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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338992/identification-of-the-eucalyptus-grandis-chitinase-gene-family-and-expression-characterization-under-different-biotic-stress-challenges
#1
Peri A Tobias, Nanette Christie, Sanushka Naidoo, David I Guest, Carsten Külheim
Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) is an Australian Myrtaceae tree grown for timber in many parts of the world and for which the annotated genome sequence is available. Known to be susceptible to a number of pests and diseases, E. grandis is a useful study organism for investigating defense responses in woody plants. Chitinases are widespread in plants and cleave glycosidic bonds of chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. They are encoded by an important class of genes known to be up-regulated in plants in response to pathogens...
March 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337434/influence-of-power-delivery-timing-on-the-energetics-and-biomechanics-of-humans-wearing-a-hip-exoskeleton
#2
Aaron J Young, Jessica Foss, Hannah Gannon, Daniel P Ferris
A broad goal in the field of powered lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. Ankle exoskeletons have successfully achieved this goal by correctly timing a plantarflexor torque during late stance phase. Hip exoskeletons have the potential to assist with both flexion and extension during walking gait, but the optimal timing for maximally reducing metabolic cost is unknown. The focus of our study was to determine the best assistance timing for applying hip assistance through a pneumatic exoskeleton on human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325492/the-turtle-carapace-as-an-optimized-multi-scale-biological-composite-armor-a-review
#3
Ben Achrai, H Daniel Wagner
The turtle carapace, the top dorsal part of the shell, is a remarkable multi-scale dermal armor that has evolved to withstand various types of high-stress events encountered in nature. This keratin-covered boney exoskeleton exhibits a number of structural motifs, including alternating rigid and flexible components, layering and functionally graded elements, designed to protect the reptile during predatory attacks, and smashing events. Here we review the multi-scale structural hierarchy of the turtle carapace and its corresponding mechanical properties...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324977/a-novel-method-to-assess-angle-sensor-performance-for-wearable-exoskeletal-joint-kinematics
#4
Nicholas B Bolus, Geza F Kogler, Omer T Inan
Full range of motion (ROM) at a joint is necessary for efficient and adaptive movement; as such, it is an essential clinical evaluation measure for assessing an individual's motor function, which can be affected by any number of musculoskeletal injuries and neuropathies. Measurement of joint ROM in the clinic has classically been accomplished statically through the use of a manual goniometer. More recent efforts in the fields of prosthetics and orthotics have demonstrated the potential utility of wearable systems (e...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324960/design-and-characterization-of-a-torque-controllable-actuator-for-knee-assistance-during-sit-to-stand
#5
Max K Shepherd, Elliott J Rouse
Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis often have difficulty standing out of a chair. One way to potentially improve sit-to-stand is to provide knee extension assistance using a powered knee exoskeleton. An exoskeleton providing unilateral, partial assistance during sit-to-stand would need to be torque-controllable. There are no knee exoskeletons on the market suitable for conducting experiments assisting stroke patients with sit-to-stand, so to enable such experiments a research device was developed. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a novel knee exoskeleton actuator that uses a fiberglass leaf spring in series to improve torque-controllability, and present a characterization of the actuator performance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324959/a-robotic-exoskeleton-to-treat-crouch-gait-from-cerebral-palsy-initial-kinematic-and-neuromuscular-evaluation
#6
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
A robotic exoskeleton was designed for individuals with crouch gait caused by cerebral palsy with the intent to supplement existing muscle function during walking. The aim of this study was to evaluate how powered knee extension assistance provided during stance and swing phases of the gait cycle affect knee kinematics, and knee flexor and extensor muscle activity. Muscle activity and kinematic data were collected from four individuals with crouch gait from cerebral palsy during their normal walking condition and while walking with the exoskeleton under stance, swing, and stance & swing assistance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324934/hand-rehabilitation-after-stroke-using-a-wearable-high-dof-spring-powered-exoskeleton
#7
Tianyao Chen, Peter S Lum
Stroke patients often have inappropriate finger flexor activation and finger extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. The goal was to develop a passive, lightweight, wearable device to enable improved hand function during performance of activities of daily living. The device, HandSOME II, assists with opening the patient's hand using 11 elastic actuators that apply extension torques to finger and thumb joints. Device design and initial testing are described...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315666/feasibility-and-safety-of-a-powered-exoskeleton-for-assisted-walking-for-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-single-group-preliminary-study
#8
Allan J Kozlowski, Michelle Fabian, Dipan Lad, Andrew Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, safety, and secondary benefit potential of exoskeleton-assisted walking with one device for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) DESIGN: Single-group longitudinal preliminary study with 8-week baseline, 8-week intervention, and 4-week follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient MS clinic at tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The 13 participants were mostly female who ranged in age from 38-62 years and on Expanded Disability Status Scale scores from 5...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299334/evidence-for-startle-effects-due-to-externally-induced-lower-limb-movements-implications-in-neurorehabilitation
#9
Juan M Castellote, Markus Kofler, Andreas Mayr, Leopold Saltuari
Passive limb displacement is routinely used to assess muscle tone. If we attempt to quantify muscle stiffness using mechanical devices, it is important to know whether kinematic stimuli are able to trigger startle reactions. Whether kinematic stimuli are able to elicit a startle reflex and to accelerate prepared voluntary movements (StartReact effect) has not been studied extensively to date. Eleven healthy subjects were suspended in an exoskeleton and were exposed to passive left knee flexion (KF) at three intensities, occasionally replaced by fast right KF...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298882/generation-of-a-movement-scheme-for-positive-training
#10
Lin Liu, Le Xie, Yun-Yong Shi, Bing-Chen An
Rehabilitation robots have been demonstrated to be an efficient tool in the field of rehabilitation training. Meanwhile, there are varieties of tasks designed for motion training. These tasks need to be transmitted to motion data for rehabilitation robots. In this paper, we designed a drinking task and captured the motion data as the ground truth, through sensors of an exoskeleton device named Neo-Arm. To verify the effectiveness of Neo-Arm, we used a Vicon system to capture the same motion task without Neo-Arm for comparison...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288824/switching-markov-decoders-for-asynchronous-trajectory-reconstruction-from-ecog-signals-in-monkeys-for-bci-applications
#11
Marie-Caroline Schaeffer, Tetiana Aksenova
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems which translate brain neural activity into commands for external devices. BCI users generally alternate between No-Control (NC) and Intentional Control (IC) periods. NC/IC discrimination is crucial for clinical BCIs, particularly when they provide neural control over complex effectors such as exoskeletons. Numerous BCI decoders focus on the estimation of continuously-valued limb trajectories from neural signals. The integration of NC support into continuous decoders is investigated in the present article...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278475/robust-control-of-a-cable-driven-soft-exoskeleton-joint-for-intrinsic-human-robot-interaction
#12
Christopher Jarrett, Andrew McDaid
A novel, cable-driven soft joint is presented for use in robotic rehabilitation exoskeletons to provide intrinsic, comfortable human-robot interaction. The torque-displacement characteristics of the soft elastomeric core contained within the joint are modelled. This knowledge is used in conjunction with a dynamic system model to derive a sliding mode controller (SMC) to implement low-level torque control of the joint. The SMC controller is experimentally compared to a baseline feedback-linearised PD controller across a range of conditions and shown to be robust to un-modelled disturbances...
March 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278368/dynamic-metabolic-responses-of-brown-planthoppers-towards-susceptible-and-resistant-rice-plants
#13
Caixiang Liu, Ba Du, Fuhua Hao, Hehua Lei, Qianfen Wan, Guangcun He, Yulan Wang, Huiru Tang
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice-growing regions and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH-resistant plants, we systematically analyzed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC-FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty acids using real-time PCR...
March 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269706/a-stimulation-driven-exoskeleton-for-walking-after-paraplegia
#14
Sarah R Chang, Mark J Nandor, Lu Li, Kevin M Foglyano, John R Schnellenberger, Rudi Kobetic, Roger D Quinn, Ronald J Triolo
An untethered version of a stimulation-driven exoskeleton was evaluated for its ability to restore walking after paralysis from spinal cord injury. The hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) combined a passive variable-constraint exoskeleton for stability and support with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to contract the paralyzed muscles to drive limb movement. This self-contained HNP was operated by an onboard controller that sampled sensor signals, generated appropriate commands to both the exoskeletal constraints and integrated stimulator, and transmitted data wirelessly via Bluetooth to an off-board computer for real-time monitoring and recording for offline analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269398/optimization-of-an-unpowered-energy-stored-exoskeleton-for-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Xinyu Guan, Linhong Ji, Rencheng Wang, Wenjie Huang
The paper describes a novel unpowered energy-stored exoskeleton (ES-EXO) for spinal cord injured patients in consideration of patients' characteristics and injured levels. It proposed a method to optimize the energy-stored element to decrease the hip joint moment in walking. EMG patterns, ground reaction force and motion data from one participant with complete spinal cord injury at T10 were recorded. A combined human-ES-EXO model was built and the stored-energy element including locations and stiffness of springs were optimized in AnyBody Modeling System...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269380/hand-motion-recognition-based-on-forearm-deformation-measured-with-a-distance-sensor-array
#16
Sung-Gwi Cho, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Kohei Baba, Kazunori Ogawa, Jun Takamatsu, Tsukasa Ogasawara
Studies of upper limb motion analysis using surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals measured from the forearm plays an important role in various applications, such as human interfaces for controlling robotic exoskeletons, prosthetic hands, and evaluation of body functions. Though the sEMG signals have a lot of information about the activities of the muscles, the signals do not have the activities of the deep layer muscles. We focused on forearm deformation, since hand motion brings the muscles, tendons, and skeletons under the skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269367/spring-operated-wearable-enhancer-for-arm-rehabilitation-springwear-after-stroke
#17
Ji Chen, Peter S Lum
A 5-DOF spring actuated exoskeleton, called SpringWear, was developed to increase range of motion in the affected arms of stroke patients. Theoretically perfect gravity compensation is provided at the shoulder elevation DOF. Additional torque is provided to assist weakness in forearm supination and elbow extension. Three stroke patients were tested. All of the assisted joints increased in range of motion, and larger gains should be possible with refinements in the available torque profiles. Additionally, finger range of motion was increased in one subject when asked to open the hand while holding the shoulder at 90 degrees of elevation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268729/development-of-a-planar-shear-sensor
#18
Bruce J P Mortimer, Gary A Zets, Brian J Altenbernd, Tharaka Goonetilleke
This paper describes a wearable sensor that simultaneously measures both shear and orthogonal force. The planar shear sensor is based on inductive coupling between a small target and a series of adjacent coils. Lateral movement of the target changes the coupling between a primary coil and a series of geometrically shaped and scaled sense coils. Design of the sensor and methods for calibration are investigated. The wearable sensor can be used for measurement of in-situ foot loading during ambulation and we postulate that this may be useful for biomechanical analysis including exoskeletons and balance rehabilitation applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268722/wavelet-pca-for-automatic-identification-of-walking-with-and-without-an-exoskeleton-on-a-treadmill-using-pressure-and-accelerometer-sensors
#19
Ganesh R Naik, Gita Pendharkar, Hung T Nguyen
Nowadays portable devices with more number of sensors are used for gait assessment and monitoring for elderly and disabled. However, the problem with using multiple sensors is that if they are placed on the same platform or base, there could be cross talk between them, which could change the signal amplitude or add noise to the signal. Hence, this study uses wavelet PCA as a signal processing technique to separate the original sensor signal from the signal obtained from the sensors through the integrated unit to compare the two types of walking (with and without an exoskeleton)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268610/detection-of-intention-of-pedaling-start-cycle-through-eeg-signals
#20
Marisol Rodriguez-Ugarte, Enrique Hortal, Alvaro Costa, Eduardo Ianez, Andres Ubeda, Jose M Azorin
Recovery from cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a growing research topic. Exoskeletons are being used for this purpose in combination with a volitional control algorithm. This work studied the intention of pedaling initiation movement, based on previous work, with different types of electrode configuration and different processing time windows. The main characteristic is to find alterations in the mu and beta frequency bands where ERD/ERS is produced. The results show that for the majority of the subjects this event is well detected with 8 or 9 electrodes and using time before and after the movement onset...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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