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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944009/morphological-convergence-in-a-mexican-garter-snake-associated-with-the-ingestion-of-a-novel-prey
#1
Javier Manjarrez, Constantino Macías Garcia, Hugh Drummond
Morphological convergence is expected when organisms which differ in phenotype experience similar functional demands, which lead to similar associations between resource utilization and performance. To consume prey with hard exoskeletons, snakes require either specialized head morphology, or to deal with them when they are vulnerable, for example, during molting. Such attributes may in turn reduce the efficiency with which they prey on soft-bodied, slippery animals such as fish. Snakes which consume a range of prey may present intermediate morphology, such as that of Thamnophiine (Natricinae), which may be classified morphometrically across the soft-hard prey dietary boundary...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942048/the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-as-a-potential-paratenic-host-of-the-lungworm-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus
#2
Luigi Falsone, Vito Colella, Ettore Napoli, Emanuele Brianti, Domenico Otranto
INTRODUCTION: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is a well-known nematode affecting the respiratory system of felids worldwide. Snails and slugs act as intermediate hosts of this parasite, whereas rodents, birds and reptiles may serve as paratenic hosts. Periplaneta americana, the American brown cockroach, shares the same habitat and ecological features (e.g. nocturnal activity) with both snails and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of P. americana to maintain alive A...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939506/impact-of-teflubenzuron-on-the-rockpool-shrimp-palaemon-elegans
#3
Pål A Olsvik, Bjørn T Lunestad, Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt, Ole B Samuelsen
Concerns have been raised over the environmental impacts of antiparasitic drugs used to delouse farmed salmon. Released into the marine environment, some of these drugs can have negative impact on non-targeted crustaceans in the vicinity of farming facilities. In this study, we examined the molecular effect of the insecticide teflubenzuron on a shrimp species inhabiting the littoral zone, the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans). Rockpool shrimp was exposed for 98days to a dose representing 2% of a regular teflubenzuron medication applied to Atlantic salmon...
September 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928650/locomotor-sub-functions-for-control-of-assistive-wearable-robots
#4
Maziar A Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth, Guoping Zhao
A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance: redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927596/on-chemistry-of-%C3%AE-chitin
#5
Murat Kaya, Muhammad Mujtaba, Hermann Ehrlich, Asier M Salaberria, Talat Baran, Chris T Amemiya, Roberta Galli, Lalehan Akyuz, Idris Sargin, Jalel Labidi
The biological material, chitin, is present in nature in three allomorphic forms: α, β and γ. Whereas most studies have dealt with α- and β-chitin, only few investigations have focused on γ-chitin, whose structural and physicochemical properties have not been well delineated. In this study, chitin obtained for the first time from the cocoon of the moth (Orgyia dubia) was subjected to extensive physicochemical analyses and examined, in parallel, with α-chitin from exoskeleton of a freshwater crab and β-chitin from cuttlebone of the common cuttlefish...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926613/human-in-the-loop-bayesian-optimization-of-wearable-device-parameters
#6
Myunghee Kim, Ye Ding, Philippe Malcolm, Jozefien Speeckaert, Christoper J Siviy, Conor J Walsh, Scott Kuindersma
The increasing capabilities of exoskeletons and powered prosthetics for walking assistance have paved the way for more sophisticated and individualized control strategies. In response to this opportunity, recent work on human-in-the-loop optimization has considered the problem of automatically tuning control parameters based on realtime physiological measurements. However, the common use of metabolic cost as a performance metric creates significant experimental challenges due to its long measurement times and low signal-to-noise ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922722/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-effects-of-glucosamine
#7
REVIEW
Fatemeh Zahedipour, Razieh Dalirfardouei, Gholamreza Karimi, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi
Glucosamine is an amino sugar that is produced naturally in human body. It is an essential carbohydrate component of many cellular glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This popular over-the-counter supplement is also found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. Glucosamine and its derivatives have a long history in medicine for inflammatory conditions specially to relieve arthritis. This dietary supplement has numerous biological and pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-fibrotic, neuroprotective and cardioprotective activities...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911186/isolation-of-proteolytic-bacteria-from-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor-exoskeletons-to-produce-chitinous-material
#8
Fernanda Kerche Paes da Silva, Dieter W Brück, Wolfram M Brück
The use of insects as a source of protein is becoming an important factor for feeding an increasing population. After protein extraction for food use, the insect exoskeleton may offer the possibility for the production of added value products. Here, the aim was to isolate bacteria from the surface of farmed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758) for the production of chitinous material from insect exoskeletons using microbial fermentation. Isolates were screened for proteases and acid production that may aid deproteination and demineralisation of insects through fermentation to produce chitin...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890685/emg-based-continuous-and-simultaneous-estimation-of-arm-kinematics-in-able-bodied-individuals-and-stroke-survivors
#9
Jie Liu, Sang Hoon Kang, Dali Xu, Yupeng Ren, Song Joo Lee, Li-Qun Zhang
Among the potential biological signals for human-machine interactions (brain, nerve, and muscle signals), electromyography (EMG) widely used in clinical setting can be obtained non-invasively as motor commands to control movements. The aim of this study was to develop a model for continuous and simultaneous decoding of multi-joint dynamic arm movements based on multi-channel surface EMG signals crossing the joints, leading to application of myoelectrically controlled exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875045/the-training-effect-of-early-intervention-with-a-hybrid-assistive-limb-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Takashi Fukaya, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Ayumu Sano, Masafumi Mizukami, Masashi Yamazaki
After total knee arthroplasty (TKA), it is important for patients to show early improvements in knee joint function and walking to regain independence in performing the activities of daily life. We conducted for 4 weeks an intervention one week after TKA using a hybrid assistive limb (HAL: unilateral leg type) as an exoskeleton robotic device to facilitate knee joint function and walking. The intervention improved the range of knee extension movement safely and without pain compared to preoperation. In addition, we found that training with the HAL improved walking ability, speed, and rate, as well as the time taken to perform the timed up and go (TUG) test compared to preoperation...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872466/if-moses-had-an-exoskeleton%C3%A2
#11
Gerard E Francisco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865396/how-does-wearable-robotic-exoskeleton-affect-overground-walking-performance-measured-with-the-10-m-and-six-minute-walk-tests-after-a-basic-locomotor-training-in-healthy-individuals
#12
Dany H Gagnon, Jérémie Da Cunha, Mael Boyer-Delestre, Laurent Bosquet, Cyril Duclos
It is still unknown to what extent overground walking with a WRE is equivalent to natural overground walking without a WRE. Hence, the interpretability of the 10-m (10MWT) and six-minute (6MWT) walk tests during overground walking with a WRE against reference values collected during natural overground walking without a WRE is challenging. This study aimed to 1) compare walking performance across three different overground walking conditions: natural walking without a WRE, walking with a WRE providing minimal assistance (active walking), and walking with a WRE proving complete assistance (passive walking) and 2) assess the association and the agreement between the 10MWT and the 6MWT during passive and active walking with a WRE...
August 26, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860996/prey-capture-ingestion-and-digestion-dynamics-of-octopus-vulgaris-paralarvae-fed-live-zooplankton
#13
Manuel Nande, Pablo Presa, Álvaro Roura, Paul L R Andrews, Montse Pérez
Octopus vulgaris is a species of great interest in research areas such as neurobiology, ethology, and ecology but also a candidate species for aquaculture as a food resource and for alleviating the fishing pressure on its wild populations. This study aimed to characterize the predatory behavior of O. vulgaris paralarvae and to quantify their digestive activity. Those processes were affordable using the video-recording analysis of 3 days post-hatching (dph), mantle-transparent paralarvae feeding on 18 types of live zooplanktonic prey...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859516/novel-in-shoe-exoskeleton-for-offloading-of-forefoot-pressure-for-individuals-with-diabetic-foot-pathology
#14
Mark C Roser, Paul K Canavan, Bijan Najafi, Marcy Cooper Watchman, Kairavi Vaishnav, David G Armstrong
INTRODUCTION: Infected diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of lower limb amputation. This study evaluated the ability of in-shoe exoskeletons to redirect forces outside of body and through an exoskeleton as an effective means of offloading plantar pressure, the major contributing factor of ulceration. METHODS: We compared pressure in the forefoot and hind-foot of participants (n = 5) shod with novel exoskeleton footwear. Plantar pressure readings were taken during a 6-m walk at participant's self-selected speed, and five strides were averaged...
September 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857769/robot-assisted-training-of-arm-and-hand-movement-shows-functional-improvements-for-incomplete-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Gerard E Francisco, Nuray Yozbatiran, Jeffrey Berliner, Marcia K OʼMalley, Ali Utku Pehlivan, Zahra Kadivar, Kyle Fitle, Corwin Boake
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility, tolerability, and effectiveness of robotic-assisted arm training in incomplete chronic tetraplegia. DESIGN: Pretest/posttest/follow-up was conducted. Ten individuals with chronic cervical spinal cord injury were enrolled. Participants performed single degree-of-freedom exercise of upper limbs at an intensity of 3-hr per session for 3 times a week for 4 wks with MAHI Exo-II. Arm and hand function tests (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, Action Research Arm Test), strength of upper limb (upper limb motor score, grip, and pinch strength), and independence in daily living activities (Spinal Cord Independence Measure II) were performed at baseline, end of training, and 6 mos later...
October 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842624/characterization-and-rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-chitin-synthase-a-in-the-potato-tuber-moth-phthorimaea-operculella
#16
Ahmed M A Mohammed, Mervat R Diab, Mohamed Abdelsattar, Sayed M S Khalil
Chitin is a major component of insect exoskeleton, tracheal system and gut where it is synthesized by chitin synthase (CHS) enzymes. In this paper, we report the isolation and RNAi of chitin synthase A (PhoCHSA) from the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella. The full-length cDNA of PhoCHSA is 5,627 bp with 4,689 bp open reading frame coding for 1,563 amino acids. Structural analysis of conceptual amino acid translation showed three distinct regions found in all known insect CHS proteins; N-terminus region having 9 transmembrane helices, middle catalytic region containing several conserved domains identified in insect CHS enzymes, and C-terminus region containing seven transmembrane spans...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835518/a-lower-extremity-exoskeleton-improves-knee-extension-in-children-with-crouch-gait-from-cerebral-palsy
#17
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
The ability to walk contributes considerably to physical health and overall well-being, particularly in children with motor disability, and is therefore prioritized as a rehabilitation goal. However, half of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP), the most prevalent childhood movement disorder, cease to walk in adulthood. Robotic gait trainers have shown positive outcomes in initial studies, but these clinic-based systems are limited to short-term programs of insufficient length to maintain improved function in a lifelong disability such as CP...
August 23, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#18
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814061/modular-one-to-many-clutchable-actuator-for-a-soft-elbow-exosuit
#19
M Canesi, M Xiloyannis, A Ajoudani, A Biechi, L Masia
Exoskeletons have been developed for a wide range of applications, from the military to the medical field, with the aim of augmenting human performance or compensating for neuromuscular deficiencies. However, to empower the high number of degrees of freedom of the human body, they often employ a high number of motors, increasing the size, weight and power consumption of the system. We hereby present an actuation strategy to empower our elbow exosuit that adopts a single motor to drive multiple, independently actuated, degrees of freedom...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814059/biomot-exoskeleton-towards-a-smart-wearable-robot-for-symbiotic-human-robot-interaction
#20
Tomislav Bacek, Marta Moltedo, Kevin Langlois, Guillermo Asin Prieto, Maria Carmen Sanchez-Villamanan, Jose Gonzalez-Vargas, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber, Juan C Moreno
This paper presents design of a novel modular lower-limb gait exoskeleton built within the FP7 BioMot project. Exoskeleton employs a variable stiffness actuator in all 6 joints, a directional-flexibility structure and a novel physical humanrobot interfacing, which allows it to deliver the required output while minimally constraining user's gait by providing passive degrees of freedom. Due to modularity, the exoskeleton can be used as a full lower-limb orthosis, a single-joint orthosis in any of the three joints, and a two-joint orthosis in a combination of any of the two joints...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
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