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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918413/a-brain-machine-interface-based-on-erd-ers-for-an-upper-limb-exoskeleton-control
#1
Zhichuan Tang, Shouqian Sun, Sanyuan Zhang, Yumiao Chen, Chao Li, Shi Chen
To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI)...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918193/dna-barcodes-identify-medically-important-tick-species-in-canada
#2
Danielle A Ondrejicka, Kevin C Morey, Robert H Hanner
Medically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are often difficult to identify morphologically. A standardized, molecular approach using a 658 base pair DNA barcode sequence (from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) was evaluated for its effectiveness in discriminating ticks in North America, with an emphasis on Canadian ticks. DNA barcodes were generated for 96 of 154 specimens representing 26 ixodid species. A genetic cluster analysis was performed on the barcode sequences, which separated specimens into haplogroups closely corresponding with morphologically identified species...
July 19, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915222/exoskeleton-plantarflexion-assistance-for-elderly
#3
S Galle, W Derave, F Bossuyt, P Calders, P Malcolm, D De Clercq
Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3...
November 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913289/damage-repair-and-regeneration-in-insect-cuticle-the-story-so-far-and-possibilities-for-the-future
#4
REVIEW
Eoin Parle, Jan-Henning Dirks, David Taylor
The exoskeleton of an insect can contain countless specializations across an individual, across developmental stages, and across the class Insecta. Hence, the exoskeleton's building material cuticle must perform a vast variety of functions. Cuticle displays a wide range of material properties which are determined by several known factors: the amount and orientation of the chitin fibres, the constituents and degree of cross-linking and hydration of the protein matrix, the relative amounts of exo- and endocuticle, and the shape of the structures themselves...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896688/design-simulation-and-modelling-of-auxiliary-exoskeleton-to-improve-human-gait-cycle
#5
O Ashkani, A Maleki, N Jamshidi
Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints...
November 28, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895550/closed-loop-task-difficulty-adaptation-during-virtual-reality-reach-to-grasp-training-assisted-with-an-exoskeleton-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#6
Florian Grimm, Georgios Naros, Alireza Gharabaghi
Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing "assistance-as-needed" during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873553/real-time-control-of-an-exoskeleton-hand-robot-with-myoelectric-pattern-recognition
#7
Zhiyuan Lu, Xiang Chen, Xu Zhang, Kay-Yu Tong, Ping Zhou
Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856717/confidence-in-the-curve-establishing-instantaneous-cost-mapping-techniques-using-bilateral-ankle-exoskeletons
#8
Jeffrey Russell Koller, Deanna H Gates, Daniel Perry Ferris, Christian David Remy
Lower extremity robotic prostheses and exoskeletons can require tuning a large number of control parameters on a subject-specific basis to reduce users' metabolic power during locomotion. We refer to the functional relationship between control parameter configurations and users' metabolic power as the metabolic cost landscape. Standard practice for estimating a metabolic cost landscape, and thus identifying optimal parameter configurations, is to vary control parameters while measuring steady state metabolic power during walking...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853668/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-exoskeletons-as-assistive-and-rehabilitation-devices-in-the-treatment-of-neurologic-gait-disorders-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
Christian Fisahn, Mirko Aach, Oliver Jansen, Marc Moisi, Angeli Mayadev, Krystle T Pagarigan, Joseph R Dettori, Thomas A Schildhauer
Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) When used as an assistive device, do wearable exoskeletons improve lower extremity function or gait compared with knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? (2) When used as a rehabilitation device, do wearable exoskeletons improve lower extremity function or gait compared with other rehabilitation strategies in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? (3) When used as an assistive or rehabilitation device, are wearable exoskeletons safe compared with KAFO for assistance or other rehabilitation strategies for rehabilitation in patients with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury? Methods PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from database inception to May 2, 2016, to identify studies evaluating the effectiveness of wearable exoskeletons used as assistive or rehabilitative devices in patients with incomplete or complete spinal cord injury...
December 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849466/descriptive-characteristics-and-amputation-rates-with-use-of-intrepid-dynamic-exoskeleton-orthosis
#10
Owen Hill, Lakmini Bulathsinhala, Susan L Eskridge, Kimberly Quinn, Daniel J Stinner
Advancements in ankle-foot orthotic devices, such as the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO), are designed to improve function and reduce pain of the injured lower extremity. There is a paucity of research detailing the demographics, injury patterns and amputation outcomes of patients who have been prescribed an IDEO. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics, presenting diagnosis and patterns of amputation in patients prescribed an IDEO at the Center for the Intrepid (CFI). The study population was comprised of 624 service members who were treated at the CFI and prescribed an IDEO between 2009 and 2014...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845347/gesture-recognition-by-instantaneous-surface-emg-images
#11
Weidong Geng, Yu Du, Wenguang Jin, Wentao Wei, Yu Hu, Jiajun Li
Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842562/locomotor-training-through-a-novel-robotic-platform-for-gait-rehabilitation-in-pediatric-population-short-report
#12
C Bayón, S Lerma, O Ramírez, J I Serrano, M D Del Castillo, R Raya, J M Belda-Lois, I Martínez, E Rocon
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disorder of posture and movement due to a defect in the immature brain. The use of robotic devices as alternative treatment to improve the gait function in patients with CP has increased. Nevertheless, current gait trainers are focused on controlling complete joint trajectories, avoiding postural control and the adaptation of the therapy to a specific patient. This paper presents the applicability of a new robotic platform called CPWalker in children with spastic diplegia...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826498/functional-diversity-of-resilin-in-arthropoda
#13
REVIEW
Jan Michels, Esther Appel, Stanislav N Gorb
Resilin is an elastomeric protein typically occurring in exoskeletons of arthropods. It is composed of randomly orientated coiled polypeptide chains that are covalently cross-linked together at regular intervals by the two unusual amino acids dityrosine and trityrosine forming a stable network with a high degree of flexibility and mobility. As a result of its molecular prerequisites, resilin features exceptional rubber-like properties including a relatively low stiffness, a rather pronounced long-range deformability and a nearly perfect elastic recovery...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821454/sustained-nitric-oxide-releasing-nanoparticles-interfere-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-in-a-rat-central-venous-catheter-model
#14
Mircea Radu Mihu, Vitor Cabral, Rodney Pattabhi, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Adam J Friedman, Luis R Martinez, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheters (CVCs) model of infection...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820797/non-classical-transpeptidases-yield-insight-into-new-antibacterials
#15
Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kaushik, Evan P Lloyd, Shao-Gang Li, Rohini Mattoo, Nicole C Ammerman, Drew T Bell, Alexander L Perryman, Trevor A Zandi, Sean Ekins, Stephan L Ginell, Craig A Townsend, Joel S Freundlich, Gyanu Lamichhane
Bacterial survival requires an intact peptidoglycan layer, a three-dimensional exoskeleton that encapsulates the cytoplasmic membrane. Historically, the final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis are known to be carried out by D,D-transpeptidases, enzymes that are inhibited by the β-lactams, which constitute >50% of all antibacterials in clinical use. Here, we show that the carbapenem subclass of β-lactams are distinctly effective not only because they inhibit D,D-transpeptidases and are poor substrates for β-lactamases, but primarily because they also inhibit non-classical transpeptidases, namely the L,D-transpeptidases, which generate the majority of linkages in the peptidoglycan of mycobacteria...
November 7, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819009/chitin-and-chitosan-production-and-application-of-versatile-biomedical-nanomaterials
#16
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Michael R Hamblin
Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications...
March 2016: International Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810692/kinematic-and-muscle-demand-similarities-between-motor-assisted-elliptical-training-and-walking-implications-for-pediatric-gait-rehabilitation
#17
Judith M Burnfield, Guilherme M Cesar, Thad W Buster, Sonya L Irons, Carl A Nelson
Many children with physical disabilities and special health care needs experience barriers to accessing effective therapeutic technologies to improve walking and fitness in healthcare and community environments. The expense of many robotic and exoskeleton technologies hinders widespread use in most clinics, school settings, and fitness facilities. A motor-assisted elliptical trainer that is being used to address walking and fitness deficits in adults was modified to enable children as young as three years of age to access the technology (Pedi-ICARE)...
January 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803166/borna-disease-virus-assembles-porous-cage-like-viral-factories-in-the-nucleus
#18
Yuya Hirai, Yasuhiro Hirano, Atsushi Matsuda, Yasushi Hiraoka, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Animal-derived RNA viruses frequently generate viral factories in infected cells. However, the details of how RNA viruses build such intracellular structures are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the structure and formation of the viral factories, called viral speckle of transcripts (vSPOTs), that are produced in the nuclei of host cells by Borna disease virus (BDV). Super-resolution microscopic analysis showed that BDV assembled vSPOTs as intranuclear cage-like structures with 59-180-nm pores. The viral nucleoprotein formed the exoskeletons of vSPOTs, whereas the other viral proteins appeared to be mainly localized within these structures...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802730/design-of-a-biologically-inspired-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-human-gait-rehabilitation
#19
Mingxing Lyu, Weihai Chen, Xilun Ding, Jianhua Wang, Shaoping Bai, Huichao Ren
This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799902/localization-of-impaired-kinesthetic-processing-post-stroke
#20
Jeffrey M Kenzie, Jennifer A Semrau, Sonja E Findlater, Amy Y Yu, Jamsheed A Desai, Troy M Herter, Michael D Hill, Stephen H Scott, Sean P Dukelow
Kinesthesia is our sense of limb motion, and allows us to gauge the speed, direction, and amplitude of our movements. Over half of stroke survivors have significant impairments in kinesthesia, which leads to greatly reduced recovery and function in everyday activities. Despite the high reported incidence of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, very little is known about how damage beyond just primary somatosensory areas affects kinesthesia. Stroke provides an ideal model to examine structure-function relationships specific to kinesthetic processing, by comparing lesion location with behavioral impairment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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