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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453204/circulating-mirna-profiles-associated-with-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Eiichiro Satake, Marcus G Pezzolesi, Zaipul I Md Dom, Adam M Smiles, Monika A Niewczas, Andrzej S Krolewski
We investigated plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles associated with variation of hyperglycemia, measured as hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), in two panels of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Using the HTG Molecular Diagnostics EdgeSeq platform, 2,083 miRNAs were measured in plasma from 71 patients included in a screening panel. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the candidate miRNAs in plasma from 95 patients included in an independent replication panel. We found 10 miRNAs replicated in both panels and four with high statistical significance...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448234/gene-expression-changes-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-following-binge-like-alcohol-drinking
#3
Jeanette N McClintick, William J McBride, Richard L Bell, Zheng-Ming Ding, Yunlong Liu, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
Binge drinking of alcohol during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences, including decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volume and deficits in memory. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of adolescent binge drinking on gene expression in these regions. Male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats were exposed to repeated binge drinking (three 1-h sessions/day during the dark/cycle, 5 days/week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session)...
September 14, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442324/rodent-zic-genes-in-neural-network-wiring
#4
Eloísa Herrera
The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437159/single-cell-rna-sequencing-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
Maciej Daniszewski, Anne Senabouth, Quan H Nguyen, Duncan E Crombie, Samuel W Lukowski, Tejal Kulkarni, Valentin M Sluch, Jafar S Jabbari, Xitiz Chamling, Donald J Zack, Alice Pébay, Joseph E Powell, Alex W Hewitt
We used single cell sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of 1,174 human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the single cell level. The human embryonic stem cell line BRN3B-mCherry (A81-H7), was differentiated to RGCs using a guided differentiation approach. Cells were harvested at day 36 and prepared for single cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicates the presence of three distinct subpopulations of cells, with various degrees of maturity. One cluster of 288 cells showed increased expression of genes involved in axon guidance together with semaphorin interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions and ECM proteoglycans, suggestive of a more mature RGC phenotype...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434536/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-emerging-players-in-synaptic-specificity
#6
REVIEW
Giuseppe Condomitti, Joris de Wit
Neural circuits consist of distinct neuronal cell types connected in specific patterns. The specificity of these connections is achieved in a series of sequential developmental steps that involve the targeting of neurites, the identification of synaptic partners, and the formation of specific types of synapses. Cell-surface proteins play a critical role in each of these steps. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) family of cell-surface proteins is emerging as a key regulator of connectivity. HSPGs are expressed throughout brain development and play important roles in axon guidance, synapse development and synapse function...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432953/axon-guidance-signaling-pathways-old-and-new-across-a-variety-of-developmental-contexts
#7
EDITORIAL
Timothy A Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427758/screen-for-slit-robo-signaling-in-trunk-neural-cells-reveals-new-players
#8
Darwin Martinez, Nora Zuhdi, Michelle Reyes, Blanca Ortega, Dion Giovannone, Vivian Lee, Maria Elena de Bellard
Slits ligands and their Robo receptors are involved in quite disparate cell signaling pathways that include axon guidance, cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from neural cells in the dorsal neural tube, and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. It is well established that these cells change from a non-migratory to a highly migratory state allowing them to reach distant regions before they differentiate. However, but the mechanism controlling this delamination and subsequent migration are still not fully understood...
February 7, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420136/preparation-purification-and-identification-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-the-c-terminal-domain-of-semaphorin3f
#9
Pei-Pei Meng, Zhe Li, Sheng-Yu Wang, Wen-Wen Zhou, Malik Samiullah, Na Chen, Fang-Hong Luo, Ting Wu, Jiang-Hua Yan
Class three semaphorins were originally identified as mediators of axon guidance, which repelled axons and collapsed growth cones. As a member of class three semaphorins, semaphorin3F (Sema3F) has been found to have similar effects on tumor cells and endothelial cells and also is implicated in the signaling of tumor metastasis by forming a complex with neuropilins and plexins. In this study, our laboratory produced a monoclonal antibody against the C-terminal domain of Sema3F (Sema3Fc mAb) using the hybridoma method, expecting to explore the potential role of the antibody and its application in the detection of Sema3F...
February 8, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414352/triclosan-affects-axon-formation-in-the-neural-development-stages-of-zebrafish-embryos-danio-rerio
#10
Jin Kim, Hanseul Oh, Bokyeong Ryu, Ukjin Kim, Ji Min Lee, Cho-Rok Jung, C-Yoon Kim, Jae-Hak Park
Triclosan (TCS) is an organic compound with a wide range of antibiotic activity and has been widely used in items ranging from hygiene products to cosmetics; however, recent studies suggest that it has several adverse effects. In particular, TCS can be passed to both fetus and infants, and while some evidence suggests in vitro neurotoxicity, there are currently few studies concerning the mechanisms of TCS-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the effect of TCS on neural development using zebrafish models, by analyzing the morphological changes, the alterations observed in fluorescence using HuC-GFP and Olig2-dsRED transgenic zebrafish models, and neurodevelopmental gene expression...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413320/approaching-the-roundabout-cis-and-trans-robo1-contacts-revealed
#11
Julia Guez-Haddad, Galit Yom-Tov, Yarden Opatowsky
In this issue of Structure,Aleksandrova et al. (2018) present low- and high-resolution structures of Robo1, a key player in axonal guidance. The structures shed light on the arrangement of Robo1 at the plasma membrane and provide evidence for back-to-back trans Robo1 contacts.
February 6, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411711/microstructure-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-multi-channel-nerve-guidance-scaffolds
#12
Kendell Pawelec, Jacob Koffler, Dena Shahriari, Angelica Rose Galvan, Mark Tuszynski, Jeff Sakamoto
In a previous study, we demonstrated a novel manufacturing approach to fabricate multi-channel scaffolds (MCS) for use in spinal cord injuries (SCI). In the present study, we extended similar materials processing technology to fabricate significantly longer (5X) porous poly caprolactone (PCL) MCS and evaluated their efficacy in 1 cm sciatic peripheral nerve injury (PNI) model. Due to the increase in MCS dimensions and the challenges that may arise in a longer nerve gap model, microstructural characterization involved MCS wall permeability to assess nutrient flow, topography to understand cell integration, and microstructural uniformity to evaluate the potential for homogeneous linear axon guidance...
February 7, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411265/rare-risk-variants-identification-by-identity-by-descent-mapping-and-whole-exome-sequencing-implicates-neuronal-development-pathways-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
C Salvoro, S Bortoluzzi, A Coppe, G Valle, E Feltrin, M L Mostacciuolo, G Vazza
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are highly heritable disorders with an estimated co-heritability of 68%. Hundreds of common alleles have been implicated, but recently a role for rare, high-penetrant variants has been also suggested in both disorders. This study investigated a familial cohort of SCZ and BPD patients from a closed population sample, where the high recurrence of the disorders and the homogenous genetic background indicate a possible enrichment in rare risk alleles. A total of 230 subjects (161 cases, 22 unaffected relatives, and 47 controls) were genetically investigated through an innovative strategy that integrates identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES)...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408900/phosphoproteomic-analysis-reveals-smad-protein-family-activation-following-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection
#14
Cynthia de la Fuente, Chelsea Pinkham, Deemah Dabbagh, Brett Beitzel, Aura Garrison, Gustavo Palacios, Kimberley Alex Hodge, Emanuel F Petricoin, Connie Schmaljohn, Catherine E Campbell, Aarthi Narayanan, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infects both ruminants and humans leading to a wide variance of pathologies dependent on host background and age. Utilizing a targeted reverse phase protein array (RPPA) to define changes in signaling cascades after in vitro infection of human cells with virulent and attenuated RVFV strains, we observed high phosphorylation of Smad transcription factors. This evolutionarily conserved family is phosphorylated by and transduces the activation of TGF-β superfamily receptors. Moreover, we observed that phosphorylation of Smad proteins required active RVFV replication and loss of NSs impaired this activation, further corroborating the RPPA results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405286/highly-segregated-localization-of-the-functionally-related-vps10p-receptors-sortilin-and-sorcs2-during-neurodevelopment
#15
Simon Boggild, Simon Molgaard, Simon Glerup, Jens Randel Nyengaard
Nervous system development is a precisely orchestrated series of events requiring a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Sortilin and SorCS2 are members of the Vps10p receptor family with complementary influence on some of these cues including the neurotrophins. However, the developmental time points where sortilin and SorCS2 exert their activities in conjunction or independently still remain unclear. In this study we present the characterization of the spatiotemporal expression pattern of sortilin and SorCS2 in the developing murine nervous system...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396994/strategic-design-and-fabrication-of-nerve-guidance-conduits-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
M D Sarker, Saman Naghieh, Adam D McInnes, David J Schreyer, Xiongbiao Chen
Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been drawing considerable attention as an aid to promote regeneration of injured axons across damaged peripheral nerves. Ideally, NGCs should include physical and topographic axon guidance cues embedded as part of their composition. Over the past decades, much progress has been made in the development of NGCs that promote directional axonal regrowth so as to repair severed nerves. This paper briefly reviews the recent designs and fabrication techniques of NGCs for peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394106/adenosine-a2a-receptor-a2ar-stimulation-modulates-expression-of-semaphorins-4d-and-3a-regulators-of-bone-homeostasis
#17
Aránzazu Mediero, Tuere Wilder, Lopa Shah, Bruce N Cronstein
The axonal guidance proteins semaphorin (Sema)4D and Sema3A play important roles in communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. As stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast function, we asked whether A2AR regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast expression of Semas. In vivo bone formation and Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1 protein expression were studied in a murine model of wear particle-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast/osteoblast differentiation were studied in vitro as the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+/Alizarin Red+ cells after challenge with CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, 1 µM) or ZM241385 (A2AR antagonist, 1 µM), with or without Sema4D or Sema3A (10 ng/ml)...
February 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386386/de-novo-mutation-in-ring1-with-epigenetic-effects-on-neurodevelopment
#18
Sarah B Pierce, Mikaela D Stewart, Suleyman Gulsuner, Tom Walsh, Abhinav Dhall, Jon M McClellan, Rachel E Klevit, Mary-Claire King
RING1 is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is involved in epigenetic control of transcription during development. It is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1, and its role in that complex is to ubiquitylate histone H2A. In a 13-year-old girl with syndromic neurodevelopmental disabilities, we identified a de novo mutation, RING1 p.R95Q, which alters a conserved arginine residue in the catalytic RING domain. In vitro assays demonstrated that the mutant RING1 retains capacity to catalyze ubiquitin chain formation, but is defective in its ability to ubiquitylate histone H2A in nucleosomes...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385124/coordination-of-olfactory-receptor-choice-with-guidance-receptor-expression-and-function-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#19
Puneet Dang, Stephen A Fisher, Derek Stefanik, Junhyong Kim, Jonathan A Raper
Olfactory sensory neurons choose to express a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large gene repertoire and extend axons to reproducible, OR-specific locations within the olfactory bulb. This developmental process produces a topographically organized map of odorant experience in the brain. The axon guidance mechanisms that generate this pattern of connectivity, as well as those that coordinate OR choice and axonal guidance receptor expression, are incompletely understood. We applied the powerful approach of single-cell RNA-seq on newly born olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in young zebrafish larvae to address these issues...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382549/human-tubb3-mutations-disrupt-netrin-attractive-signaling
#20
Huai Huang, Tao Yang, Qiangqiang Shao, Tanushree Majumder, Kristopher Mell, Guofa Liu
Heterozygous missense mutations in human TUBB3 gene result in a spectrum of brain malformations associated with defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mutation-related axon guidance abnormalities are unclear. Recent studies have shown that netrin-1, a canonical guidance cue, induced the interaction of TUBB3 with the netrin receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). Furthermore, TUBB3 is required for netrin-1-induced axon outgrowth, branching and pathfinding...
January 27, 2018: Neuroscience
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