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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763612/topographic-correspondence-of-macular-atrophy-with-choroidal-neovascularization-in-ranibizumab-treated-eyes-of-the-trex-amd-trial
#1
Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah, Amirhossein Hariri, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Sean Pitetta, Adel Ebraheem, Charles C Wykoff, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To quantify the extent of topographic correspondence between baseline (BSL) CNV and macular atrophy (MA) at follow-up in eyes with NVAMD. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trial data. METHODS: Sixty treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) patients from TREX-AMD trial were followed for 18-months. Regions of month-18 macular atrophy (MA) were graded on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) with guidance of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762127/electrospun-fiber-surface-nanotopography-influences-astrocyte-mediated-neurite-outgrowth
#2
Christopher D Johnson, Anthony R D'Amato, Devan L Puhl, Douglas M Wich, Amanda Vespermann, Ryan J Gilbert
Aligned, electrospun fiber scaffolds provide topographical guidance for regenerating neurons and glia after central nervous system injury. To date, no study has explored how fiber surface nanotopography affects astrocyte response to fibrous scaffolds. Astrocytes play important roles in the glial scar, the blood brain barrier, and in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system. In this study, electrospun poly L-lactic acid fibers were engineered with smooth, pitted, or divoted surface nanotopography...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748613/advantageous-environment-of-micro-patterned-high-density-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-electrode-array-for-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-in-vitro
#3
Viktorija Radotić, Dries Braeken, Petar Drviš, Marta Mattotti, Damir Kovačić
This study investigated micro-patterned, high-density complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electrode array to be used as biologically permissive environment for organization, guidance and electrical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). SGNs extracted and isolated from cochleae of P5-P7 rat pups and adult guinea pigs were cultured 1, 4 and 7 days in vitro on glass coverslips (control) and CMOS electrode array. The cultures were analyzed visually and immunohistochemically for SGN presence, outgrowth, neurite alignment, neurite length, neurite asymmetry as well as the contact of a neuronal soma and neurites with the micro-electrodes...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741720/nerve-surgeons-assessment-of-the-role-of-eduard-pernkopf-s-atlas-of-topographic-and-applied-human-anatomy-in-surgical-practice
#4
Andrew Yee, Demetrius M Coombs, Sabine Hildebrandt, William E Seidelman, J Henk Coert, Susan E Mackinnon
BACKGROUND: Pernkopf's atlas of Anatomy contains anatomical plates with detailed images of the peripheral nerves. Its use is controversial due to the author's association with the "Third Reich" and the potential depiction of victims of the Holocaust. The ethical implications of using this atlas for informing surgical planning have not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To (1) assess the role of Pernkopf's atlas in nerve surgeons' current practice and (2) determine whether a proposal for its ethical handling may provide possible guidance for use in surgery and surgical education...
May 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696343/the-significance-of-land-cover-delineation-on-soil-erosion-assessment
#5
Nikolaos Efthimiou, Emmanouil Psomiadis
The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965-92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment's climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land use delineations of different resolution, namely the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) project (2000, 2012 versions) (1:100,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF) (1:20,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek Payment and Control Agency for Guidance and Guarantee Community Aid (PCAGGCA) (1:5,000), and the Landsat 8 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset (30 m/pixel) (two approximations) based on remote sensing data (satellite image acquired on 07/09/2016) (1:40,000)...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663710/the-amniote-oculomotor-complex
#6
V Company, J A Moreno-Bravo, A Perez-Balaguer, E Puelles
The Oculomotor complex is a combination of somatic and parasympatethic neurons. The correct development and wiring of this cranial pair is essential to perform basic functions: eyeball and eyelid movements, pupillary constriction and lens accommodation. The improper formation or function of this nucleus leads pathologies such as strabismus. We describe the oculomotor organization and function in different vertebrate brains, including chick, mouse and human. The morphological localization is detailed, as well as the spatial relation with the trochlear nucleus in order to adjust some misleading anatomical topographic descriptions...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660675/improvements-in-event-related-desynchronization-and-classification-performance-of-motor-imagery-using-instructive-dynamic-guidance-and-complex-tasks
#7
Yan Bian, Hongzhi Qi, Li Zhao, Dong Ming, Tong Guo, Xing Fu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The motor-imagery based brain-computer interface supplies a potential approach for motor-impaired patients, not only to control rehabilitation facilities but also to promote recovery from motor dysfunctions. To improve event-related desynchronization during motor imagery and obtain improved brain-computer interface classification accuracy, we introduce dynamic video guidance and complex motor tasks to the motor imagery paradigm. METHODS: Eleven participants were included in the experiment; 64-channel electroencephalographic data were collected and analyzed during four motor imagery tasks with different guidance...
March 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603679/mechanical-considerations-for-electrospun-nanofibers-in-tendon-and-ligament-repair
#8
REVIEW
David A Brennan, Adriano A Conte, Gregory Kanski, Stefan Turkula, Xiao Hu, Matthew T Kleiner, Vince Beachley
Electrospun nanofibers possess unique qualities such as nanodiameter, high surface area to volume ratio, biomimetic architecture, and tunable chemical and electrical properties. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of nanofibrous architecture to direct cell morphology, migration, and more complex biological processes such as differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition through topographical guidance cues. These advantages have created great interest in electrospun fibers for biomedical applications, including tendon and ligament repair...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396994/strategic-design-and-fabrication-of-nerve-guidance-conduits-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Md Sarker, Saman Naghieh, Adam D McInnes, David J Schreyer, Xiongbiao Chen
Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been drawing considerable attention as an aid to promote regeneration of injured axons across damaged peripheral nerves. Ideally, NGCs should include physical and topographic axon guidance cues embedded as part of their composition. Over the past decades, much progress has been made in the development of NGCs that promote directional axonal regrowth so as to repair severed nerves. This paper briefly reviews the recent designs and fabrication techniques of NGCs for peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385124/coordination-of-olfactory-receptor-choice-with-guidance-receptor-expression-and-function-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#10
Puneet Dang, Stephen A Fisher, Derek J Stefanik, Junhyong Kim, Jonathan A Raper
Olfactory sensory neurons choose to express a single odorant receptor (OR) from a large gene repertoire and extend axons to reproducible, OR-specific locations within the olfactory bulb. This developmental process produces a topographically organized map of odorant experience in the brain. The axon guidance mechanisms that generate this pattern of connectivity, as well as those that coordinate OR choice and axonal guidance receptor expression, are incompletely understood. We applied the powerful approach of single-cell RNA-seq on newly born olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in young zebrafish larvae to address these issues...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349931/biomimetic-architectures-for-peripheral-nerve-repair-a-review-of-biofabrication-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Paul A Wieringa, Ana Rita Gonçalves de Pinho, Silvestro Micera, Richard J A van Wezel, Lorenzo Moroni
Biofabrication techniques have endeavored to improve the regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but nothing has surpassed the performance of current clinical practices. However, these current approaches have intrinsic limitations that compromise patient care. The "gold standard" autograft provides the best outcomes but requires suitable donor material, while implantable hollow nerve guide conduits (NGCs) can only repair small nerve defects. This review places emphasis on approaches that create structural cues within a hollow NGC lumen in order to match or exceed the regenerative performance of the autograft...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322522/eye-specific-segregation-and-differential-fasciculation-of-developing-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-in-the-mouse-visual-pathway
#12
Austen A Sitko, Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol A Mason
Prior to forming and refining synaptic connections, axons of projection neurons navigate long distances to their targets. While much is known about guidance cues for axon navigation through intermediate choice points, whether and how axons are organized within tracts is less clear. Here we analyze the organization of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing mouse retinogeniculate pathway. RGC axons are organized by both eye-specificity and topography in the optic nerve and tract: ipsilateral RGC axons are segregated from contralateral axons and are offset laterally in the tract relative to contralateral axon topographic position...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274478/a-compound-scaffold-with-uniform-longitudinally-oriented-guidance-cues-and-a-porous-sheath-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-vivo
#13
Liangliang Huang, Lei Zhu, Xiaowei Shi, Bing Xia, Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Pengzhen Cheng, Kai Luo, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Scaffolds with inner fillers that convey directional guidance cues represent promising candidates for nerve repair. However, incorrect positioning or non-uniform distribution of intraluminal fillers might result in regeneration failure. In addition, proper porosity (to enhance nutrient and oxygen exchange but prevent fibroblast infiltration) and mechanical properties (to ensure fixation and to protect regenerating axons from compression) of the outer sheath are also highly important for constructing advanced nerve scaffolds...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274387/common-cues-wire-the-spinal-cord-axon-guidance-molecules-in-spinal-neuron-migration
#14
REVIEW
Zhe Chen
Topographic arrangement of neuronal cell bodies and axonal tracts are crucial for proper wiring of the nervous system. This involves often-coordinated neuronal migration and axon guidance during development. Most neurons migrate from their birthplace to specific topographic coordinates as they adopt the final cell fates and extend axons. The axons follow temporospatial specific guidance cues to reach the appropriate targets. When neuronal or axonal migration or their coordination is disrupted, severe consequences including neurodevelopmental disorders and neurological diseases, can arise...
February 20, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261324/designer-neural-networks-with-embedded-semiconductor-microtube-arrays
#15
Aune Koitmäe, Manuel Müller, Cornelius S Bausch, Jann Harberts, Wolfgang Hansen, Gabriele Loers, Robert H Blick
Here we present a designer's approach to building cellular neuronal networks based on a biocompatible negative photoresist with embedded coaxial feedthroughs made of semiconductor microtubes. The diameter of the microtubes is tailored and adjusted to the diameter of cerebellum axons having a diameter of 2-3 μm. The microtubes as well as the SU-8 layer serve as a topographical cue to the axons. Apart from the topographical guidance, we also employ chemical guidance cues enhancing neuron growth at designed spots...
January 30, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235444/contact-guidance-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering-using-3d-bioprinted-gelatin-patterned-hydrogel
#16
Ajay Tijore, Scott Alexander Irvine, Udi Sarig, Priyadarshini Mhaisalkar, Vrushali Baisane, Subbu Venkatraman
Here, we have developed a 3D bioprinted microchanneled gelatin hydrogel that promotes human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) myocardial commitment and supports native cardiomyocytes (CMs) contractile functionality. Firstly, we studied the effect of bioprinted microchanneled hydrogel on the alignment, elongation, and differentiation of hMSC. Notably, the cells displayed well defined F-actin anisotropy and elongated morphology on the microchanneled hydrogel, hence showing the effects of topographical control over cell behavior...
January 12, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207951/downstream-mediators-of-ten-m3-signalling-in-the-developing-visual-pathway
#17
Kelly A Glendining, Sam C Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari, Catherine A Leamey
BACKGROUND: The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in a broad high-ventral to low-dorsal gradient across the retina and in topographically-corresponding gradients in primary visual centres. Deletion of Ten-m3 causes profound disruption of binocular visual alignment and function. Surprisingly, one of the most apparent neuroanatomical changes-dramatic mismapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, retinal axons along the representation of the nasotemporal retinal axis-does not correlate well with Ten-m3's expression pattern, raising questions regarding mechanism...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168523/electroconductive-nanoscale-topography-for-enhanced-neuronal-differentiation-and-electrophysiological-maturation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#18
Kisuk Yang, Seung Jung Yu, Jong Seung Lee, Hak-Rae Lee, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee, Eunji Cheong, Sung Gap Im, Seung-Woo Cho
Biophysical cues, such as topography, and electrical cues can provide external stimulation for the promotion of stem cell neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an electroconductive surface nanotopography for enhancing neuronal differentiation and the functional maturation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). The electroconductive nanopatterned substrates were prepared by depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) with nanograting topographies (150 to 300 nm groove/ridge, the thickness of the groove - 150 μm) onto polymer surfaces...
December 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#19
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#20
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are used for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, but investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/inverted face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas primary visual cortex (V1) and the extrastriate cortex (V2 and V3) based on a voxelwise population receptive field model...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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