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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436882/home-based-therapy-after-stroke-using-the-hand-spring-operated-movement-enhancer-handsome
#1
Ji Chen, Diane Nichols, Elizabeth B Brokaw, Peter S Lum
In previous work, we developed a lightweight wearable hand exoskeleton (HandSOME) that improves range of motion and function in laboratory testing. In this pilot study, we added the ability to log movement data for extended periods and recruited 10 chronic stroke subjects to use the device during reach and grasp task practice at home for 1.5 hours/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Seven subjects completed the study, performing 448 ± 651 hand movements per training day. After training, impairment was reduced (Fugl-Meyer Test; gain=4...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431748/a-benchtop-biorobotic-platform-for-in-vitro-observation-of-muscle-tendon-dynamics-with-parallel-mechanical-assistance-from-an-elastic-exoskeleton
#2
Benjamin D Robertson, Siddarth Vadakkeveedu, Gregory S Sawicki
We present a novel biorobotic framework comprised of a biological muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanically coupled to a feedback controlled robotic environment simulation that mimics in vivo inertial/gravitational loading and mechanical assistance from a parallel elastic exoskeleton. Using this system, we applied select combinations of biological muscle activation (modulated with rate-coded direct neural stimulation) and parallel elastic assistance (applied via closed-loop mechanical environment simulation) hypothesized to mimic human behavior based on previously published modeling studies...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427422/differences-in-muscle-activity-and-temporal-step-parameters-between-lokomat-guided-walking-and-treadmill-walking-in-post-stroke-hemiparetic-patients-and-healthy-walkers
#3
Klaske van Kammen, Anne M Boonstra, Lucas H V van der Woude, Heleen A Reinders-Messelink, Rob den Otter
BACKGROUND: The Lokomat is a robotic exoskeleton that can be used to train gait function in hemiparetic stroke. To purposefully employ the Lokomat for training, it is important to understand (1) how Lokomat guided walking affects muscle activity following stroke and how these effects differ between patients and healthy walkers, (2) how abnormalities in the muscle activity of patients are modulated through Lokomat guided gait, and (3) how temporal step characteristics of patients were modulated during Lokomat guided walking...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427305/neuromechanical-adaptations-during-a-robotic-powered-exoskeleton-assisted-walking-session
#4
Arvind Ramanujam, Christopher M Cirnigliaro, Erica Garbarini, Pierre Asselin, Rakesh Pilkar, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. DESIGN: Single-session. SETTING: Motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421179/synergy-based-bilateral-port-a-universal-control-module-for-tele-manipulation-frameworks-using-asymmetric-master-slave-systems
#5
Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Giorgio Grioli, Nikos Tsagarakis
Endowing tele-manipulation frameworks with the capability to accommodate a variety of robotic hands is key to achieving high performances through permitting to flexibly interchange the end-effector according to the task considered. This requires the development of control policies that not only cope with asymmetric master-slave systems but also whose high-level components are designed in a unified space in abstraction from the devices specifics. To address this dual challenge, a novel synergy port is developed that resolves the kinematic, sensing, and actuation asymmetries of the considered system through generating motion and force feedback references in the hardware-independent hand postural synergy space...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420954/multiple-kernel-based-region-importance-learning-for-neural-classification-of-gait-states-from-eeg-signals
#6
Yuhang Zhang, Saurabh Prasad, Atilla Kilicarslan, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
With the development of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) systems, people with motor disabilities are able to control external devices to help them restore movement abilities. Longitudinal validation of these systems is critical not only to assess long-term performance reliability but also to investigate adaptations in electrocortical patterns due to learning to use the BMI system. In this paper, we decode the patterns of user's intended gait states (e.g., stop, walk, turn left, and turn right) from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals and simultaneously learn the relative importance of different brain areas by using the multiple kernel learning (MKL) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417966/the-ecdysis-triggering-hormone-system-is-essential-for-successful-moulting-of-a-major-hemimetabolous-pest-insect-schistocerca-gregaria
#7
Cynthia Lenaerts, Dorien Cools, Rik Verdonck, Lina Verbakel, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Elisabeth Marchal
Insects are enclosed in a rigid exoskeleton, providing protection from desiccation and mechanical injury. To allow growth, this armour needs to be replaced regularly in a process called moulting. Moulting entails the production of a new exoskeleton and shedding of the old one and is induced by a pulse in ecdysteroids, which activates a peptide-mediated signalling cascade. In Holometabola, ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) is the key factor in this cascade. Very little functional information is available in Hemimetabola, which display a different kind of development characterized by gradual changes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410594/physical-human-robot-interaction-of-an-active-pelvis-orthosis-toward-ergonomic-assessment-of-wearable-robots
#8
Nicolò d'Elia, Federica Vanetti, Marco Cempini, Guido Pasquini, Andrea Parri, Marco Rabuffetti, Maurizio Ferrarin, Raffaele Molino Lova, Nicola Vitiello
BACKGROUND: In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO)...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410094/stiffness-perception-during-active-ankle-and-knee-movement
#9
Alejandro F Azocar, Elliott J Rouse
OBJECTIVE: Recently, human joint impedance-the instantaneous mechanical response to a perturbation-has been quantified during gait, providing new insight beyond the traditional biomechanical descriptions of kinetics and kinematics. However, the role of joint impedance in neuromotor control and the development of exoskeletons and other wearable robotic systems remains unknown. One approach to studying the role of impedance in neuromotor control involves characterizing the human ability to discriminate changes in external impedance properties...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392452/mars-a-protein-family-involved-in-the-formation-of-vertical-skeletal-elements
#10
Shai Abehsera, Shani Peles, Jenny Tynyakov, Shmuel Bentov, Eliahu D Aflalo, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang, Amir Sagi
Vertical organizations of skeletal elements are found in various vertebrate teeth and invertebrate exoskeletons. The molecular mechanism behind the development of such structural organizations is poorly known, although it is generally held that organic matrix proteins play an essential role. While most crustacean cuticular organizations exhibit horizontal chitinous layering, a typical vertical organization is found towards the surface of the teeth in the mandibles of the crayfish Cheraxquadricarinatus. Candidate genes encoding for mandible-forming structural proteins were mined in C...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384421/beetle-exoskeleton-may-facilitate-body-heat-acting-differentially-across-the-electromagnetic-spectrum
#11
Luis M Carrascal, Yolanda Jiménez Ruiz, Jorge M Lobo
Exoskeletons of beetles and their associated morphological characteristics can serve many different functions, including thermoregulation. We study the thermal role of the exoskeleton in 13 Geotrupidae dung beetle species using heating experiments under controlled conditions. The main purpose was to measure the influence of heating sources (solar radiance vs. infrared), animal position (dorsal exposure vs. ventral exposure), species identity, and phylogenetic relationships on internal asymptotic temperatures and heating rates...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382111/emerging-strategies-in-the-management-of-essential-tremor
#12
REVIEW
Peter Hedera
Currently available therapies for essential tremor (ET) provide sufficient control only for less than a half of patients and many unmet needs exist. This is in part due to the empiric nature of existing treatment options and persisting uncertainties about the pathogenesis of ET. The emerging concept of ET as a possible neurodegenerative disorder, better understanding of associated biochemical changes, including alterations in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system and gap junctions, and the identification of the role of the leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain-containing 1 (LINGO-1) gene in ET pathogenesis suggest new avenues for more targeted therapies...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381985/virtual-normalization-of-physical-impairment-a-pilot-study-to-evaluate-motor-learning-in-presence-of-physical-impairment
#13
Christopher Jarrett, Andrew McDaid
Motor learning is a critical component of the rehabilitation process; however, it can be difficult to separate the fundamental causes of a learning deficit when physical impairment is a confounding factor. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to augment the residual ability of physically impaired patients with a robotic rehabilitation exoskeleton, such that motor learning can be studied independently of physical impairment. The proposed technique augments the velocity of an on-screen cursor relative to the restricted physical motion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375360/modeling-of-light-interaction-with-exoskeletons-of-scarab-beetles
#14
Sergiy Valyukh, Kenneth Järrendahl
Some beetles of the family Scarabaeidae produce brilliant metallic-looking colors by their pure dielectric exoskeletons and reflect light with a high degree of circular polarization. In the present work, we discuss three models for simultaneously describing scattering, spectral, and polarization characteristics of scarab beetles. Each model consists of three slabs: an outer thin epicuticle, an exocuticle having a helicoidal structure, and a thick uniform slightly absorbing endocuticle. Scattering features are defined by rough interfaces of the epicuticle and/or nonuniformities of the exocuticle...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373860/advanced-myoelectric-control-for-robotic-hand-assisted-training-outcome-from-a-stroke-patient
#15
Zhiyuan Lu, Kai-Yu Tong, Henry Shin, Sheng Li, Ping Zhou
A hand exoskeleton driven by myoelectric pattern recognition was designed for stroke rehabilitation. It detects and recognizes the user's motion intent based on electromyography (EMG) signals, and then helps the user to accomplish hand motions in real time. The hand exoskeleton can perform six kinds of motions, including the whole hand closing/opening, tripod pinch/opening, and the "gun" sign/opening. A 52-year-old woman, 8 months after stroke, made 20× 2-h visits over 10 weeks to participate in robot-assisted hand training...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371436/localization-of-alpha-keratin-and-beta-keratin-corneous-beta-protein-in-the-epithelium-on-the-ventral-surface-of-the-lingual-apex-and-its-lingual-nail-in-the-domestic-goose-anser-anser-f-domestica-by-using-immunohistochemistry-and-raman-microspectroscopy-analysis
#16
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Hanna Jackowiak, Tomasz Buchwald, Mirosław Szybowicz
The epithelium of the ventral surface of the apex of the tongue in most birds is specified by the presence of the special superficial layer called lingual nail. The aim of the present study is to determine the localization of the alpha-keratin and beta-keratin (corneous beta protein) in this special epithelium in the domestic goose by using immunohistochemistry staining and the Raman spectroscopy analysis. Due to lack of commercially available antibodies to detect beta-keratin (corneous beta protein), the Raman spectroscopy was used as a specific tool to detect and describe the secondary structure of proteins...
March 30, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368027/identification-and-expression-of-cuticular-protein-genes-based-on-locusta-migratoria-transcriptome
#17
Xiaoming Zhao, Xin Gou, Zhongyu Qin, Daqi Li, Yan Wang, Enbo Ma, Sheng Li, Jianzhen Zhang
Many types of cuticular proteins are found in a single insect species, and their number and features are very diversified among insects. The cuticle matrix consists of many different proteins that confer the physical properties of the exoskeleton. However, the number and properties of cuticle proteins in Locusta migratoria remain unclear. In the present study, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly were combined to characterize the transcriptome of L. migratoria. Eighty-one cuticular protein genes were identified and divided into five groups: the CPR family (51), Tweedle (2), CPF/CPFLs (9), CPAP family (9), and other genes (10)...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367121/experimental-validation-of-motor-primitive-based-control-for-leg-exoskeletons-during-continuous-multi-locomotion-tasks
#18
Virginia Ruiz Garate, Andrea Parri, Tingfang Yan, Marko Munih, Raffaele Molino Lova, Nicola Vitiello, Renaud Ronsse
An emerging approach to design locomotion assistive devices deals with reproducing desirable biological principles of human locomotion. In this paper, we present a bio-inspired controller for locomotion assistive devices based on the concept of motor primitives. The weighted combination of artificial primitives results in a set of virtual muscle stimulations. These stimulations then activate a virtual musculoskeletal model producing reference assistive torque profiles for different locomotion tasks (i.e., walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358916/classifying-three-imaginary-states-of-the-same-upper-extremity-using-time-domain-features
#19
Mojgan Tavakolan, Zack Frehlick, Xinyi Yong, Carlo Menon
Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows collaboration between humans and machines. It translates the electrical activity of the brain to understandable commands to operate a machine or a device. In this study, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of a 3-class BCI using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This BCI discriminates rest against imaginary grasps and elbow movements of the same limb. This classification task is challenging because imaginary movements within the same limb have close spatial representations on the motor cortex area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353139/bioaccumulation-of-heavy-metals-in-various-tissues-of-some-fish-species-and-green-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-semisulcatus-from-%C3%A4-skenderun-bay-turkey-and-risk-assessment-for-human-health
#20
Gokce Kaya, Semra Turkoglu
In this study, concentrations of heavy metals were determined by ICP-MS in the edible tissues of common sole (Solea solea Linnaeus, 1758), whiting (Merlangius merlangus Linnaeus, 1758), silver sillago (Sillago sihama Forsskål, 1775) and muscle-exoskeleton of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844), from the seas of İskenderun Bay, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, in January-February, 2016. The lowest and highest mean concentrations of Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, As, Pb, and Co in fish and shrimp' muscles were found, respectively, as follows: 0...
March 28, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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