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topographical guidance

Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina Lopez-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, though their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Maarten van Eerd, Arno Lataster, Micha Sommer, Jacob Patijn, Maarten van Kleef
The cervical facet joints, also called the zygapophyseal joints, are a potential source of neck pain (cervical facet joint pain). The cervical facet joints are innervated by the cervical medial branches (CMBs) of the cervical segmental nerves. Cervical facet joint pain has been shown to respond to multisegmental radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches. This procedure is performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Currently, three approaches are described and used. Those three techniques of radiofrequency treatment of the CMBs, classified on the base of the needle trajectory toward the anatomical planes, are as follows: the posterolateral technique, the posterior technique, and the lateral technique...
October 13, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Yohei Honkura, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe
The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Banani Kundu, Mohamed Eltohamy, Vamsi K Yadavalli, Subhas C Kundu, Hae-Won Kim
In nature inorganic-organic building units create multifunctional hierarchical architectures. Organic silk protein is particularly attractive in this respect because of its micro-nanoscale structural blocks that are attributed to sophisticated hierarchical assembly imparting flexibility and compressibility to designed biohybrid materials. In the present study, aqueous silk fibroin is assembled to form nano/microtopography on inorganic silica surface via a facile diffusion-limited aggregation process. This process is driven by electrostatic interaction and only possible at a specified aminated surface chemistry...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carine Jaafar, Saad Omais, Sawsan Al Lafi, Nadim El Jamal, Mohammad Noubani, Larissa Skaf, Noël Ghanem
The Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, was shown to regulate distinct aspects of neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain besides its primary role in cell cycle control. It is still unknown, however, whether Rb is required for tissue morphogenesis and the establishment of synaptic connections between adjacent tissues during development. We have investigated here the role of Rb during development of the olfactory system (OS), which heavily relies on reciprocal interactions between the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the olfactory bulb (OB)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Michal Sheleg, Qili Yu, Christine Go, George C Wagner, Alexander Kusnecov, Renping Zhou
During development of the nervous system, molecular signals mediating cell-cell interactions play critical roles in the guidance of axonal growth and establishment of synaptic functions. The Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ephrin ligands has been shown to mediate neuronal interactions in the development of topographic axon projection maps in several brain regions, and the loss of Eph activities result in defects in select axonal pathways. However, effects of deficiencies of the Eph signals on animal behavior have not been well documented...
August 18, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Shweta Kukreja, Pratibha Gautam, Richa Saxena, Monika Saxena, Niveda Udaykumar, Aditi Kumar, Ritesh Bhatt, Vidur Kumar, Jonaki Sen
Information from the retina is carried along the visual pathway with accuracy and spatial conservation due to topographically mapped axonal connections. The optic tectum in the midbrain is the primary region to which retinal ganglion cells project their axons in the chick. The two primary axes of the retina project independently onto the tectum using different sets of guidance cues to give rise to the retinotectal map. Specificity of the map is determined by attractive or repulsive interactions between molecular tags that are distributed in gradients in the retina and the tectum...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yun Xiao, Samad Ahadian, Milica Radisic
Progress in biomaterials science and engineering and increasing knowledge in cell biology have enabled us to develop functional biomaterials providing appropriate biochemical and biophysical cues for tissue regeneration applications. Tissue regeneration is particularly important to treat chronic wounds of people with diabetes. Understanding and controlling the cellular microenvironment of the wound tissue are important to improve the wound healing process. Here, we review different biochemical (e.g., growth factors, peptides, DNA, and RNA) and biophysical (e...
July 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Xiaoyao Shi, Yinghong Xiao, Hengyang Xiao, Gary Harris, Tongxin Wang, Jianfei Che
Topographical features are essential to neural interface for better neuron attachment and growth. This paper presents a facile and feasible route to fabricate an electroactive and biocompatible micro-patterned Single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite films (SWNT/PEDOT) for interface of neural electrodes. The uniform SWNT/PEDOT composite films with nanoscale pores and microscale grooves significantly enlarged the electrode-electrolyte interface, facilitated ion transfer within the bulk film, and more importantly, provided topology cues for the proliferation and differentiation of neural cells...
September 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Anh Tuan Nguyen, Sharvari R Sathe, Evelyn K F Yim
Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Shufeng Li, Bradley Tuft, Linjing Xu, Marc Polacco, Joseph C Clarke, C Allan Guymon, Marlan R Hansen
Micro- and nanoscale surface features have emerged as potential tools to direct neurite growth into close proximity with next generation neural prosthesis electrodes. However, the signaling events underlying the ability of growth cones to respond to topographical features remain largely unknown. Accordingly, this study probes the influence of [Ca(2+) ]i and cyclic nucleotide levels on the ability of neurites from spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) to precisely track topographical micropatterns. Photopolymerization and photomasking were used to generate micropatterned methacrylate polymer substrates...
August 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Jeong-Kee Yoon, Hong Nam Kim, Suk Ho Bhang, Jung-Youn Shin, Jin Han, Wan-Geun La, Gun-Jae Jeong, Seokyung Kang, Ju-Ro Lee, Jaesur Oh, Min Sung Kim, Noo Li Jeon, Byung-Soo Kim
The rapid recruitment of osteoblasts in bone defects is an essential prerequisite for efficient bone repair. Conventionally, osteoblast recruitment to bone defects and subsequent bone repair has been achieved using growth factors. Here, we present a methodology that can guide the recruitment of osteoblasts to bone defects with topographically defined implants (TIs) for efficient in vivo bone repair. We compared circular TIs that had microgrooves in parallel or radial arrangements with nonpatterned implants for osteoblast migration and in vivo bone formation...
April 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Jiyun Kim, Kandice Tanner
This protocol describes a way to introduce topography to three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials. The self-assembling behavior of magnetic particles can be exploited to form nanoscale to microscale fibers, such that one can dissect the contribution of topography on cell behavior, which is independent of other physical properties of the biomaterial (e.g., stiffness). The magnetic particles are chemically cross-linked with several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and then using magnetic force-mediated assembly, one can program aligned nanofibers in a 3D hydrogel...
2016: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Matthew M Wallace, J Aaron Harris, Donald Q Brubaker, Caitlyn A Klotz, Mark L Gabriele
Eph-ephrin interactions guide topographic mapping and pattern formation in a variety of systems. In contrast to other sensory pathways, their precise role in the assembly of central auditory circuits remains poorly understood. The auditory midbrain, or inferior colliculus (IC) is an intriguing structure for exploring guidance of patterned projections as adjacent subdivisions exhibit distinct organizational features. The central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) and deep aspects of its neighboring lateral cortex (LCIC, Layer 3) are tonotopically-organized and receive layered inputs from primarily downstream auditory sources...
May 2016: Hearing Research
Daniel Carson, Marketa Hnilova, Xiulan Yang, Cameron L Nemeth, Jonathan H Tsui, Alec S T Smith, Alex Jiao, Michael Regnier, Charles E Murry, Candan Tamerler, Deok-Ho Kim
Understanding the phenotypic development of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) is a prerequisite to advancing regenerative cardiac therapy, disease modeling, and drug screening applications. Lack of consistent hiPSC-CM in vitro data can be largely attributed to the inability of conventional culture methods to mimic the structural, biochemical, and mechanical aspects of the myocardial niche accurately. Here, we present a nanogrid culture array comprised of nanogrooved topographies, with groove widths ranging from 350 to 2000 nm, to study the effect of different nanoscale structures on the structural development of hiPSC-CMs in vitro...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juliane Simmchen, Jaideep Katuri, William E Uspal, Mihail N Popescu, Mykola Tasinkevych, Samuel Sánchez
Achieving control over the directionality of active colloids is essential for their use in practical applications such as cargo carriers in microfluidic devices. So far, guidance of spherical Janus colloids was mainly realized using specially engineered magnetic multilayer coatings combined with external magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate that step-like submicrometre topographical features can be used as reliable docking and guiding platforms for chemically active spherical Janus colloids. For various topographic features (stripes, squares or circular posts), docking of the colloid at the feature edge is robust and reliable...
2016: Nature Communications
I Tonazzini, S Meucci, G M Van Woerden, Y Elgersma, M Cecchini
Recent discoveries indicate that during neuronal development the signaling processes that regulate extracellular sensing (e.g., adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics) are important targets for ubiquitination-dependent regulation, in particular through E3 ubiquitin ligases. Among these, Ubiquitin E3a ligase (UBE3A) has a key role in brain functioning, but its function and how its deficiency results in the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is still unclear. Here, the role of UBE3A is investigated in neurite contact guidance during neuronal development, in vitro...
April 6, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Reza Abbas Farishta, Céline Robert, Olivier Turcot, Sébastien Thomas, Matthieu P Vanni, Jean-François Bouchard, Christian Casanova
PURPOSE: The endocannabinoids (eCBs) and their receptors are expressed in the cortex of developing animals where they act as a neuromodulating system during critical stages of brain development such as cell proliferation and migration, and axon guidance. Little is known on the impact of the cannabinoid system on cortical map formation and receptive field properties of cortical sensory neurons. The present study evaluates in vivo the functional organization of the primary visual cortex (V1) of mice lacking cannabinoid CB1R receptor (cnr1-/-)...
December 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
David Caballero, Jordi Comelles, Matthieu Piel, Raphaël Voituriez, Daniel Riveline
Directed cell migration is usually thought to depend on the presence of long-range gradients of either chemoattractants or physical properties such as stiffness or adhesion. However, in vivo, chemical or mechanical gradients have not systematically been observed. Here we review recent in vitro experiments, which show that other types of spatial guidance cues can bias cell motility. Introducing local geometrical or mechanical anisotropy in the cell environment, such as adhesive/topographical microratchets or tilted micropillars, show that local and periodic external cues can direct cell motion...
December 2015: Trends in Cell Biology
Boyang Zhang, Miles Montgomery, Locke Davenport-Huyer, Anastasia Korolj, Milica Radisic
Engineering mature tissues requires a guided assembly of cells into organized three-dimensional (3D) structures with multiple cell types. Guidance is usually achieved by microtopographical scaffold cues or by cell-gel compaction. The assembly of individual units into functional 3D tissues is often time-consuming, relying on cell ingrowth and matrix remodeling, whereas disassembly requires an invasive method that includes either matrix dissolution or mechanical cutting. We invented Tissue-Velcro, a bio-scaffold with a microfabricated hook and loop system...
August 2015: Science Advances
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