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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099931/a-new-semisynthetic-cardenolide-analog-3%C3%AE-2-1-amantadine-1-on-ethylamine-digitoxigenin-amantadig-affects-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mirna-expression-profiles-and-enhances-proapoptotic-survivin-2b-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cell-lines
#1
Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, Izabella Thais Silva, Sabine Lukat, Arif B Ekici, Jennifer Munkert, Frieder Müller-Uri, Wolfgang Kreis, Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões, Julio Vera, Bernd Wullich, Helge Taubert, Xin Lai
Cardiac glycosides are well known in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their application as treatment option for cancer patients is under discussion. We showed that the cardiac glycoside digitoxin and its analog AMANTADIG can inhibit the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and increase G2/M cell cycle arrest. To identify the signaling pathways and molecular basis of this G2/M arrest, microRNAs were profiled using microRNA arrays. Cardiac glycoside treatment significantly deregulated two microRNAs, miR-2278 and miR-670-5p...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098184/infrared-laser-induced-gene-expression-for-tracking-development-and-function-of-single-c-elegans-embryonic-neurons
#2
Anupriya Singhal, Shai Shaham
Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095470/endogenous-semaphorin-7a-impedes-human-lung-fibroblast-differentiation
#3
Stephane Esnault, Elizabeth E Torr, Ksenija Bernau, Mats W Johansson, Elizabeth A Kelly, Nathan Sandbo, Nizar N Jarjour
Semaphorin-7A is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, initially characterized as an axon guidance protein. Semaphorin-7A also contributes to immune cell regulation and may be an essential pro-fibrotic factor when expressed by non-fibroblast cell types (exogenous). In mouse models, semaphorin-7A was shown to be important for TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary fibrosis characterized by myofibroblast accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition, but the cell-specific role of semaphorin-7A was not examined in fibroblasts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093256/effects-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-microrna-and-mrna-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#4
Jian-Jun Chen, Ben-Hua Zeng, Wen-Wen Li, Chan-Juan Zhou, Song-Hua Fan, Ke Cheng, Li Zeng, Peng Zheng, Liang Fang, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
BACKGROUNDS: Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important environmental factor that could influence the brain function and behaviors through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHOD: Here, we used the germ-free (GF) mice to explore the effect of gut microbiota on hippocampal microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression. RESULTS: Behavioral tests showed that, compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, the GF mice displayed more center time, center distance and less latency to familiar food...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073938/sonic-hedgehog-guides-axons-via-zipcode-binding-protein-1-mediated-local-translation
#5
Lea Lepelletier, Sébastien D Langlois, Christopher B Kent, Kristy Welshhans, Steves Morin, Gary J Bassell, Patricia T Yam, Frédéric Charron
: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) attracts spinal cord commissural axons toward the floorplate. How Shh elicits changes in the growth cone cytoskeleton that drive growth cone turning is unknown. We find that the turning of rat commissural axons up a Shh gradient requires protein synthesis. In particular, Shh stimulation increases β-actin protein at the growth cone, even when the cell bodies have been removed. Thus Shh induces the local translation of β-actin at the growth cone. We hypothesised that this requires zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1), an mRNA binding protein that transports β-actin mRNA and releases it for local translation upon phosphorylation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#6
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
: Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069919/calpain-mediated-proteolysis-of-talin-and-fak-regulates-adhesion-dynamics-necessary-for-axon-guidance
#7
Patrick C Kerstein, Kevin M Patel, Timothy M Gomez
: Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing affects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068429/functional-requirements-for-heparan-sulfate-biosynthesis-in-morphogenesis-and-nervous-system-development-in-c-elegans
#8
Cassandra R Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y Bénard
The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#9
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057268/control-of-neuronal-development-by-t-box-genes-in-the-brain
#10
A B Mihalas, R F Hevner
T-box transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes such as cell differentiation and migration. Mammals have 17 T-box genes, of which several regulate brain development. The Tbr1 subfamily of T-box genes is particularly important in development of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulbs (OBs), and cerebellum. This subfamily is comprised of Tbr1, Tbr2 (also known as Eomes), and Tbx21. In developing cerebral cortex, Tbr2 and Tbr1 are expressed during successive stages of differentiation in the pyramidal neuron lineage, from Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors to Tbr1+ postmitotic glutamatergic neurons...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052552/celsr2-encoding-a-planar-cell-polarity-protein-is-a-putative-gene-in-joubert-syndrome-with-cortical-heterotopia-microophthalmia-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#11
Thierry Vilboux, May Christine V Malicdan, Joseph C Roney, Andrew R Cullinane, Joshi Stephen, Deniz Yildirimli, Joy Bryant, Roxanne Fischer, Meghana Vemulapalli, James C Mullikin, Peter J Steinbach, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome is a ciliopathy characterized by a specific constellation of central nervous system malformations that result in the pathognomonic "molar tooth sign" on imaging. More than 27 genes are associated with Joubert syndrome, but some patients do not have mutations in any of these genes. Celsr1, Celsr2, and Celsr3 are the mammalian orthologues of the drosophila planar cell polarity protein, flamingo; they play important roles in neural development, including axon guidance, neuronal migration, and cilium polarity...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040546/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-the-mutational-landscape-of-metastatic-small-cell-gallbladder-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-gb-scnec
#12
Maolan Li, Fatao Liu, Yijian Zhang, Xiangsong Wu, Wenguang Wu, Xu-An Wang, Shuai Zhao, Shibo Liu, Haibin Liang, Fei Zhang, Qiang Ma, Shanshan Xiang, Huaifeng Li, Lin Jiang, Yunping Hu, Wei Gong, Yun Zhang, Tieliang Ma, Kai Zhang, Yun Liu, Yingbin Liu
Small-cell gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma (GB-SCNEC) is a relatively rare histological type of gallbladder cancer, and the genomic landscape of GB-SCNEC is rarely considered in treatment decisions. We performed whole-genome sequencing on an advanced case of GB-SCNEC. We identified approximately 900 high-quality somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions and deletions (INDELs), 109 of which were shared by both the primary and metastatic tumor tissues. Somatic non-synonymous coding variations with damaging impact in HMCN1 and CDH10 were observed in both the primary and metastatic tissue specimens...
December 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038945/role-of-the-adhesion-molecule-f3-contactin-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#13
REVIEW
Walter Gulisano, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038459/the-netrin-4-neogenin-1-axis-promotes-neuroblastoma-cell-survival-and-migration
#14
Andrea A Villanueva, Paulina Falcón, Natalie Espinoza, Luis Solano R, Luis A Milla, Esther Hernandez-SanMiguel, Vicente A Torres, Pilar Sanchez-Gomez, Verónica Palma
Neogenin-1 (NEO1) is a transmembrane receptor involved in axonal guidance, angiogenesis, neuronal cell migration and cell death, during both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. It has been described as a dependence receptor, because it promotes cell death in the absence of its ligands (Netrin and Repulsive Guidance Molecule (RGM) families) and cell survival when they are present. Although NEO1 and its ligands are involved in tumor progression, their precise role in tumor cell survival and migration remain unclear...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033683/snare-proteins-play-a-role-in-motor-axon-guidance-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#15
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033651/axons-get-ahead-insights-into-axon-guidance-and-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#16
REVIEW
John K Chilton, Sarah Guthrie
Cranial nerves innervate head muscles in a well-characterised and highly conserved pattern. Identification of genes responsible for human congenital disorders of these nerves, combined with the analysis of their role in axonal development in animal models has advanced understanding of how neuromuscular connectivity is established. Here we focus on the ocular motor system, as an instructive example of the success of this approach in unravelling the aetiology of human strabismus. The discovery that ocular motility disorders can arise from mutations in transcription factors, including HoxA1, HoxB1, MafB, Phox2A and Sall4, has revealed gene regulatory networks that pattern the brainstem and/or govern the differentiation of cranial motor neurons...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033646/the-robo3-receptor-a-key-player-in-the-development-evolution-and-function-of-commissural-systems
#17
REVIEW
François Friocourt, Alain Chédotal
Roundabout receptors are known to mediate Slit-dependent repulsive signaling. However in vertebrates, mounting evidence suggest that Robo3 is an unconventional Robo receptor regarding both its expression and function. From its initial description, Robo3 receptor has been tightly associated with the development of specific axons, called commissural, that connect both sides of the nervous system. Many studies using transgenic mouse models showed that Robo3 expression is mandatory for commissural axon guidance to the floor plate...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030897/imaging-single-mrna-localization-and-translation-in-live-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Byung Hun Lee, Seong-Woo Bae, Jaeyoun Jay Shim, Sung Young Park, Hye Yoon Park
Local protein synthesis mediates precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression for neuronal functions such as long-term plasticity, axon guidance and regeneration. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of local translation, it is crucial to understand mRNA transport, localization and translation in live neurons. Among various techniques for mRNA analysis, fluorescence microscopy has been widely used as the most direct method to study localization of mRNA. Live-cell imaging of single RNA molecules is particularly advantageous to dissect the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes in neurons...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029073/exploring-optic-nerve-axon-regeneration
#19
Hong-Jiang Li, Zhao-Liang Sun, Xi-Tao Yang, Liang Zhu, Dong-Fu Feng
Traumatic optic nerve (ON) injury is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide. To date, neither pharmacological nor surgical interventions are sufficient to halt or reverse the progression of visual loss. Axon regeneration is critical for functional recovery of vision following ON injury. After ON injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons usually fail to regrow and instead die back, leading to the death of the RGCs and subsequently causing the functional loss of vision. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration after ON injury remain poorly understood...
December 27, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026654/l1cam-in-the-early-enteric-and-urogenital-system
#20
Elisabeth Judith Pechriggl, Nicole Concin, Michael J Blumer, Mario Bitsche, Marit Zwierzina, Jozsef Dudas, Katarzyna Koziel, Peter Altevogt, Alain-Gustave Zeimet, Helga Fritsch
L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is a transmembrane molecule belonging to the L1 protein family. It has shown to be a key player in axonal guidance in the course of neuronal development. Furthermore, L1CAM is also crucial for the establishment of the enteric and urogenital organs and is aberrantly expressed in cancer originating in these organs. Carcinogenesis and embryogenesis follow a lot of similar molecular pathways, but unfortunately, comprehensive data on L1CAM expression and localization in human developing organs are lacking so far...
January 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
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