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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527225/clinical-feasibility-of-gait-training-with-a%C3%A2-robotic-exoskeleton-wpal-in-an-individual-with-both-incomplete-cervical-and-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a%C3%A2-case-study
#1
Shigeo Tanabe, Soichiro Koyama, Eiichi Saitoh, Satoshi Hirano, Kanan Yatsuya, Tetsuya Tsunoda, Masaki Katoh, Takeshi Gotoh, Ayako Furumoto
BACKGROUND: Patients with tetraplegia can achieve independent gait with lateral-type powered exoskeletons; it is unclear whether medial-type powered exoskeletons allow for this. OBJECTIVE: To investigate gait training with a medial-type powered exoskeleton wearable power-assist locomotor (WPAL) in an individual with incomplete cervical (C5) and complete thoracic (T12) spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: The 60-session program was investigated retrospectively using medical records...
May 19, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521940/cuticle-itself-as-a-central-and-dynamic-player-in-shaping-cuticle
#2
REVIEW
Reiko Tajiri
The wide variety of external morphologies has underlain the evolutionary success of insects. The insect exoskeleton, or cuticle, which covers the entire body and constitutes the external morphology, is extracellular matrix produced by the epidermis. How is cuticle shaped during development? Past studies have mainly focused on patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis of the epidermis. Recently, however, it is becoming clear that cuticle itself plays important and active roles in regulation of cuticle shape...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514926/trunk-muscle-activity-patterns-and-motion-patterns-of-patients-with-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury-at-t8-and-t10-walking-with-different-un-powered-exoskeletons
#3
Xinyu Guan, Shengzheng Kuai, Linhong Ji, Rencheng Wang, Run Ji
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how neurological injured levels of spinal cord affect the performance of patients walking with different un-powered exoskeletons. STUDY DESIGN: Case series observational study. SETTING: Gait and Motion Analysis Laboratory at the National Research Center Rehabilitation Technical Aids. METHODS: Electromyography and motion data from two subjects with complete spinal cord injury at T10 and T8 walking with un-powered exoskeletons were collected simultaneously...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511658/global-kalman-filter-approaches-to-estimate-absolute-angles-of-lower-limb-segments
#4
Samuel L Nogueira, Stefan Lambrecht, Roberto S Inoue, Magdo Bortole, Arlindo N Montagnoli, Juan C Moreno, Eduardo Rocon, Marco H Terra, Adriano A G Siqueira, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: In this paper we propose the use of global Kalman filters (KFs) to estimate absolute angles of lower limb segments. Standard approaches adopt KFs to improve the performance of inertial sensors based on individual link configurations. In consequence, for a multi-body system like a lower limb exoskeleton, the inertial measurements of one link (e.g., the shank) are not taken into account in other link angle estimations (e.g., foot). Global KF approaches, on the other hand, correlate the collective contribution of all signals from lower limb segments observed in the state-space model through the filtering process...
May 16, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505991/lower-extremity-robotic-exoskeleton-training-case-studies-for-complete-spinal-cord-injury-walking
#5
Edward D Lemaire, Andrew J Smith, Andrew Herbert-Copley, Vidya Sreenivasan
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in exoskeleton technology has made lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) a viable treatment tool to restore upright walking mobility to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: Evaluate ARKE exoskeleton training within a rehabilitation centre environment. METHODS: Case studies are presented for two male participants, age 41 and 30, motor complete SCI at T6 (N01) and T12 (N02), respectively, as they progress from new LEPE users to independent walking...
May 10, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505132/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-obtained-from-shells-of-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone
#6
Rayane Santa Cruz Martins de Queiroz Antonino, Bianca Rosa Paschoal Lia Fook, Vítor Alexandre de Oliveira Lima, Raid Ícaro de Farias Rached, Eunice Paloma Nascimento Lima, Rodrigo José da Silva Lima, Carlos Andrés Peniche Covas, Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry...
May 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504943/towards-multimodal-human-robot-interaction-to-enhance-active-participation-of-users-in-gait-rehabilitation
#7
Kai Gui, Honghai Liu, Dingguo Zhang
Robotic exoskeletons for physical rehabilitation have been utilized for retraining patients suffering from paraplegia and enhancing motor recovery in recent years. However, users are not voluntarily involved in most systems. This work aims to develop a locomotion trainer with multiple gait patterns, which can be controlled by the active motion intention of users. A multimodal human-robot interaction (HRI) system is established to enhance subject's active participation during gait rehabilitation, which includes cognitive human-robot interaction (cHRI) and physical human-robot interaction (pHRI)...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497771/an-isometric-muscle-force-estimation-framework-based-on-a-high-density-surface-emg-array-and-an-nmf-algorithm
#8
Chengjun Huang, Xiang Chen, Shuai Cao, Bensheng Qiu, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To realize accurate muscle force estimation, a novel framework is proposed in this paper which can extract the input of the prediction model from the appropriate activation area of the skeletal muscle. APPROACH: Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from the biceps brachii muscle during isometric elbow flexion were collected with a high-density (HD) electrode grid (128 channels) and the external force at three contraction levels was measured at the wrist synchronously...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492520/an-ecologically-controlled-exoskeleton-can-improve-balance-recovery-after-slippage
#9
V Monaco, P Tropea, F Aprigliano, D Martelli, A Parri, M Cortese, R Molino-Lova, N Vitiello, S Micera
The evolution to bipedalism forced humans to develop suitable strategies for dynamically controlling their balance, ensuring stability, and preventing falling. The natural aging process and traumatic events such as lower-limb loss can alter the human ability to control stability significantly increasing the risk of fall and reducing the overall autonomy. Accordingly, there is an urgent need, from both end-users and society, for novel solutions that can counteract the lack of balance, thus preventing falls among older and fragile citizens...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489346/metal-organic-frameworks-at-the-biointerface-synthetic-strategies-and-applications
#10
Christian Doonan, Raffaele Riccò, Kang Liang, Darren Bradshaw, Paolo Falcaro
Many living organisms are capable of producing inorganic materials of precisely controlled structure and morphology. This ubiquitous process is termed biomineralization and is observed in nature from the macroscale (e.g., formation of exoskeletons) down to the nanoscale (e.g., mineral storage and transportation in proteins). Extensive research efforts have pursued replicating this chemistry with the overarching aims of synthesizing new materials of unprecedented physical properties and understanding the complex mechanisms that occur at the biological-inorganic interface...
May 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485267/blue-light-induced-immunosuppression-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-adults-as-a-carryover-effect-of-larval-exposure
#11
K Tariq, M Noor, M Hori, A Ali, A Hussain, W Peng, C-J Chang, H Zhang
Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484314/new-generation-emerging-technologies-for-neurorehabilitation-and-motor-assistance
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Frisoli, Massimiliano Solazzi, Claudio Loconsole, Michele Barsotti
This paper illustrates the application of emerging technologies and human-machine interfaces to the neurorehabilitation and motor assistance fields. The contribution focuses on wearable technologies and in particular on robotic exoskeleton as tools for increasing freedom to move and performing Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). This would result in a deep improvement in quality of life, also in terms of improved function of internal organs and general health status. Furthermore, the integration of these robotic systems with advanced bio-signal driven human-machine interface can increase the degree of participation of patient in robotic training allowing to recognize user's intention and assisting the patient in rehabilitation tasks, thus representing a fundamental aspect to elicit motor learning...
December 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477051/heavy-metals-bioaccumulation-in-tissues-of-spiny-cheek-crayfish-orconectes-limosus-from-lake-gop%C3%A5-o-effect-of-age-and-sex
#13
Magdalena Stanek, Janusz Dąbrowski, Szymon Różański, Bogdan Janicki, Jacek Długosz
The aim of the present work was to assess the concentrations of metals in the abdominal muscle and exoskeleton of 3-year-old males and 4-year-old females and males of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) collected from Lake Gopło. A total of 93 males and 35 females were collected in autumn (October 2014). The analyzes of heavy metals were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with a PU9100X spectrometer. The content of mercury was determined using AMA 254 mercury analyser. As analyses indicated heavy metals accumulated in the muscle and exoskeleton in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Hg and Mn > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu > Hg, respectively...
June 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467325/classification-of-different-reaching-movements-from-the-same-limb-using-eeg
#14
Farid Shiman, Eduardo López-Larraz, Andrea Sarasola-Sanz, Nerea Irastorza-Landa, Martin Spueler, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
OBJECTIVE: Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed not only as assistive technologies but also as rehabilitation tools for lost functions. However, due to the stochastic nature, poor spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio from electroencephalography (EEG), multidimensional decoding has been the main obstacle to implement non-invasive BCIs in real-live rehabilitation scenarios. This study explores the classification of several functional reaching movements from the same limb using EEG oscillations in order to create a more versatile BCI for rehabilitation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465577/development-of-structural-colour-in-leaf-beetles
#15
Olimpia D Onelli, Thomas van de Kamp, Jeremy N Skepper, Janet Powell, Tomy Dos Santos Rolo, Tilo Baumbach, Silvia Vignolini
Structural colours in living organisms have been observed and analysed in a large number of species, however the study of how the micro- and nano-scopic natural structures responsible of such colourations develop has been largely ignored. Understanding the interplay between chemical composition, structural morphology on multiple length scales, and mechanical constraints requires a range of investigation tools able to capture the different aspects of natural hierarchical architectures. Here, we report a developmental study of the most widespread strategy for structural colouration in nature: the cuticular multilayer...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463613/against-the-odds-what-to-expect-in-rehabilitation-of-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-with-a-neurologically-controlled-hybrid-assistive-limb-exoskeleton-a-subgroup-analysis-of-55-patients-according-to-age-and-lesion-level
#16
Dennis Grasmücke, Amrei Zieriacks, Oliver Jansen, Christian Fisahn, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Martin Wessling, Renate C Meindl, Thomas A Schildhauer, Mirko Aach
Objective Age and lesion level are believed to represent outcome predictors in rehabilitation of patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). The Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) exoskeleton enables patients to perform a voluntary controlled gait pattern via an electromyography-triggered neuromuscular feedback system, and has been introduced as a temporary gait training tool in patients with SCI. The aim of this prospective pre- and postintervention study was to examine functional outcomes as a function of age and lesion level in patients with chronic incomplete SCI (iSCI) or chronic complete SCI (cSCI) with zones of partial preservation (ZPP) by using the HAL as a temporary training tool...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463608/editorial-the-next-generation-of-powered-exoskeleton-use-in-spinal-cord-injury
#17
George M Ghobrial, Michael Y Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449684/reducing-the-metabolic-cost-of-walking-with-an-ankle-exoskeleton-interaction-between-actuation-timing-and-power
#18
Samuel Galle, Philippe Malcolm, Steven Hartley Collins, Dirk De Clercq
BACKGROUND: Powered ankle-foot exoskeletons can reduce the metabolic cost of human walking to below normal levels, but optimal assistance properties remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of different assistance timing and power characteristics in an experiment with a tethered ankle-foot exoskeleton. METHODS: Ten healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons in 10 different assistance conditions. Artificial pneumatic muscles assisted plantarflexion during ankle push-off using one of four actuation onset timings (36, 42, 48 and 54% of the stride) and three power levels (average positive exoskeleton power over a stride, summed for both legs, of 0...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446119/neurobionics-and-the-brain-computer-interface-current-applications-and-future-horizons
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Yan Tat Wong
The brain-computer interface (BCI) is an exciting advance in neuroscience and engineering. In a motor BCI, electrical recordings from the motor cortex of paralysed humans are decoded by a computer and used to drive robotic arms or to restore movement in a paralysed hand by stimulating the muscles in the forearm. Simultaneously integrating a BCI with the sensory cortex will further enhance dexterity and fine control. BCIs are also being developed to: provide ambulation for paraplegic patients through controlling robotic exoskeletons; restore vision in people with acquired blindness; detect and control epileptic seizures; and improve control of movement disorders and memory enhancement...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439089/transcriptome-analysis-on-the-exoskeleton-formation-in-early-developmetal-stages-and-reconstruction-scenario-in-growth-moulting-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Yi Gao, Jiankai Wei, Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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