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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822348/risk-factors-for-potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#2
Slobodan M Janković, Ana V Pejčić, Miloš N Milosavljević, Valentina D Opančina, Nikola V Pešić, Tamara T Nedeljković, Goran M Babić
PURPOSE: To determine risk factors for each severity-based category of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) encountered at intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated at the ICU of the Clinical Center Kragujevac, a public tertiary care hospital in Kragujevac, Serbia. Three interaction checkers were used to reveal drug-drug interactions: Medscape, Epocrates and Micromedex. RESULTS: The study included 201 patients, 66...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822346/comparative-study-of-single-combination-use-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-and-berberine-on-their-protection-on-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-nmr-metabolic-profiling
#3
Yan Lv, Junsong Wang, Dingqiao Xu, Shanting Liao, Pei Li, Qian Zhang, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong
Sepsis is a serious clinical disease with a high mortality rate all around the world. Liver organ dysfunction is an important sign for the severity and outcome of sepsis in patients. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach and biochemical assays were applied to investigate the metabolic profiling for cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced acute liver injury, the therapeutical effect of single/combination use of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction (HLJDD) and berberine, and the interaction of them. Metabolomics analysis revealed significant perturbations in livers of septic rats, which could be ameliorated by HLJDD, berberine and their combination treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822340/endothelial-glycocalyx-biomarkers-increase-in-patients-with-infection-during-emergency-department-treatment
#4
Lisa Smart, Stephen P J Macdonald, Sally Burrows, Erika Bosio, Glenn Arendts, Daniel M Fatovich
PURPOSE: Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) shedding may promote organ failure in sepsis. This study describes temporal changes in EG biomarkers from Emergency Department (ED) arrival, and associations with clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 23 patients with simple infection, 86 with sepsis and 29 healthy controls. Serum EG biomarkers included syndecan-1, syndecan-4 and hyaluronan. Samples were taken on enrolment in the ED (T0), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 12 to 24 hours (T24) later...
July 2, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822335/specificity-protein-1-modulated-superoxide-dismutase-2-enhances-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-which-is-independent-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase
#5
Kwang-Yu Chang, Tsung-I Hsu, Che-Chia Hsu, Shan-Yin Tsai, Jr-Jiun Liu, Shao-Wen Chou, Ming-Sheng Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Chiung-Yuan Ko, Kai-Yun Chen, Jan-Jong Hung, Wen-Chang Chang, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Jian-Ying Chuang
Acquisition of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a major factor leading to the failure of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. The exact mechanism by which GBM evades TMZ toxicity is not always related to the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and so remains unclear. In this study, TMZ-resistant variants derived from MGMT-negative GBM clinical samples and cell lines were studied, revealing there to be increased specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation following TMZ treatment...
August 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#6
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822307/efficacy-of-a-third-or-later-antiepileptic-drug-regimen-according-to-epilepsy-syndrome-among-adult-patients
#7
Go Ito, Akihisa Okumura, Kousuke Kanemoto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of third or later antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens in adult patients with epilepsy according to epilepsy syndrome. METHODS: The time courses of AEDs and their efficacy were evaluated in 449 adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=153), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, n=33), or extratemporal focal epilepsy (FE, n=263) based mainly on clinical symptoms and EEG findings. Any change in AEDs after their initiation demarcated the end of one regimen, whereas changes in dose did not...
August 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822302/new-insight-in-spiral-drawing-analysis-methods-application-to-action-tremor-quantification
#8
André Pierre Legrand, Isabelle Rivals, Aliénor Richard, Emmanuelle Apartis, Emmanuel Roze, Marie Vidailhet, Sabine Meunier, Elodie Hainque
OBJECTIVE: Spiral drawing is one of the standard tests used to assess tremor severity for the clinical evaluation of medical treatments. Tremor severity is estimated through visual rating of the drawings by movement disorders experts. Different approaches based on the mathematical signal analysis of the recorded spiral drawings were proposed to replace this rater dependent estimate. The objective of the present study is to propose new numerical methods and to evaluate them in terms of agreement with visual rating and reproducibility...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822300/drinking-water-to-reduce-alcohol-craving-a-randomized-controlled-study-on-the-impact-of-ghrelin-in-mediating-the-effects-of-forced-water-intake-in-alcohol-addiction
#9
Anne Koopmann, Katharina Lippmann, Rilana Schuster, Iris Reinhard, Patrick Bach, Georg Weil, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Klaus Wiedemann, Falk Kiefer
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. METHODS: In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure...
August 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822297/validation-of-the-choking-risk-assessment-and-pneumonia-risk-assessment-for-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disability-idd
#10
Justine Joan Sheppard, Georgia A Malandraki, Paula Pifer, Jill Cuff, Michelle Troche, Bronwyn Hemsley, Susan Balandin, Avinash Mishra, Roberta Hochman
BACKGROUND: Risk assessments are needed to identify adults with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) at high risk of choking and pneumonia. AIM: To describe the development and validation of the Choking Risk Assessment (CRA) and the Pneumonia Risk Assessment (PRA) for adults with IDD. METHODS: Test items were identified through literature review and focus groups. Five-year retrospective chart reviews identified a positive choking group (PCG), a negative choking group (NCG), a positive pneumonia group (PPG), and a negative pneumonia group (NPG)...
August 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822275/the-functionality-appreciation-scale-fas-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-in-u-s-community-women-and-men
#11
Jessica M Alleva, Tracy L Tylka, Ashley M Kroon Van Diest
Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construct has yet to be developed. Therefore, we developed the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) and examined its psychometric properties among three online community samples totalling 1042 women and men (ns=490 and 552, respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822270/nano-technology-contributions-towards-the-development-of-high-performance-radioisotope-generators-the-future-promise-to-meet-the-continuing-clinical-demand
#12
REVIEW
Tamer M Sakr, Mohamed F Nawar, T W Fasih, S El-Bayoumy, H A Abd El-Rehim
Nanostructured materials attracted considerable attention because of its high surface area to volume ratio resulting from their nano-scale dimensions. This class of sorbents is expected to have a potential impact on enhancement the efficacy of radioisotope generators for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. This review provides a summary on the importance of nanostructured materials as effective sorbents for the development of clinical-scale radioisotope generators and outlining the assessment of recent developments, key challenges and promising access to the near future...
August 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822265/the-influence-of-low-level-laser-irradiation-on-vascular-reactivity
#13
Magdelena Mackiewicz-Milewska, Elżbieta Grześk, Andrzej C Kroszczyński, Małgorzata Cisowska-Adamiak, Hanna Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Lilianna Baran, Iwona Szymkuć-Bukowska, Michał Wiciński, Wojciech Hagner, Grzegorz Grześk
The mechanism of action of low level laser irradiationon on tissues is unclear. Authors of publications present the positive clinical impact of low and medium power laser irradiation on vascular reactivity.
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822255/malnutrition-in-postacute-geriatric-care-basic-espen-diagnosis-and-etiology-based-diagnoses-analyzed-by-length-of-stay-in-hospital-mortality-and-functional-rehabilitation-indexes
#14
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ester Marco, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Xavier Duran, Josep M Muniesa
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between malnutrition and nutrition-related conditions according to the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus and guidelines and clinical outcomes in postacute rehabilitation. METHODS: Of 102 eligible inpatients, 95 (84.5 years old, 63.2% women) fulfilled inclusion criteria: aged ≥70 years, body mass index <30kg/m(2), admission for rehabilitation. Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF≤11) identified patients "at risk" and ESPEN basic and etiology based definitions were applied...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822254/a-systematic-review-of-hypertension-outcomes-and-treatment-strategies-in-older-adults
#15
REVIEW
Julienne K Kirk, Julie Allsbrook, Maggie Hansell, Emily M Mann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature regarding blood pressure control and management in older adult patient population over 70 years of age. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed and capturing the data from 2006 to 2016. Terms used included MeSH headings for hypertension/therapy and antihypertension agents. A systematic review of published studies was performed. Articles including older patients (average age 70 years or older) being treated for hypertension were included...
July 25, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822238/the-environmental-injustice-of-beauty-framing-chemical%C3%A2-exposures-from-beauty-products-as-a-health%C3%A2-disparities-concern
#16
Ami R Zota, Bhavna Shamasunder
The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822237/beyond-genomics-targeting-the-epigenome-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Kühnl, David Cunningham, Ian Chau
After decades of intense research on genetic alterations in cancer and successful implementation of genetically-based targeted therapies, the field of cancer epigenetics is only beginning to be fully recognized. The discovery of frequent mutations in genes modifying the epigenome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has highlighted the outstanding role of epigenetic deregulation in this disease. Identification of epigenetically-driven DLBCL subgroups and development of novel epigenetic drugs have rapidly advanced...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822227/inborn-errors-of-metabolism-in-a-cohort-of-pregnancies-with-non-immune-hydrops-fetalis-a-single-center-experience
#18
Zandrè Bruwer, Nihal Al Riyami, Tamima Al Dughaishi, Fathiya Al Murshedi, Abeer Al Sayegh, Adila Al Kindy, Douja Meftah, Khalsa Al Kharusi, Amel Al Foori, Naeema Al Yarubi, Patrick Scott, Khalid Al-Thihli
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) among all pregnancies referred for prenatal care at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) during the study period and to evaluate the underlying etiologies of NIH. STUDY DESIGN: All pregnancies referred to SQUH between February 2014 and December 2015 were identified, and all pregnancies meeting the diagnosis of NIHF were included in this study. All cases of NIHF referred to our center during this period underwent standard systematic diagnostic work-up that included biochemical and molecular studies in addition to the standard investigations for hydrops fetalis...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822224/is-it-necessary-for-all-samples-to-quantify-25ohd2-and-25ohd3-using-lc-ms-ms-in-clinical-practice
#19
Songlin Yu, Ruiping Zhang, Weiyan Zhou, Xinqi Cheng, Qian Cheng, Liangyu Xia, Shaowei Xie, Yicong Yin, Dandan Sun, Wei Su, Ling Qiu
BACKGROUND: The demand for vitamin D testing is increasing in China. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) immunoassay is specific and accurate but requires expensive equipment, experienced operators, and complicated pretreatment of serum. Automated immunoassays are simple and convenient but only determine total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD). The objective of this study was to quantify 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 in patients to assist clinical physicians and laboratory directors in choosing the most appropriate method to determine 25OHD...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822222/biomechanical-comparison-of-a-novel-monocortical-and-two-common-bicortical-external-fixation-systems-regarding-rigidity-and-dynamic-stability
#20
Patrick A Varady, Markus Greinwald, Peter Augat
AIM: To biomechanically compare a monocortical single frame external fixator (Orthofix UNYCO) with two bicortical fixator systems (dual frame: Stryker Hoffmann and single frame: Synthes LEF) with respect to system rigidity and stability under cyclic loading. METHODS: The fixator systems were assessed for axial rigidity under loads which would occur clinically during fixator application and dynamic stability (cyclic fatigue) under loads which would occur in the first week postoperatively...
August 19, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
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