Read by QxMD icon Read

Vitiligo and gene therapy

Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Katja Ursic, Gregor Sersa
Gene electrotransfer (GET) is one of the most efficient non-viral gene therapy approaches for the localized transfer of multiple genes into tumors in vivo; therefore, it is especially promising for delivering different cytokines that are toxic if administered systemically. In this study, we used concomitant intratumoral GET of two cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a potent cytotoxic cytokine to induce in situ vaccination, and interleukin 12 (IL-12), an immunostimulatory cytokine to boost the primed local immune response into a systemic one...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Reinhart Speeckaert, Nanja van Geel
The pathophysiology of vitiligo is becoming increasingly clarified. In non-segmental vitiligo, early factors include activation of innate immunity, inflammasome activation, oxidative stress, and loss of melanocyte adhesion. Nonetheless, the main mechanism leading to non-segmental vitiligo involves an immune-mediated destruction of melanocytes. Anti-melanocyte-specific cytotoxic T cells exert a central role in the final effector stage. Genetic research revealed a multi-genetic inheritance displaying an overlap with other autoimmune disorders...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan, Biswa Ranjan Meher, Syed Shams Ul Hassan
Vitiligo is an idiopathic systemic autoimmune disease affecting skin, hair and oral mucosa. This genetic yet acquired disease characterized by melanin loss is a cause of morbidity across all races. Though thyroid disturbance has been recognized as a key trigger of this pathology, an array of other factors plays critical role in its manifestation. Multiple hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melatonin, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogen), genes (Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), Cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117), Estrogen receptor (ESR) 1, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Vitiligo-associated protein 1 (VIT1)), and lifestyle choices (stress, diet, cosmetic products, and medications) have been suspected as drivers of this disorder...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fei-Mei Kuang, Lan-Lan Tang, Hui Zhang, Min Xie, Ming-Hua Yang, Liang-Chun Yang, Yan Yu, Li-Zhi Cao
An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Routine blood tests and immune function tests performed in other hospitals had shown normal results. Multiple lung CT scans showed pulmonary infection. The patient had recurrent fever and cough and persistent presence of some lesions after anti-infective therapy...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Rama Dey-Rao, Animesh A Sinha
BACKGROUND: Significant gaps remain regarding the pathomechanisms underlying the autoimmune response in vitiligo (VL), where the loss of self-tolerance leads to the targeted killing of melanocytes. Specifically, there is incomplete information regarding alterations in the systemic environment that are relevant to the disease state. METHODS: We undertook a genome-wide profiling approach to examine gene expression in the peripheral blood of VL patients and healthy controls in the context of our previously published VL-skin gene expression profile...
January 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
Prashiela Manga, Nada Elbuluk, Seth J Orlow
Vitiligo, an acquired depigmentation disorder, manifests as white macules on the skin and can cause significant psychological stress and stigmatization. Recent advances have shed light on key components that drive disease onset and progression as well as therapeutic approaches. Vitiligo can be triggered by stress to the melanin pigment-producing cells of the skin, the melanocytes. The triggers, which range from sunburn to mechanical trauma and chemical exposures, ultimately cause an autoimmune response that targets melanocytes, driving progressive skin depigmentation...
2016: F1000Research
Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Alain Taïeb, Aksam Merched
The therapeutic hypothesis proposed by Speeckaert and van Geel in this issue (1) is based on the dramatic effects of the new drugs targeting immune privilege checkpoints (PD1/PDL, CTLA4) in current advanced melanoma therapy as major inductors of vitiligo changes in the skin. Such striking clinical manifestations cannot be classified as mere side effects without considering possible consequences for spontaneously occurring vitiligo."
July 2017: Experimental Dermatology
Amelia Soto Hopkin, Elyse K Paterson, Rolando Ruiz, Anand K Ganesan
The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes...
May 25, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Simone M Goldinger, Pascale Stieger, Barbara Meier, Sara Micaletto, Emmanuel Contassot, Lars E French, Reinhard Dummer
PURPOSE: Immunotherapy has experienced impressive progress in cancer treatment. Antibodies against PD-1 improved survival in different types of cancer including melanoma. They are generally well tolerated. However, skin toxicities including pruritus, rashes, and vitiligo are reported. Although frequent, they have not been characterized further yet. In this analysis, we aimed to systematically assess and characterize the adverse cutaneous reactions observed in patients with melanoma treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Heng Xie, Fubo Zhou, Ling Liu, Guannan Zhu, Qiang Li, Chunying Li, Tianwen Gao
Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder characterized by a loss of functional melanocytes and melanin from epidermis, in which the autoantigens and subsequent autoimmunity caused by oxidative stress play significant roles according to hypotheses. Various factors lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in the melanocytes of vitiligo: the exogenous and endogenous stimuli that cause ROS production, low levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, disturbed antioxidant pathways and polymorphisms of ROS-associated genes...
January 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Q Shi, W Zhang, S Guo, Z Jian, S Li, K Li, R Ge, W Dai, G Wang, T Gao, C Li
Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, the specific molecular mechanism involved in oxidative stress-induced melanocyte death is not well characterized. Given the powerful role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of cell survival as well as the fact that the generation of miRNAs can be affected by oxidative stress, we hypothesized that miRNAs may participate in vitiligo pathogenesis by modulating the expression of vital genes in melanocytes. In the present study, we initially found that miR-25 was increased in both serum and lesion samples from vitiligo patients, and its serum level was correlated with the activity of vitiligo...
March 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
W Dai, F-B Zhou, C Wei, X-W Wang, S Guo, X-L Yi, K Li, T-W Gao, L Liu, C-Y Li
BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes have been shown to cause the destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo pathogenesis. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB), as an effective therapeutic strategy in vitiligo, can lead to the formation of DNA photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in perilesional lymphocytes and thus induce skin immunosuppression. The repair of DNA photoproducts is performed mainly through the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER genes might influence the repair capacity of CPDs and thus contribute to variations in phototherapy efficiency...
August 2015: British Journal of Dermatology
Danilo C Finamor, Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Luiz C M Neves, Marcia Gutierrez, Jeferson J Silva, Lucas D Torres, Fernanda Surano, Domingos J Neto, Neil F Novo, Yara Juliano, Antonio C Lopes, Cicero Galli Coimbra
Autoimmunity has been associated with vitamin D deficiency and resistance, with gene polymorphisms related to vitamin D metabolism frequently described in affected patients. High doses of vitamin D3 may conceivably compensate for inherited resistance to its biological effects. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of prolonged high-dose vitamin D3 treatment of patients with psoriasis and vitiligo. Nine patients with psoriasis and 16 patients with vitiligo received vitamin D3 35,000 IU once daily for six months in association with a low-calcium diet (avoiding dairy products and calcium-enriched foods like oat, rice or soya "milk") and hydration (minimum 2...
January 1, 2013: Dermato-endocrinology
Prashiela Manga, Robyn Kerr, Michèle Ramsay, Jennifer G R Kromberg
Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively)...
December 2013: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Hassan Riad, Haya Al Mannai, Khalid Mansour, Khalifa Al Qaatri, Sharifa Al Dosari, Amina Al Obaidaly, Emad Sultan
Alopecia areata and vitiligo are autoimmune diseases, both associated with multiple autoimmune comorbidities. Many studies show colocalization of these diseases at the same anatomical site. Here, we have a case where both disorders were reported to present in the same patient. Diphenylcyclopropenone (diphencyprone, DCP) is used in the treatment of alopecia areata and may induce vitiligo in some patients. We report on one case of vitiligo that was induced by DCP during therapy for alopecia universalis. Alopecia areata and vitiligo share many susceptibility genes...
2013: Case Reports in Dermatology
A Miniati, Z Weng, B Zhang, A Therianou, M Vasiadi, E Nicolaidou, A J Stratigos, C Antoniou, T C Theoharides
Vitiligo is a disorder of depigmentation, for which the pathogenesis is as yet unclear. Interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8) is a key inflammatory chemokine. We investigated the regulation of IL-8 production in human melanocytes, and the IL-8 serum levels and skin gene expression in patients with vitiligo and in controls. Cultured melanocytes were stimulated for 24 h with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) 100 ng/mL and IL-1β 10 ng/mL, with or without pretreatment with luteolin 50 μmol/L for 30 min, and IL-8 release was measured by ELISA...
January 2014: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Cheng-Che E Lan, Hsin-Su Yu, Jian-He Lu, Ching-Shuang Wu, Hsiao-Chi Lai
Light exposure modulates development of living organisms. In the field of medicine, light has frequently been used for regenerative purposes. Excimer light (308 nm) has demonstrated superior efficacy in treating vitiligo, a condition requiring development of melanoblasts and a model for studying nerve cell regeneration, as compared to narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB; 311 nm). Using mouse-derived melanoblast cells to examine the pro-differentiation effects of these two light sources, we demonstrated that at equivalent fluence, excimer light induces melanoblast differentiation, while NBUVB failed to so...
May 2013: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Richard Yu, Raewyn Broady, Yuanshen Huang, Yang Wang, Jie Yu, Min Gao, Megan Levings, Shencai Wei, Shengquan Zhang, Aie Xu, Mingwan Su, Jan Dutz, Xuejun Zhang, Youwen Zhou
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients...
2012: PloS One
Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Pascale Saugier-Veber, Jean-Louis Wémeau
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrom type 1 (PAS-1) or Autoimmune PolyEndocrinopathy Candidiasis-Ectodermal-Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare recessive autosomal disease related to Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations. AIRE is mainly implicated in central and peripheric immune tolerance. Diagnosis was classically based on presence of at least two out of three "majors" criterions of Whitaker's triad (candidiasis, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency). Presence of one criterion was sufficient when a sibling was previously diagnosed...
December 2012: La Presse Médicale
Yi Mou, Xian Jiang, Yu Du, Li Xue
Vitiligo is a common, incurable skin disease with a prevalence of about 1%. Although many vitiligo therapies are available in clinics, there is almost no one method that causes significant improvement in all vitiligo patients. Some have hypothesized that melanocyte dysfunction or deficiency underlies the loss of skin pigmentation observed in vitiligo. The autoimmune-mediated apoptosis of melanocytes might be an important part of the etiology of vitiligo, which prevents the formation of melanocytes in the skin...
December 2012: Medical Hypotheses
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"