keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

axon guidance

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639940/genetic-specification-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-the-diaphragm-muscles-and-their-motor-innervation
#1
Camille Charoy, Sarah Dinvaut, Yohan Chaix, Laurette Morlé, Isabelle Sanyas, Muriel Bozon, Karine Kindbeiter, Bénédicte Durand, Jennifer M Skidmore, Lies De Groef, Motoaki Seki, Lieve Moons, Christiana Ruhrberg, James F Martin, Donna M Martin, Julien Falk, Valerie Castellani
The diaphragm muscle is essential for breathing in mammals. Its asymmetric elevation during contraction correlates with morphological features suggestive of inherent left-right (L/R) asymmetry. Whether this asymmetry is due to L versus R differences in the muscle or in the phrenic nerve activity is unknown. Here, we have combined the analysis of genetically modified mouse models with transcriptomic analysis to show that both the diaphragm muscle and phrenic nerves have asymmetries, which can be established independently of each other during early embryogenesis in pathway instructed by Nodal, a morphogen that also conveys asymmetry in other organs...
June 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638915/-optogenetic-activation-of-dorsal-hippocampal-astrocytic-rac1-blocks-the-learning-of-associative-memory
#2
Xiao-Mu Guo, Zhao-Hui Liao, Ye-Zheng Tao, Fei-Fei Wang, Lan Ma
Rac1 belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, and plays important roles in the brain function. It affects the cell migration and axon guidance via regulating the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. However, the effect of its dynamic activation in regulating physiological function remains unclear. Recently, a photoactivatable analogue of Rac1 (PA-Rac1) has been developed, allowing the activation of Rac1 by the specific wavelength of light in living cells. Thus, we constructed recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) of PA-Rac1 and its light-insensitive mutant PA-Rac1-C450A under the control of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (mGFAP) promoter to manipulate Rac1 activity in astrocytes by optical stimulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637841/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-mediates-the-sema3a-induced-cortical-basal-dendritic-arborization-through-the-activation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#3
Fumio Nakamura, Takako Okada, Maria Shishikura, Noriko Uetani, Masahiko Taniguchi, Takeshi Yagi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Toshio Ohshima, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter
Leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) class protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are critical for axonal guidance; however, their relation to specific guidance cues is poorly defined. We here show that PTP-3, LAR homologue in C. elegans, is involved in axon guidance regulated by Sema2A-signaling. PTPδ, one of vertebrate LAR class PTPs, participates in Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse response of primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from M. musculus embryos. In vivo, however, the contribution of PTPδ in Sema3A-regualted axon guidance was minimal...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637694/dendritic-eph-organizes-dendrodendritic-segregation-in-discrete-olfactory-map-formation-in-drosophila
#4
Marie Anzo, Sayaka Sekine, Shirin Makihara, Kinhong Chao, Masayuki Miura, Takahiro Chihara
Proper function of the neural network results from the precise connections between axons and dendrites of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, respectively. In the Drosophila olfactory system, the dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) stereotypically target one of ∼50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center in the brain, and form synapses with the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we show that Eph and Ephrin, the well-known axon guidance molecules, instruct the dendrodendritic segregation during the discrete olfactory map formation...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#5
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629798/proteomic-analysis-of-mesenchymal-to-schwann-cell-transdifferentiation
#6
Anup D Sharma, Jayme Wiederin, Metin Uz, Pawel Ciborowski, Surya K Mallapragada, Howard E Gendelman, Donald S Sakaguchi
While transplantation of Schwann cells facilitates axon regeneration, remyelination and repair after peripheral nerve injury clinical use is limited by cell bioavailability. We posit that such limitation in cell access can be overcome by the use of autologous bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As MSCs can transdifferentiate to Schwann cell-phenotypes and accelerate nerve regeneration we undertook proteomic evaluation of the cells to uncover the protein contents that affects Schwann cell formulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628896/cholinergic-neuron-gene-expression-differences-captured-by-translational-profiling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Paul M McKeever, TaeHyung Kim, Andrew R Hesketh, Laura MacNair, Denise Miletic, Giorgio Favrin, Stephen G Oliver, Zhaolei Zhang, Peter St George-Hyslop, Janice Robertson
Cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a key component of disease pathogenicity and symptomatology. To explore the molecular basis of this cholinergic dysfunction, we paired translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) with RNA sequencing (TRAP-Seq) to identify the actively translating mRNAs in anterior forebrain cholinergic neurons in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the downregulation of 67 of 71 known cholinergic-related transcripts, consistent with cholinergic neuron dysfunction in TgCRND8 mice, as well as transcripts related to oxidative phosphorylation, neurotrophins, and ribosomal processing...
May 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#8
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621421/roles-of-dscam-in-axonal-decussation-and-fasciculation-of-chick-spinal-interneurons
#9
Oksana Cohen, Lilach Vald, Masahito Yamagata, Joshua R Sanes, Avihu Klar
The ventral midline of the embryonic neural tube, the floor plate, has a profound role in guiding axons during embryonic development. Floor plate-derived guidance cues attract or repel axons, depending on the neuronal subtype and developmental stage. Netrin-1 and its receptor, Deleted in Colon Carcinoma (DCC), are the key constituents of commissurral axons guidance cues toward the floor plate. Recent studies have implicated Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) as an additional Netrin-1 receptor. In this study, we examined the role of Dscam in guiding defined spinal dorsal interneuron populations...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615674/meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-snp-and-pathway-based-associations-for-facets-of-neuroticism
#10
Song E Kim, Han-Na Kim, Yeo-Jun Yun, Seong Gu Heo, Juhee Cho, Min-Jung Kwon, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, Hocheol Shin, Chol Shin, Nam H Cho, Yeon Ah Sung, Hyung-Lae Kim
Neuroticism is a heritable personality trait that is comprised of distinct sub-factors, or facets. Sub-factors of neuroticism are linked to different emotional states or psychiatric symptoms and studying the genetic variants associated with these facets may help reveal the biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. In the present study, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for six facets of neuroticism was performed in 5584 participants from three cohorts. Additionally, a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was conducted to find biological pathways associated with each facet...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614238/exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-unc5d-mutation-in-a-severe-myopic-anisometropia-family-a-case-report
#11
Lei Feng, Daizhan Zhou, Zhou Zhang, Lin He, Yun Liu, Yabo Yang
INTRODUCTION: Severe myopic anisometropia has been identified to have heritability, but the pathogenesis of anisometropia still remains obscure. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we presented a Chinese severe myopic anisometropia family with 5 members affected. Though using the exome sequencing, we identified a novel mutation in the UNC5D gene (c.1297C>T, p.R433C), which was predicted to have a damage effect on the protein function and kept highly conserved throughout evolution across species...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610953/a-thirty-year-quest-for-a-role-of-r-ras-in-cancer-from-an-oncogene-to-a-multitasking-gtpase
#12
Wai Nam Liu, Mingfei Yan, Andrew M Chan
Since the identification of R-Ras, which is the first Ras-related GTPase isolated based on sequence similarity to the classical RAS oncogene, more than 160 members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases have been identified and classified into the Ras, Rho, Rap, Rab, Ran, Arf, Rheb, RGK, Rad, Rit, and Miro subfamilies. R-Ras belongs to the Ras subfamily of small G-proteins, which are frequently implicated in cell growth and differentiation. Although the roles of R-Ras in cellular transformation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion have been extensively studied, the physiological function of this enigmatic G-protein was only revealed when a mouse strain deficient in R-Ras was generated...
June 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605383/quadruple-immunostaining-of-the-olfactory-bulb-for-visualization-of-olfactory-sensory-axon-molecular-identity-codes
#13
Naoki Ihara, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
The mouse olfactory system is often used to study mechanisms of neural circuit formation because of its simple anatomical structure. An Olfactory Sensory Neuron (OSN) is a bipolar cell with a single dendrite and a single unbranched axon. An OSN expresses only one Olfactory Receptor (OR) gene, OSNs expressing a given type of OR converge their axons to a few sets of invariant glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb (OB). A remarkable feature of OSN projection is that the expressed ORs play instructive roles in axonal projection...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602954/a-versatile-genetic-tool-to-study-midline-glia-function-in-the-drosophila-cns
#14
Swati Banerjee, E Mino, Elizabeth S Fisher, Manzoor A Bhat
Neuron-glial interactions are crucial for growth, guidance and ensheathment of axons across species. In the Drosophila CNS midline, neuron-glial interactions underlie ensheathment of commissural axons by midline glial (MG) cells in a manner similar to mammalian oligodendrocytes. Although there has been some advance in the study of neuron-glial interactions and ensheathment of axons in the CNS midline, key aspects of axonal ensheathment are still not fully understood. One of the limitations has been the unavailability of MG membrane markers that could highlight the glial processes wrapping the axons...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599294/genomic-analysis-integrated-whole-exome-sequencing-of-neuroblastomas-identifies-genetic-mutations-in-axon-guidance-pathway
#15
Yuanyuan Li, Miki Ohira, Yong Zhou, Teng Xiong, Wen Luo, Chao Yang, Xiangchun Li, Zhibo Gao, Rui Zhou, Yohko Nakamura, Takehiko Kamijo, Yasuhiko Kaneko, Takeshi Taketani, Junichi Ueyama, Tatsuro Tajiri, Hongyan Zhang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Ye Yin, Akira Nakagawara
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood solid malignant tumor originating from precursor cells of the peripheral nervous system. We have previously established a risk classification system based on DNA copy number profiles. To further explore the pathogenesis of NBs in distinct risk groups, we performed whole-exome sequencing analysis of 57 primary and 7 recurrent/metastatic tumors with unique chromosomal aberration profiles as categorized by our genomic sub-grouping system. Overall, a low frequency of somatic mutations was found...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594147/casein-kinase-1-epsilon-deletion-increases-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-behaviors-and-binge-eating
#16
Lisa R Goldberg, Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Neema Yazdani, Kimberly P Luttik, Olga A Lacki, R Keith Babbs, David F Jenkins, W Evan Johnson, Camron D Bryant
Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase-1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0...
June 8, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592875/splice-variants-as-novel-targets-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Jun Wang, Laurent Dumartin, Andrea Mafficini, Pinar Ulug, Ajanthah Sangaralingam, Namaa Audi Alamiry, Tomasz P Radon, Roberto Salvia, Rita T Lawlor, Nicholas R Lemoine, Aldo Scarpa, Claude Chelala, Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic
Despite a wealth of genomic information, a comprehensive alternative splicing (AS) analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been performed yet. In the present study, we assessed whole exome-based transcriptome and AS profiles of 43 pancreas tissues using Affymetrix exon array. The AS analysis of PDAC indicated on average two AS probe-sets (ranging from 1-28) in 1,354 significantly identified protein-coding genes, with skipped exon and alternative first exon being the most frequently utilised...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588759/crispr-based-gene-replacement-reveals-evolutionarily-conserved-axon-guidance-functions-of-drosophila-robo3-and-tribolium-robo2-3
#18
Timothy A Evans
BACKGROUND: Axon guidance receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family regulate a number of axon guidance outcomes in bilaterian animals in addition to their canonical role in Slit-dependent midline repulsion. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, three Robo paralogs (Robo1, Robo2, and Robo3) each have specialized roles in regulating midline crossing and the formation of longitudinal axon pathways in the embryonic ventral nerve cord. The number of robo genes differs in other insects, and it is unknown whether the roles and/or signaling mechanisms of Drosophila Robos are shared in other insect species...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581515/gata3-targets-semaphorin-3b-in-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-suppress-breast-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#19
P Shahi, C-Y Wang, J Chou, C Hagerling, H Gonzalez Veloso, A Ruderisch, Y Yu, M-D Lai, Z Werb
Semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B) is a secreted axonal guidance molecule that is expressed during development and throughout adulthood. Recently, SEMA3B has emerged as a tumor suppressor in non-neuronal cells. Here, we show that SEMA3B is a direct target of GATA3 transcriptional activity. GATA3 is a key transcription factor that regulates genes involved in mammary luminal cell differentiation and tumor suppression. We show that GATA3 relies on SEMA3B for suppression of tumor growth. Loss of SEMA3B renders GATA3 inactive and promotes aggressive breast cancer development...
June 5, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576474/netrins-as-prophylactic-targets-in-skeletal-diseases-a-double-edged-sword
#20
REVIEW
Kenta Maruyama, Naoki Takemura, Mikaël M Martino, Takeshi Kondo, Shizuo Akira
The netrin family of proteins are involved in axon guidance during central nervous system development. In vertebrates, two membrane bound forms and five secreted forms of netrin have been reported. In addition to their critical role in neural morphogenesis, a growing number of reports suggest that netrin family proteins also play a role in inflammatory conditions, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. In these processes, Unc5 and DCC family proteins serve as receptors of netrin proteins. Recently, it was reported that some netrin family proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases including osteoporosis and arthritis...
May 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
keyword
keyword
49873
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"