TAA model. Results -33% Apoe-/- SmgGDS+/- mice died suddenly due to TAA rupture, whereas there was no TAA rupture in Apoe-/- control mice...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
Bao Fu, Yi Su, Xin Ma, Chunyan Mu, Fusheng Yu
Scoparone is a biologically active constituent isolated from Artemisia capillaris and possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-allergic and anti-cardiovascular activities. However, there are no studies focusing on the effects of scoparone against cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of scoparone on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and its possible mechanism in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs)...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
N Wu, G Yang
This study aims to evaluate the effect of sildenafil on pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with chronic left heart failure. Twenty patients with PH and left heart failure were divided into treatment group (10 cases, with an oral dose of sildenafil 75 mg daily for 8 weeks) and control group (10 cases, with treatment of cardiac glycosides, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker and beta-blockers). Left ventricular systolic function (LVEF), the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PH), the left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), the left atrium diameter (LAD) and the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVD) were measured by echocardiography, the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was also calculated...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Srikanth Yandrapalli, Mohammed Hasan Khan, Yogita Rochlani, Wilbert S Aronow
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing and the developed world. Mortality from CV disease had plateaued in the recent years raising concerning alarms about the sustained efficacy of available preventive and treatment options. Heart failure (HF) is among the major contributors to the CV-related health care burden, a persisting concern despite the use of clinically proven guideline-directed therapies. A requirement for more efficient medical therapies coupled with recent advances in bio-innovation led to the creation of sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), which demonstrated substantial CV benefit when compared with the standard of care, enalapril, in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction...
June 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Gillian E Caughey, Jodie B Hillen, Stephanie Bacon, Nicholas Bullock, Virginia Bullock, Lisa Kalisch Ellett
Initial assessment: Older people are at increased risk of medication-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (MR-PPH) due to the presence of multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) and subsequent polypharmacy. Choice of solution: A pilot study was conducted, using evidence-based indicators to detect older patients in a chronic disease management program (CDMP) at risk of hospitalization due to sub-optimal medication use. Implementation: Previously validated indicators for MR-PPH were applied to patients with multimorbidity, aged 65 years or older and who were enrolled in a national community-based CDMP...
June 18, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Edoardo Sciatti, Michele Senni, Carlo M Lombardi, Mauro Gori, Marco Metra
: The Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist and Neprilysin Inhibitor with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial has shown a reduction in the risk of death and heart failure hospitalizations with sacubitril/valsartan, compared with enalapril, in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Guidelines now recommend the substitution of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or AT1 blockers with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Speranza Rubattu, Maria Cotugno, Maurizio Forte, Rosita Stanzione, Franca Bianchi, Michele Madonna, Simona Marchitti, Massimo Volpe
OBJECTIVES: The combination of AT1 blocker/neutroendopeptidase neprilysin inhibition (ARNi) represents an interesting approach to reduce cardiovascular risk in hypertension. We assessed the efficacy of ARNi, compared with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade alone, on blood pressure (BP) and on protection from target organ damage development in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). METHODS: In high-salt fed SHRSP, we assessed plasma and tissue natriuretic peptides, urinary volume, BP and body weight over a short-term treatment (6 weeks) with either ARNi (sacubitril/valsartan 68 mg/kg per day) or valsartan (30 mg/kg per day), protection from stroke and renal damage (as documented by proteinuria) over 4 months of treatment with either sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan; the ability of either treatment to reduce progression of cerebrovascular and renal damage after 2 weeks of high-salt diet...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Vassiliki Katsi, Chris Kourek, Constantinos Tsioufis, Alexendra Alexopoulou, Evaggelia Koutli, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review summarizing the existing evidence on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypertension (HT) independent of other components of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We searched the literature through Medline and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the relationship between hypertension and fatty liver disease. RESULTS: Studies testing this association are limited, but agree that HT and fatty liver disease are inter-related independent of other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes mellitus...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Anna Levinsson, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif, Simon de Denus
Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease, almost as common in women as in men. Nonetheless, HF clinical presentation, prognosis, and aetiology vary by sex. This review summarizes the current state of sex-sensitive issues related to HF drugs included in treatment guidelines and suggests future directions for improved care. Heart failure presentation differs between female and male patients: females more often show with hypertensive aetiology and the preserved ejection fraction phenotype, while men more often show ischaemic aetiology and the reduced ejection fraction phenotype...
June 19, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Pengying Liao, Xiongdiao Lan, Dankui Liao, LiXia Sun, Liqin Zhou, Jianhua Sun, Zhangfa Tong
Carapax Trionycis (the shell of the turtle Pelodiscus sinensis) was hydrolyzed by six different commercial proteases. The hydrolysate prepared from papain showed stronger inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) than other extracts. Two noncompetitive ACE inhibitory peptides were purified successively by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, ion exchange column chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The amino acid sequences of them were identified as KRER and LHMFK, with IC50 values of 324...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingtian Li, Fan Lei, Yi Tang, Jenny Szu-Chin Pan, Qiang Tong, Yuxiang Sun, David Sheikh-Hamad
Mitochondrial intracrines are extracellular signaling proteins, targeted to the mitochondria. The pathway for mitochondrial targeting of mitochondrial intracrines and actions in the mitochondria remains unknown. Megalin/LRP2 mediates the uptake of vitamins and proteins, and is critical for clearance of amyloid-β protein from the brain. Megalin mutations underlie the pathogenesis of Donnai-Barrow and Lowe syndromes, characterized by brain defects and kidney dysfunction; megalin was not previously known to reside in the mitochondria...
June 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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