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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917920/transcriptome-and-long-noncoding-rna-sequencing-of-three-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-released-from-the-human-colon-cancer-lim1863-cell-line
#1
Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Hong Ji, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Keiichi Izumikawa, Hideaki Ishikawa, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Richard J Simpson
Previously we reported that LIM1863 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells secrete three distinct extracellular vesicle subtypes - two subpopulations of exosomes (apical EpCAM-Exos and basolateral A33-Exos) and shed microvesicles (sMVs) - with distinct protein and miRNA signatures. Here, we extend our omics approach to understand the fundamental role of LIM1863-derived EVs by performing a comprehensive analysis of their mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) using RNA-Seq. We show that 2,389 mRNAs, 317 pseudogene transcripts, 1,028 lncRNAs and 206 short non-coding RNAs selectively distributed to (i...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913289/damage-repair-and-regeneration-in-insect-cuticle-the-story-so-far-and-possibilities-for-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Eoin Parle, Jan-Henning Dirks, David Taylor
The exoskeleton of an insect can contain countless specializations across an individual, across developmental stages, and across the class Insecta. Hence, the exoskeleton's building material cuticle must perform a vast variety of functions. Cuticle displays a wide range of material properties which are determined by several known factors: the amount and orientation of the chitin fibres, the constituents and degree of cross-linking and hydration of the protein matrix, the relative amounts of exo- and endocuticle, and the shape of the structures themselves...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907191/trio-a-rho-family-gef-interacts-with-the-presynaptic-active-zone-proteins-piccolo-and-bassoon
#3
Ryan T Terry-Lorenzo, Viviana I Torres, Dhananjay Wagh, Jose Galaz, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Clarissa L Waites, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Richard J Reimer, Craig C Garner
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906043/exosomes-play-an-important-role-in-the-process-of-psoralen-reverse-multidrug-resistance-of-breast-cancer
#4
Xiaohong Wang, Chengfeng Xu, Yitong Hua, Leitao Sun, Kai Cheng, Zhongming Jia, Yong Han, Jianli Dong, Yuzhen Cui, Zhenlin Yang
BACKGROUND: Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901110/the-rodent-malaria-liver-stage-survives-in-the-rapamycin-induced-autophagosome-of-infected-hepa1-6-cells
#6
Chenghao Zhao, Taiping Liu, Taoli Zhou, Yong Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Ding, Kun Zhang, Wenyue Xu
It has been reported that non-selective autophagy of infected hepatocytes could facilitate the development of malaria in the liver stage, but the fate of parasites following selective autophagy of infected hepatocytes is still not very clear. Here, we confirmed that sporozoite infection can induce a selective autophagy-like process targeting EEFs (exo-erythrocytic forms) in Hepa1-6. Rapamycin treatment greatly enhanced this process in EEFs and non-selective autophagy of infected Hepa1-6 cells and enhanced the development of the malaria liver stage in vivo...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900528/the-thermophilic-biomass-degrading-fungus-thielavia-terrestris-co3bag1-produces-a-hyperthermophilic-and-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanase-with-exo-and-endo-activity
#7
Yolanda García-Huante, Maribel Cayetano-Cruz, Alejandro Santiago-Hernández, Claudia Cano-Ramírez, Rodolfo Marsch-Moreno, Jorge E Campos, Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio, Claudia G Benitez-Cardoza, Sergio Trejo-Estrada, María Eugenia Hidalgo-Lara
A hyperthermophilic and thermostable xylanase of 82 kDa (TtXynA) was purified from the culture supernatant of T. terrestris Co3Bag1, grown on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and characterized biochemically. TtXynA showed optimal xylanolytic activity at pH 5.5 and at 85 °C, and retained more than 90% of its activity at a broad pH range (4.5-10). The enzyme is highly thermostable with a half-life of 23.1 days at 65 °C, and active in the presence of several metal ions. Circular dichroism spectra strongly suggest the enzyme gains secondary structures when temperature increases...
November 29, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897983/effects-of-polysaccharide-elicitors-from-endophytic-fusarium-oxysporum-fat9-on-the-growth-flavonoid-accumulation-and-antioxidant-property-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-sprout-cultures
#8
Lingyun Zhong, Bei Niu, Lin Tang, Fang Chen, Gang Zhao, Jianglin Zhao
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895889/amino-acid-transporters-implicated-in-endocytosis-of-buchnera-during-symbiont-transmission-in-the-pea-aphid
#9
Hsiao-Ling Lu, Chun-Che Chang, Alex C C Wilson
BACKGROUND: Many insects host their obligate, maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria in specialized cells called bacteriocytes. One of the best-studied insect nutritional endosymbioses is that of the aphid and its endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola. Aphids and Buchnera are metabolically and developmentally integrated, but the molecular mechanisms underlying Buchnera transmission and coordination with aphid development remain largely unknown. Previous work using electron microscopy to study aphid asexual embryogenesis has revealed that Buchnera transmission involves exocytosis from a maternal bacteriocyte followed by endocytotic uptake by a blastula...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894990/microevolutionary-analyses-of-pythium-insidiosum-isolates-of-brazil-and-thailand-based-on-exo-1-3-%C3%AE-glucanase-gene
#10
Tatiana Corrêa Ribeiro, Carla Weiblen, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Sônia de Avila Botton, Lizandra Jaqueline Robe, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Danieli Urach Monteiro, Douglas Miotto Lorensetti, Janio Morais Santurio
Pythium insidiosum is an important oomycete due to its ability to infect humans and animals. It causes pythiosis, a disease of difficult treatment that occurs more frequently in humans in Thailand and in horses in Brazil. Since cell-wall components are frequently related to host shifts, we decided here to use sequences from the exo-1.3-β-glucanase gene (exo1), which encodes an immunodominant protein putatively involved in cell wall remodeling, to investigate the microevolutionary relationships of Brazilian and Thai isolates of P...
November 25, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888333/fusion-of-agarase-and-neoagarobiose-hydrolase-for-mono-sugar-production-from-agar
#11
Bassam Alkotaini, Nam Soo Han, Beom Soo Kim
In enzymatic saccharification of agar, endo- and exo-agarases together with neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) are important key enzymes for the sequential hydrolysis reactions. In this study, a bifunctional endo/exo-agarase was fused with NABH for production of mono-sugars (D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose) from agar using only one fusion enzyme. Two fusion enzymes with either bifunctional agarase (Sco3476) or NABH (Zg4663) at the N-terminus, Sco3476-Zg4663 (SZ) and Zg4663-Sco3476 (ZS), were constructed...
November 25, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880762/unexpected-diversity-in-socially-synchronized-rhythms-of-shorebirds
#12
Martin Bulla, Mihai Valcu, Adriaan M Dokter, Alexei G Dondua, András Kosztolányi, Anne L Rutten, Barbara Helm, Brett K Sandercock, Bruce Casler, Bruno J Ens, Caleb S Spiegel, Chris J Hassell, Clemens Küpper, Clive Minton, Daniel Burgas, David B Lank, David C Payer, Egor Y Loktionov, Erica Nol, Eunbi Kwon, Fletcher Smith, H River Gates, Hana Vitnerová, Hanna Prüter, James A Johnson, James J H St Clair, Jean-François Lamarre, Jennie Rausch, Jeroen Reneerkens, Jesse R Conklin, Joanna Burger, Joe Liebezeit, Joël Bêty, Jonathan T Coleman, Jordi Figuerola, Jos C E W Hooijmeijer, José A Alves, Joseph A M Smith, Karel Weidinger, Kari Koivula, Ken Gosbell, Klaus-Michael Exo, Larry Niles, Laura Koloski, Laura McKinnon, Libor Praus, Marcel Klaassen, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Martin Sládeček, Megan L Boldenow, Michael I Goldstein, Miroslav Šálek, Nathan Senner, Nelli Rönkä, Nicolas Lecomte, Olivier Gilg, Orsolya Vincze, Oscar W Johnson, Paul A Smith, Paul F Woodard, Pavel S Tomkovich, Phil F Battley, Rebecca Bentzen, Richard B Lanctot, Ron Porter, Sarah T Saalfeld, Scott Freeman, Stephen C Brown, Stephen Yezerinac, Tamás Székely, Tomás Montalvo, Theunis Piersma, Vanessa Loverti, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Wim Tijsen, Bart Kempenaers
The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential mates, competitors, prey and predators. Individuals can temporally segregate their daily activities (for example, prey avoiding predators, subordinates avoiding dominants) or synchronize their activities (for example, group foraging, communal defence, pairs reproducing or caring for offspring)...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876596/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-glucans-from-pleurotus-albidus-a-promising-species-of-mushroom-for-farming-and-biomass-production
#13
Victor Costa Castro-Alves, Daniel Gomes, Nelson Menolli, Maurício Luís Sforça, João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento
Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874869/oriented-electric-fields-as-future-smart-reagents-in-chemistry
#14
Sason Shaik, Debasish Mandal, Rajeev Ramanan
Oriented external electric fields (OEEFs) as 'smart reagents' are no longer a theoretical dream. Here, we discuss the wide-ranging potential of using OEEFs to catalyse and control a variety of non-redox reactions and impart selectivity at will. An OEEF along the direction of electron reorganization (the so-called reaction axis) will catalyse nonpolar reactions by orders of magnitude, control regioselectivity and induce spin-state selectivity. Simply flipping the direction of the OEEF or orienting it off of the reaction axis, will control at will the endo/exo ratio in Diels-Alder reactions and steps in enzymatic cycles...
November 22, 2016: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872187/galactomannan-catabolism-conferred-by-a-polysaccharide-utilisation-locus-of-bacteroides-ovatus-enzyme-synergy-and-crystal-structure-of-a-%C3%AE-mannanase
#15
Viktoria Bågenholm, Sumitha K Reddy, Hanene Bouraoui, Johan Morrill, Evelina Kulcinskaja, Constance M Bahr, Oskar Aurelius, Theresa Rogers, Yao Xiao, Derek T Logan, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin, Henrik Stålbrand
A recently identified polysaccharide utilisation locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC8483 is transcriptionally upregulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two putative glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) β-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 α-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan binding proteins, confirmed by β-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864711/mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomal-micrornas-contribute-to-wound-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Dongdong Ti, Haojie Hao, Xiaobing Fu, Weidong Han
Clinical and experimental studies have highlighted the significance of inflammation in coordinating wound repair and regeneration. However, it remains challenging to control the inflammatory response and tolerance at systemic levels without causing toxicity to injured tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties and facilitate tissue repair by releasing exosomes, which generate a suitable microenvironment for inflammatory resolution. Exosomes contain several effective bioactive molecules and act as a cell-cell communication vehicle to influence cellular activities in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862951/characterization-and-evolution-of-the-spotted-gar-retina
#17
Joshua M Sukeena, Carlos A Galicia, Jacob D Wilson, Tim McGinn, Janette W Boughman, Barrie D Robison, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Deborah L Stenkamp, Peter G Fuerst
In this study, we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high-quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862800/alkenyl-arenes-as-dipolarophiles-in-catalytic-asymmetric-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-reactions-of-azomethine-ylides
#18
Ana Pascual-Escudero, Abel de Cózar, Fernando P Cossío, Javier Adrio, Juan C Carretero
The use of alkenyl arenes as dipolarophiles in the catalytic asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is reported. Under appropriate reaction conditions with a Cu(I) or Ag(I) catalyst either the exo or the endo adduct was obtained with high stereoselectivity. This process provides efficient access to highly enantiomerically enriched 4-aryl proline derivatives. The observed results are compatible with the blockage of one prochiral face of the 1,3-dipole, as well as with the efficient transmission of electrophilicity towards the terminal carbon atom of the dipolarophile...
November 11, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859553/gene-expression-and-activity-profiling-reveal-a-significant-contribution-of-exo-phosphotransferases-to-the-extracellular-nucleotides-metabolism-in-huvec-endothelial-cells
#19
Magdalena Wujak, Anna Hetmann, Dorota Porowińska, Katarzyna Roszek
Purinergic signaling maintains local tissue homeostasis in blood vessels via the regulation of vascular tone, blood platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, differentiation as well as inflammatory responses. Extracellular purines are important signaling molecules in the vasculature, and both purine-hydrolysing and -phosphorylating enzymes are considered to selectively govern extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside metabolism. Recent studies have provided some evidence for the existence of these enzymes in a soluble form in human blood and their secretion into the extracellular space under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854040/expression-and-characterization-of-a-novel-antifungal-exo-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanase-from-chaetomium-cupreum
#20
Cheng Jiang, Jinzhu Song, Hua Cong, Junzheng Zhang, Qian Yang
A novel β-1,3-glucanase gene, designated Ccglu17A, was cloned from the biological control fungus Chaetomium cupreum Ame. Its 1626-bp open reading frame encoded 541 amino acids. The corresponding amino acid sequence showed highest identity (67 %) with a glycoside hydrolase family 17 β-1,3-glucanase from Chaetomium globosum. The recombinant protein Ccglu17A was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with 10.1-fold purification and 47.8 % recovery yield. The protein's molecular mass was approximately 65 kDa, and its maximum activity appeared at pH 5...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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