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Xiao-Mei Shi, Gao-Chao Fan, Xueying Tang, Qingming Shen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Sensitive and specific detection of DNA is of great significance for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, an effective cascade signal amplification strategy was introduced into photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) DNA. This proposed signal amplification strategy integrates λ-exonuclease (λ-Exo) aided target recycling with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and enzyme catalysis. In the presence of target DNA (tDNA) of HTLV-I, the designed hairpin DNA (h1 DNA) hybridized with tDNA, subsequently recognized and cleaved by λ-Exo to set free tDNA...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Lu Ren, Xiong-Ke Hu, Yi-Juan Tan, Yin Hu, Juan Luo, Yi-Wei Liu, Hao Yin, Jie Huang, Jia Cao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Hao-Ming Liu, Si-Yuan Tang, Ran Xu, Hui Xie
Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses...
2018: Theranostics
Chi Zhang, Huaigao Liu, Shangwu Chen, Yongkang Luo
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine exo-peptidase that can inactivate incretins by removing N-terminal dipeptides. Currently, inhibiting the DPP-IV activity is a common treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study is to investigate whether IADHFL, a novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptide identified from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), has the potential to modulate T2D. IADHFL remained stable after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and significantly decreased the activity and expression of both soluble and membrane-bound DPP-IV after 24 h and 48 h of treatment...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Jinfeng Wang, Jianchang Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Libing Liu, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Wanzhe Yuan
A rapid and specific real-time reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-RPA) was developed to detect the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in this study. The primers and exo probe were designed to be specific for a portion of spike (S) gene conserved in TGEV, but absent in the closely related porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). The amplification was performed at 40°C for 20min. The assay could only detect the TGEV, and there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sadhanendu Samanta, Alakananda Hajra
A facile and efficient copper-catalyzed cascade annulation of an imidazoheterocycle with salicylaldehyde, piperidine, and terminal alkyne was developed to afford unsymmetrical biheteroaryl derivatives. A variety of biheteroaryl structural motifs containing furans and imidazoheterocycles have been synthesized in ambient air in high yields. The experimental results suggest that the reaction proceeds through a sequential non-radical 5-exo-dig cyclization process.
March 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jonathan L Kuo, Chris Lorenc, Janine M Abuyuan, Jack R Norton
Radical cyclizations are most often achieved in the presence of a radical initiator and Bu3 SnH, but environmental considerations demand that alternative reagents be developed - ones that can serve as a synthetic equivalents to the hydrogen atom. We have revisited [CpV(CO)3 H]- , a known replacement for Bu3 SnH, and found that it can be used catalytically under H2 in the presence of a base. We have carried out the tin-free and catalytic radical cyclization of alkyl iodide substrates. The reactions are atom-efficient and the conditions are mild, with broad tolerance for functional groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
J B Albert, G Anton, I Badhrees, P S Barbeau, R Bayerlein, D Beck, V Belov, M Breidenbach, T Brunner, G F Cao, W R Cen, C Chambers, B Cleveland, M Coon, A Craycraft, W Cree, T Daniels, M Danilov, S J Daugherty, J Daughhetee, J Davis, S Delaquis, A Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, R DeVoe, T Didberidze, J Dilling, A Dolgolenko, M J Dolinski, W Fairbank, J Farine, S Feyzbakhsh, P Fierlinger, D Fudenberg, R Gornea, K Graham, G Gratta, C Hall, E V Hansen, J Hoessl, P Hufschmidt, M Hughes, A Jamil, M J Jewell, A Johnson, S Johnston, A Karelin, L J Kaufman, T Koffas, S Kravitz, R Krücken, A Kuchenkov, K S Kumar, Y Lan, D S Leonard, G S Li, S Li, C Licciardi, Y H Lin, R MacLellan, T Michel, B Mong, D Moore, K Murray, R Nelson, O Njoya, A Odian, I Ostrovskiy, A Piepke, A Pocar, F Retière, P C Rowson, J J Russell, S Schmidt, A Schubert, D Sinclair, V Stekhanov, M Tarka, T Tolba, R Tsang, P Vogel, J-L Vuilleumier, M Wagenpfeil, A Waite, T Walton, M Weber, L J Wen, U Wichoski, G Wrede, L Yang, Y-R Yen, O Ya Zeldovich, J Zettlemoyer, T Ziegler
Results from a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) of ^{136}Xe are presented using the first year of data taken with the upgraded EXO-200 detector. Relative to previous searches by EXO-200, the energy resolution of the detector has been improved to σ/E=1.23%, the electric field in the drift region has been raised by 50%, and a system to suppress radon in the volume between the cryostat and lead shielding has been implemented. In addition, analysis techniques that improve topological discrimination between 0νββ and background events have been developed...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Milad Rayka, Mohammad Goli, Shant Shahbazian
A set of effective electronic-only Kohn-Sham (EKS) equations are derived for the muonic molecules (containing a positively charged muon), which are completely equivalent to the coupled electronic-muonic Kohn-Sham equations derived previously within the framework of the nuclear-electronic orbital density functional theory (NEO-DFT). The EKS equations contain effective non-coulombic external potentials depending on parameters describing the muon's vibration, which are optimized during the solution of the EKS equations making the muon's KS orbital reproducible...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yao-Liang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Hong Yu, Neal Weintraub, Xiao-Long Wang, Yao-Liang Tang
Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are endogenous cardiac stromal cells that play a role in heart repair after injury. C-MSC-derived exosomes (Exo) have shown protective effects against apoptosis induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Suxiao Jiuxin pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used in China for the treatment of acute myocardial ischemia, which contains tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR) as major components. In this study, we investigated whether SJP treatment affected exosome release from C-MSCs in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Katharine Bailey, Nancie Im-Bolter
Epilepsy is the number one neurological disorder in children in western society. Childhood epilepsy is highly comorbid with psychopathology. Although neurological and biological factors may partially explain the increased risk of psychopathology in children with epilepsy, social contextual factors are also important to understanding development of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. The current paper examines the development of children with epilepsy utilizing Bronfenbrenner's micro-, meso-, exo-, and macrosystem social contexts...
March 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Yingqian Peng, Edouard Baulier, Yifeng Ke, Alejandra Young, Novruz B Ahmedli, Steven D Schwartz, Debora B Farber
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by virtually every cell of all organisms are involved in processes of intercellular communication through the delivery of their functional mRNAs, proteins and bioactive lipids. We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell-released EVs (mESEVs) are able to transfer their content to different target retinal cells, inducing morphological and biochemical changes in them. The main objective of this paper is to characterize EVs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESEVs) and investigate the effects that they have on cultured retinal glial, progenitor Müller cells, which are known to give rise to retinal neurons under specific conditions...
2018: PloS One
Juan Pan, Minakshi Bhardwaj, Bo Zhang, Wei-Chen Chang, Christopher Lewis Schardl, Carsten Krebs, Robert B Grossman, J Martin Bollinger
The core of the loline family of insecticidal alkaloids is the bicyclic pyrrolizidine unit with an additional strained ether bridge between carbons 2 and 7. Previously reported genetic and in vivo biochemical analyses showed that the presumptive iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent (Fe/2OG) oxygenase, LolO, is required for installation of the ether bridge upon the pathway intermediate, 1- exo-acetamidopyrrolizidine (AcAP). Here we show that LolO is, in fact, solely responsible for this biosynthetic four-electron oxidation...
March 14, 2018: Biochemistry
J Hou, W Jiang, L Zhu, S Zhong, H Zhang, J Li, S Zhou, S Yang, Y He, D Wang, X Chen, F Deng, Q Zhang, J Wang, J Hu, W Zhang, L Ding, J Zhao, J Tang
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs) with a closed annular structure. Until next-generation sequencing (NGS) is developed, the misunderstanding of circRNAs 'splicing error' has changed, and the mysterious veil of circRNAs has been revealed. NGS provides an approach to investigate circRNAs. Many scholars point out that circRNAs may play an important role in many diseases, especially cancer. At the same time, exosomes, as a kind of extracellular vesicles loaded with many contents, are a hotspot in recent years...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Diego Javier Jiménez, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Joana Falcão Salles
Plant biomass (PB) is an important source of sugars useful for biofuel production, whose degradation efficiency depends on synergistic and dynamic interactions of different enzymes. Here, using a metatranscriptomics-based approach, we explored the expression of PB-degrading enzymes in a five-species synthetic bacterial consortium during cultivation on sugarcane bagasse as a unique carbon source. By analyzing the temporal expression dynamics of a selection of enzymes we revealed the functional role of each consortium member and disentangled the potential interactions between them...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yan Sun, Xiao-Li Liu, Dai Zhang, Fang Liu, Yu-Jing Cheng, Yue Ma, Yu-Jie Zhou, Ying-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intraplaque angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels mediated by endothelial cells, contributes to plaque growth, intraplaque hemorrhage, and thromboembolic events. Platelet-derived exosomes (PLT-EXOs) affect angiogenesis in multiple ways. The ability of miR-126, one of the best-characterized miRNAs that regulates angiogenesis, carried by PLT-EXOs to influence angiogenesis via the regulation of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Sean A Newmister, Shasha Li, Marc Garcia-Borràs, Jacob N Sanders, Song Yang, Andrew N Lowell, Fengan Yu, Janet L Smith, Robert M Williams, K N Houk, David H Sherman
Hapalindole alkaloids are a structurally diverse class of cyanobacterial natural products defined by their varied polycyclic ring systems and diverse biological activities. These complex metabolites are generated from a common biosynthetic intermediate by the Stig cyclases in three mechanistic steps: a rare Cope rearrangement, 6-exo-trig cyclization, and electrophilic aromatic substitution. Here we report the structure of HpiC1, a Stig cyclase that catalyzes the formation of 12-epi-hapalindole U in vitro. The 1...
March 12, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Alicia Del Prado, Elsa Franco-Echevarría, Beatriz González, Luis Blanco, Margarita Salas, Miguel de Vega
Most replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs) are endowed with a 3'-5' exonuclease activity to proofread the polymerization errors, governed by four universally conserved aspartate residues belonging to the Exo I, Exo II, and Exo III motifs. These residues coordinate the two metal ions responsible for the hydrolysis of the last phosphodiester bond of the primer strand. Structural alignment of the conserved exonuclease domain of DNAPs from families A, B, and C has allowed us to identify an additional and invariant aspartate, located between motifs Exo II and Exo III...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francisco Esteban, Wioleta Cieślik, Enrique M Arpa, Andrea Guerrero-Corella, Sergio Díaz-Tendero, Josefina Perles, José A Fernández-Salas, Alberto Fraile, José Alemán
An organocatalytic strategy for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrrolidines with monoactivated azomethine ylides in high enantiomeric excess and excellent exo/endo selectivity is presented. The key to success is the intramolecular activation via hydrogen bonding through an o -hydroxy group, which allows the dipolar cycloaddition to take place in the presence of azomethine ylides bearing only one activating group. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the azomethine ylide and the intermolecular hydrogen bond with the catalyst have been demonstrated by DFT calculations and mechanistic proofs to be crucial for the reaction to proceed...
March 2, 2018: ACS Catalysis
Baomiao Ding, Chenguang Liu, Qinghua Wu, Yun Wang, Li Li, Hualin Yang
In this paper, we describe a simple and highly sensitive fluorescence strategy of mercury ions based on exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided target recycling amplification to ensure sensitivity. With an ultra high sensitivity (1 pM), our strategy has been simple and cost-effective, which does not need any artificial modification fluorescence groups, and can be carried out in a pot. It also shows excellent selectivity. Therefore, our new method provides an effective platform for mercury-ion detection.
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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