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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684686/a-comprehensive-profile-and-inter-individual-variations-analysis-of-the-human-normal-amniotic-fluid-proteome
#1
Xiang Liu, Yijun Song, Zhengguang Guo, Wei Sun, Juntao Liu
Amniotic fluid contains large amounts of proteins produced by amnion epithelial cells, fetal tissues, fetal excretions and placental tissues; thus, it is an important potential source of biomarkers for identifying fetal pathologies. In this study, a pooled AF sample from 7 healthy volunteers was used to provide a comprehensive profile of normal human AF proteome using immunoaffinity depletion of 14 high-abundance proteins. Each individual AF sample was used to analyze inter-individual variations with iTRAQ method...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682554/differential-expression-patterns-of-eph-receptors-and-ephrin-ligands-in-human-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Chung-Ting Jimmy Kou, Raj P Kandpal
Eph receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are activated by ephrin ligands that either are anchored to the membrane or contain a transmembrane domain. These molecules play important roles in the development of multicellular organisms, and the physiological functions of these receptor-ligand pairs have been extensively documented in axon guidance, neuronal development, vascular patterning, and inflammation during tissue injury. The recognition that aberrant regulation and expression of these molecules lead to alterations in proliferative, migratory, and invasive potential of a variety of human cancers has made them potential targets for cancer therapeutics...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681516/super-obese-patient-derived-ipsc-hypothalamic-neurons-exhibit-obesogenic-signatures-and-hormone-responses
#3
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Marquis P Vawter, Jie Tang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Yizhou Wang, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
The hypothalamus contains neurons that integrate hunger and satiety endocrine signals from the periphery and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. The limited availability of human hypothalamic neurons hampers our understanding of obesity disease mechanisms. To address this, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple normal body mass index (BMI; BMI ≤ 25) subjects and super-obese (OBS) donors (BMI ≥ 50) with polygenic coding variants in obesity-associated genes...
April 6, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678816/four-specific-ig-domains-in-unc-52-perlecan-function-with-nid-1-nidogen-during-dendrite-morphogenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Kevin Celestrin, Carlos Díaz-Balzac, Leo T H Tang, Brian D Ackley, Hannes E Bülow
The extracellular matrix is essential for various aspects of nervous system patterning. For example, sensory dendrites in flies, worms and fish have been shown to rely on coordinated interactions of tissues with extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that the conserved basement membrane protein UNC-52/Perlecan is required for establishing the correct number of the highly ordered dendritic trees in the somatosensory neuron PVD in Caenorhabditis elegans. This function of UNC-52/Perlecan is dependent on four conserved immunoglobulin domains, but independent of the known functions of UNC-52/Perlecan in mediating muscle-skin attachment...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677516/structural-basis-for-teneurin-function-in-circuit-wiring-a-toxin-motif-at-the-synapse
#5
Jingxian Li, Moran Shalev-Benami, Richard Sando, Xian Jiang, Amanuel Kibrom, Jie Wang, Katherine Leon, Christopher Katanski, Olha Nazarko, Yue C Lu, Thomas C Südhof, Georgios Skiniotis, Demet Araç
Teneurins (TENs) are cell-surface adhesion proteins with critical roles in tissue development and axon guidance. Here, we report the 3.1-Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the human TEN2 extracellular region (ECR), revealing a striking similarity to bacterial Tc-toxins. The ECR includes a large β barrel that partially encapsulates a C-terminal domain, which emerges to the solvent through an opening in the mid-barrel region. An immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain seals the bottom of the barrel while a β propeller is attached in a perpendicular orientation...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674954/bioinformatic-integration-of-molecular-networks-and-major-pathways-involved-in-mice-cochlear-and-vestibular-supporting-cells
#6
Teresa Requena, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Jose A Lopez-Escamez
Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674246/a-microrna-expression-signature-of-the-postprandial-state-in-response-to-a-high-saturated-fat-challenge
#7
Sergio Lopez, Beatriz Bermudez, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana
The postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is an important and largely silent disturbance involved in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. Exaggerated and prolonged states of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are frequently related to the ingestion of meals enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that function as gene regulators and play significant roles in both health and disease. However, differential miRNA expression between fasting and postprandial states has never been elucidated...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669897/axon-growth-regulation-by-a-bistable-molecular-switch
#9
Pranesh Padmanabhan, Geoffrey J Goodhill
For the brain to function properly, its neurons must make the right connections during neural development. A key aspect of this process is the tight regulation of axon growth as axons navigate towards their targets. Neuronal growth cones at the tips of developing axons switch between growth and paused states during axonal pathfinding, and this switching behaviour determines the heterogeneous axon growth rates observed during brain development. The mechanisms controlling this switching behaviour, however, remain largely unknown...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668850/altered-neocortical-gene-expression-brain-overgrowth-and-functional-over-connectivity-in-chd8-haploinsufficient-mice
#10
Philipp Suetterlin, Shaun Hurley, Conor Mohan, Kimberley L H Riegman, Marco Pagani, Angela Caruso, Jacob Ellegood, Alberto Galbusera, Ivan Crespo-Enriquez, Caterina Michetti, Yohan Yee, Robert Ellingford, Olivier Brock, Alessio Delogu, Philippa Francis-West, Jason P Lerch, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Alessandro Gozzi, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
Truncating CHD8 mutations are amongst the highest confidence risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified to date. Here, we report that Chd8 heterozygous mice display increased brain size, motor delay, hypertelorism, pronounced hypoactivity, and anomalous responses to social stimuli. Whereas gene expression in the neocortex is only mildly affected at midgestation, over 600 genes are differentially expressed in the early postnatal neocortex. Genes involved in cell adhesion and axon guidance are particularly prominent amongst the downregulated transcripts...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666812/tumor-progression-the-neuronal-input
#11
REVIEW
Marco Arese, Federico Bussolino, Margherita Pergolizzi, Laura Bizzozero, Davide Pascal
One of the challenges of cancer is its heterogeneity and rapid capacity to adapt. Notwithstanding significant progress in the last decades in genomics and precision medicine, new molecular targets and therapies appear highly necessary. One way to approach this complex problem is to consider cancer in the context of its cellular and molecular microenvironment, which includes nerves. The peripheral nerves, the topic of this review, modulate the biological behavior of the cancer cells and influence tumor progression, including the events related to the metastatic spread of the disease...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663710/the-amniote-oculomotor-complex
#12
V Company, J A Moreno-Bravo, A Perez-Balaguer, E Puelles
The Oculomotor complex is a combination of somatic and parasympatethic neurons. The correct development and wiring of this cranial pair is essential to perform basic functions: eyeball and eyelid movements, pupillary constriction and lens accommodation. The improper formation or function of this nucleus leads pathologies such as strabismus. We describe the oculomotor organization and function in different vertebrate brains, including chick, mouse and human. The morphological localization is detailed, as well as the spatial relation with the trochlear nucleus in order to adjust some misleading anatomical topographic descriptions...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662228/cas-adaptor-proteins-coordinate-sensory-axon-fasciculation
#13
Tyler A Vahedi-Hunter, Jason A Estep, Kylee A Rosette, Michael L Rutlin, Kevin M Wright, Martin M Riccomagno
Development of complex neural circuits like the peripheral somatosensory system requires intricate mechanisms to ensure axons make proper connections. While much is known about ligand-receptor pairs required for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axon guidance, very little is known about the cytoplasmic effectors that mediate cellular responses triggered by these guidance cues. Here we show that members of the Cas family of cytoplasmic signaling adaptors are highly phosphorylated in central projections of the DRG as they enter the spinal cord...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662125/netrin-1-promotes-diabetic-corneal-wound-healing-through-molecular-mechanisms-mediated-via-the-adenosine-2b-receptor
#14
Yangyang Zhang, Peng Chen, Guohu Di, Xia Qi, Qingjun Zhou, Hua Gao
Netrins are secreted chemoattractants with the roles in axon guidance, cell migration and epithelial plasticity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of netrin-1 in the regulation of corneal epithelial wound healing, inflammation response and nerve fiber regeneration in diabetic mice and cultured corneal epithelial cells. In diabetic mice, the expression of netrin-1 was decreased when compared with that of normal mice. Furthermore, high glucose blocked the wounding-induced up-regulation of netrin-1 expression in corneal epithelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660433/slit2-robo2-signaling-modulates-the-fibrogenic-activity-and-migration-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#15
Zhiping Zeng, Yujing Wu, Yirong Cao, Ziying Yuan, Yuanqing Zhang, David Y Zhang, Daisuke Hasegawa, Scott L Friedman, Jinsheng Guo
BACKGROUND & AIM: Slit/Robo signaling was originally identified as a repulsive guidance cue in regulating axon branching and neuronal migration. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the key fibrogenic cells in the liver, which are migratory when activated, and express neural crest markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of Slit/Robo signaling in liver fibrogenesis and in HSCs. KEY FINDINGS: By transcriptomic analysis it was found that axon guidance signaling pathways were significantly upregulated in both diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced experimental liver fibrosis...
April 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649983/ncx-db-a-unified-resource-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger-super-family
#16
Katrin Bode, Damien M O'Halloran
Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity high-capacity transporters that mediate Ca2+ extrusion by coupling Ca2+ efflux to the influx of Na+ ions. The Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers form a super-family comprised of three branches each differing in ion-substrate selectivity: Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+ /Ca2+ /K+ exchangers, and Ca2+ /cation exchangers. Their primary function is to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis and play a particularly important role in excitable cells that experience transient Ca2+ fluxes. Research into the role and activity of Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers has focused extensively on the cardio-vascular system, however, growing evidence suggests that Na+ /Ca2+ exchangers play a key role in neuronal processes such as memory formation, learning, oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuroprotection during brain ischemia and axon guidance...
April 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643223/nerve-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-label-free-multiphoton-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-investigation
#17
Pamela Imperadore, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch, Graziano Fiorito
Octopus and cephalopods are able to regenerate injured tissues. Recent advancements in the study of regeneration in cephalopods appear promising encompassing different approaches helping to decipher cellular and molecular machinery involved in the process. However, lack of specific markers to investigate degenerative/regenerative phenomena and inflammatory events occurring after damage is limiting these studies. Label-free multiphoton microscopy is applied for the first time to the transected pallial nerve of Octopus vulgaris Various optical contrast methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been used...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643068/hydrogen-peroxide-is-a-neuronal-alarmin-that-triggers-specific-rnas-local-translation-of-annexin-a2-and-cytoskeletal-remodeling-in-schwann-cells
#18
Samuele Negro, Marco Stazi, Marta Marchioretto, Toma Tebaldi, Umberto Rodella, Elisa Duregotti, Volker Gerke, Alessandro Quattrone, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni, Gabriella Viero
Schwann cells are key players in neuro-regeneration: they sense alarm signals released by degenerating nerve terminals and differentiate toward a pro-regenerative phenotype, with phagocytosis of nerve debris and nerve guidance. At the murine neuromuscular junction, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a key signal of Schwann cells activation in response to a variety of nerve injuries. Here we report that Schwann cells exposed to low doses of H2 O2 rewire the expression of several RNAs at both transcriptional and translational levels...
April 11, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642996/retraction-a-mathematical-model-explains-saturating-axon-guidance-responses-to-molecular-gradients
#19
Huyen Nguyen, Peter Dayan, Zac Pujic, Justin Cooper-White, Geoffrey J Goodhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627918/protective-effect-of-moderate-exogenous-electric-field-stimulation-on-activating-netrin-1-dcc-expression-against-mechanical-stretch-induced-injury-in-spinal-cord-neurons
#20
Meili Liu, Chuanwei Yin, Zhengtai Jia, Kun Li, Zhifa Zhang, Yuchen Zhao, Xianghui Gong, Xiaoyu Liu, Ping Li, Yubo Fan
Nerve cells detect and respond to electric field stimulation and extrinsic chemical guidance cues during development and regeneration; therefore, the development and optimization of an approach for functional neuronal regeneration are necessary for a nerve injury. In this study, we proposed using electric field stimulation to repair a nerve injury triggered by serious mechanical stretch loading. A device that provides continuous mechanical stretch and constant electric field stimulation was designed. Primary dissociated spinal cord neurons were stimulated by mechanical stretch (tensile strain 2...
April 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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