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Hongyou Yu, Corey S Moran, Alexandra F Trollope, Lynn Woodward, Robert Kinobe, Catherine M Rush, Jonathan Golledge
Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis and regulated by angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2). The effect of Angpt2 administration on experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis was examined. Six-month-old male apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were infused with angiotensin II (AngII) and administered subcutaneous human Fc-protein (control) or recombinant Angpt2 (rAngpt2) over 14 days. Administration of rAngpt2 significantly inhibited AngII-induced aortic dilatation and rupture of the suprarenal aorta (SRA), and development of atherosclerosis within the aortic arch...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Cosmo Godino, Antonio Colombo, Alberto Margonato
Heart rate is an established prognostic marker for longevity and is an important contributor in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Most ischemic episodes are triggered by an increase in heart rate, which causes an imbalance between myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption. In addition, increased heart rate is a modifiable risk factor for chronic heart failure. Ivabradine, an inhibitor of If ion channels, is an approved second-line anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Blood pressure is lower in females than males. Angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) induces vasodilation. This study determined whether sex differences in vascular AT2R expression occur and if androgens exert control on AT2R expression in the vasculature. METHODS: AT2Rs in the aorta of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined following alteration in androgen levels by gonadectomy or hormone supplementation. RESULTS: AT2R mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in the aortas of males than females...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Emma Perez-Costas, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Ramon Soto-Otero, Jose L Lanciego, Daniel Henrion, Rafael Franco, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Min Shi, Liang Ma, Li Zhou, Ping Fu
Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Ronald L Dalman, Haojun Xuan, Wei Wang, Hiroki Tanaka, Naoki Fujimura, Baohui Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
M Nagai, K Dote, M Kato, S Sasaki, N Oda, E Kagawa, Y Nakano, A Yamane, Y Kubo, T Higashihara, S Miyauchi, W Harada, H Masuda
In a cross-sectional study, visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability was shown to be associated with artery remodelling. Here, we investigated the impact of visit-to-visit BP variability and average BP on the carotid artery remodelling progression in high-risk elderly according to different classes of antihypertension medication use/non-use. BP measurements and carotid ultrasound were performed in the common carotid artery in 164 subjects (mean age 79.7 years at baseline, 74.7% females) with one or more cardiovascular risk factors...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
Ning Xia, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide (NO) and leptin. This anticontractile function of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an "obesity triad" (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to dysregulation of PVAT-derived vasoregulators...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Ricardo Rodrigues Figueiredo, Andréia Aparecida Azevedo, Norma De Oliveira Penido
INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is the perception of noise in the absence of an external source and is considered by most authors as a multifactorial symptom. A systematic review concerning the association of tinnitus and systemic arterial hypertension retrieved suggestions of a positive association, but the articles included failed to perform a detailed analysis on the theme. PURPOSE: To analyze the presence of arterial hypertension in tinnitus and non-tinnitus patients, to analyze differences between tinnitus impact and psychoacoustic measurements in hypertensive and normotensive patients, and to evaluate the association between the presence of tinnitus and the diverse antihypertensive drugs employed...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahisa Suzuki, Masafumi Ono, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Seiichiro Ozono, Hideo Yasuda
Circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is maintained after renal function has deteriorated. The activation of the intrarenal RAS plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently of the circulating RAS. However, the activation of intrarenal RAS and the chymase-dependent pathway after initiation of dialysis has not been clarified. We recruited 19 CKD patients (10 without dialysis and 9 with dialysis) who underwent a heminephrectomy. Circulating RAS was investigated before nephrectomy...
October 20, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
A V Ivanov, A G Dedul, Y N Fedotov, E V Komlichenko
BACKGROUND: At present, the patient preparation for IVF needs to undergo a series of planned tests, including the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles of some genes. In former USSR countries, such investigation was not included in overwhelming majority of health insurance programs and paid by patient. In common, there are prerequisites to the study of more than 50 polymorphisms. An important faced task is to determine the optimal panel for SNP genotyping in terms of price/number of SNP...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yulong Tian, Zhongchun Ge, Yuliang Xing, Yan Sun, Jie Ying
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder worldwide. Several articles have reported the effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphism in RHD risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess more precise estimations of the relationship between ACE I/D variant and RHD susceptibility. Relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 and 2016 were searched in the electronic databases. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to calculate the strength of the effect...
October 10, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Francislaine Aparecida Lívero, Jacqueline Vergutz Menetrier, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
Heart failure, hypertension, cirrhosis and nephritic syndrome are among conditions that alter volume and composition of body fluids and are modulated by diuretics. Natural products are important source of diuretics and have been considered remarkable alternative with greater effectiveness and fewer side effects. However, many of these plants used in traditional medicine must be scientifically assessed about their efficacy and toxicity. Despite the large number of published articles claiming that plants or plant-derived components may act as diuretic agents, few studies have addressed the mechanism of action of medicinal plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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