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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218340/world-health-organization-global-disability-action-plan-the-mongolian-perspective
#1
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Baljnnyam Avirmed, Yoon Kyoung Yi, Batchimeg Shirmen, Geoff Abbott, Mary P Galea
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on disability and rehabilitation in Mongolia, and to identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP). METHODS: A 4-member rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted an intensive 6-day workshop at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, for local healthcare professionals (n = 77) from medical rehabilitation facilities (urban/rural, public/private) and non-governmental organizations...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197551/ephrina5-signaling-is-required-for-the-distinctive-targeting-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#2
Teng Teng, Afsaneh Gaillard, Aude Muzerelle, Patricia Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193234/differential-timing-of-neurogenesis-underlies-dorsal-ventral-topographic-projection-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#3
Eerdunfu, Naoki Ihara, Bao Ligao, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The mammalian primary olfactory system has a spatially-ordered projection in which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the dorsomedial (DM) and ventrolateral (VL) region of the olfactory epithelium (OE) send their axons to the dorsal and ventral region of the olfactory bulb (OB), respectively. We previously found that OSN axonal projections occur sequentially, from the DM to the VL region of the OE. The differential timing of axonal projections is important for olfactory map formation because early-arriving OSN axons secrete guidance cues at the OB to help navigate late-arriving OSN axons...
February 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159617/a-brief-comparative-review-of-primate-posterior-parietal-cortex-a-novel-hypothesis-on-the-human-toolmaker
#4
S Kastner, Q Chen, S K Jeong, R E B Mruczek
The primate visual system contains two major cortical pathways: a ventral-temporal pathway that has been associated with object processing and recognition, and a dorsal-parietal pathway that has been associated with spatial processing and action guidance. Our understanding of the role of the dorsal pathway, in particular, has greatly evolved within the framework of the two-pathway hypothesis since its original conception. Here, we present a comparative review of the primate dorsal pathway in humans and monkeys based on electrophysiological, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical studies...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140524/micropatterning-of-reagent-free-high-energy-crosslinked-gelatin-hydrogels-for-bioapplications
#5
Benedikt Heyart, Astrid Weidt, Emilia I Wisotzki, Mareike Zink, Stefan G Mayr
Hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric gels of great interest in the field of tissue engineering, particularly as biocompatible cell or drug carriers. Reagent-free electron irradiated gelatin is simple to manufacture, inexpensive and biocompatible. Here, the potential to micropattern gelatin hydrogel surfaces during electron irradiation crosslinking was demonstrated as a promising microfabrication technique to produce thermally stable structures on highly relevant length scales for bioapplications. In the present work, grooves of 3...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109776/semaphorin-6a-knockout-mice-display-abnormalities-across-ethologically-based-topographies-of-exploration-and-in-motor-learning
#6
Kerstin Håkansson, Annette E Runker, Gerard J O'Sullivan, Kevin J Mitchell, John L Waddington, Colm M P O'Tuathaigh
Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#7
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974617/hermes-regulates-axon-sorting-in-the-optic-tract-by-post-trancriptional-regulation-of-neuropilin-1
#8
Hanna Hörnberg, Jean-Michel Cioni, William A Harris, Christine E Holt
: The establishment of precise topographic maps during neural development is facilitated by the presorting of axons in the pathway before they reach their targets. In the vertebrate visual system, such topography is seen clearly in the optic tract (OT) and in the optic radiations. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in pretarget axon sorting are poorly understood. Here, we show in zebrafish that the RNA-binding protein Hermes, which is expressed exclusively in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is involved in this process...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911405/automated-robotic-dispensing-technique-for-surface-guidance-and-bioprinting-of-cells
#9
Ramya Bhuthalingam, Pei Q Lim, Scott A Irvine, Subbu S Venkatraman
This manuscript describes the introduction of cell guidance features followed by the direct delivery of cells to these features in a hydrogel bioink using an automated robotic dispensing system. The particular bioink was selected as it allows cells to sediment towards and sense the features. The dispensing system bioprints viable cells in hydrogel bioinks using a backpressure assisted print head. However, by replacing the print head with a sharpened stylus or scalpel, the dispensing system can also be employed to create topographical cues through surface etching...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865067/laminin-modified-and-aligned-phbv-peo-nanofibrous-nerve-conduits-promote-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#10
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Hai-Xia Liu, Lazarus Santiago Ortiz, Zhong-Dang Xiao, Ning-Ping Huang
Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) has received much attention for its biodegradability and biocompatibility, characteristics which are required in tissue engineering. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-incorporated PHBV nanofibers with random or aligned orientation were obtained by electrospinning. For further use in vivo, the nanofiber films were made into nerve conduits after treated with NH3 plasma, which could improve the hydrophilicity of inner surfaces of nerve conduits and then facilitate laminin adsorption via electrostatic interaction for promoting cell adhesion and proliferation...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864151/gelatin-nanoceria-nanocomposite-fibers-as-antioxidant-scaffolds-for-neuronal-regeneration
#11
Attilio Marino, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Daniele De Pasquale, Francesca Ruini, Giada Genchi, Simone Nitti, Valentina Cappello, Mauro Gemmi, Virgilio Mattoli, Gianluca Ciardelli, Gianni Ciofani
BACKGROUND: The design of efficient nerve conduits able to sustain the axonal outgrowth and its guidance towards appropriate targets is of paramount importance in nerve tissue engineering. METHODS: In this work, we propose the preparation of highly aligned nanocomposite fibers of gelatin/cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), prepared by electrospinning. Nanoceria are powerful self-regenerative antioxidant nanomaterials, that behave as strong reactive oxygen species scavengers, and among various beneficial effects, they have been proven to inhibit the cell senescence and to promote the neurite sprouting...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834452/internal-jugular-dimensions-and-common-carotid-overlapping-assessed-in-a-cross-sectional-study-by-ultrasonography-at-three-neck-levels-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Helena Norin, Andreas Pikwer, Fredrik Fellert, Jonas Åkeson
BACKGROUND: Cannulation of the internal jugular vein may be associated with inadvertent puncture of the common carotid artery. Systematic use of ultrasound guidance has improved clinical success rates and reduced complications, but better knowledge of topographic relationships of the internal jugular vein and common carotid artery is desirable. This preclinical study was designed to determine by ultrasound technique relative topographic characteristics in humans of the internal jugular veins and common carotid arteries at different levels on both sides of the neck...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739248/thalamic-neuronal-specification-and-early-circuit-formation
#13
Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina Lopez-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, though their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735104/a-modified-posterolateral-approach-for-radiofrequency-denervation-of-the-medial-branch-of-the-cervical-segmental-nerve-in-cervical-facet-joint-pain-based-on-anatomical-considerations
#14
Maarten van Eerd, Arno Lataster, Micha Sommer, Jacob Patijn, Maarten van Kleef
The cervical facet joints, also called the zygapophyseal joints, are a potential source of neck pain (cervical facet joint pain). The cervical facet joints are innervated by the cervical medial branches (CMBs) of the cervical segmental nerves. Cervical facet joint pain has been shown to respond to multisegmental radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches. This procedure is performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Currently, three approaches are described and used. Those three techniques of radiofrequency treatment of the CMBs, classified on the base of the needle trajectory toward the anatomical planes, are as follows: the posterolateral technique, the posterior technique, and the lateral technique...
October 13, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693602/fetal-development-of-the-pulley-for-muscle-insertion-tendons-a-review-and-new-findings-related-to-the-tensor-tympani-tendon
#15
REVIEW
Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Yohei Honkura, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe
The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone...
January 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686123/biomimetic-designing-of-functional-silk-nanotopography-using-self-assembly
#16
Banani Kundu, Mohamed Eltohamy, Vamsi K Yadavalli, Subhas C Kundu, Hae-Won Kim
In nature inorganic-organic building units create multifunctional hierarchical architectures. Organic silk protein is particularly attractive in this respect because of its micro-nanoscale structural blocks that are attributed to sophisticated hierarchical assembly imparting flexibility and compressibility to designed biohybrid materials. In the present study, aqueous silk fibroin is assembled to form nano/microtopography on inorganic silica surface via a facile diffusion-limited aggregation process. This process is driven by electrostatic interaction and only possible at a specified aminated surface chemistry...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667971/role-of-rb-during-neurogenesis-and-axonal-guidance-in-the-developing-olfactory-system
#17
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535576/decreased-maternal-behavior-and-anxiety-in-ephrin-a5-mice
#18
M Sheleg, Q Yu, C Go, G C Wagner, A W Kusnecov, R Zhou
During development of the nervous system, molecular signals mediating cell-cell interactions play critical roles in the guidance of axonal growth and establishment of synaptic functions. The Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ephrin ligands has been shown to mediate neuronal interactions in the development of topographic axon projection maps in several brain regions, and the loss of Eph activities result in defects in select axonal pathways. However, effects of deficiencies of the Eph signals on animal behavior have not been well documented...
August 18, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410778/identification-of-novel-candidate-regulators-of-retinotectal-map-formation-through-transcriptional-profiling-of-the-chick-optic-tectum
#19
Shweta Kukreja, Pratibha Gautam, Richa Saxena, Monika Saxena, Niveda Udaykumar, Aditi Kumar, Ritesh Bhatt, Vidur Kumar, Jonaki Sen
Information from the retina is carried along the visual pathway with accuracy and spatial conservation as a result of topographically mapped axonal connections. The optic tectum in the midbrain is the primary region to which retinal ganglion cells project their axons in the chick. The two primary axes of the retina project independently onto the tectum using different sets of guidance cues to give rise to the retinotectal map. Specificity of the map is determined by attractive or repulsive interactions between molecular tags that are distributed in gradients in the retina and the tectum...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405960/biochemical-and-biophysical-cues-in-matrix-design-for-chronic-and-diabetic-wound-treatment
#20
Yun Xiao, Samad Ahadian, Milica Radisic
Progress in biomaterial science and engineering and increasing knowledge in cell biology have enabled us to develop functional biomaterials providing appropriate biochemical and biophysical cues for tissue regeneration applications. Tissue regeneration is particularly important to treat chronic wounds of people with diabetes. Understanding and controlling the cellular microenvironment of the wound tissue are important to improve the wound healing process. In this study, we review different biochemical (e.g...
February 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
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