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mdx mouse

J Patrick Gonzalez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Victoria Kyrychenko, Joel S Schneider, Celine J Granier, Eric Himelman, Kevin Lahey, Qingshi Zhao, Ghassan Yehia, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Mantu Bhaumik, Natalia Shirokova, Diego Fraidenraich
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the loss of the protein dystrophin, leading to muscle fragility, progressive weakening, and susceptibility to mechanical stress. Although dystrophin-negative mdx mouse models have classically been used to study DMD, phenotypes appear mild compared to patients. As a result, characterization of muscle pathology, especially in the heart, has proven difficult. We report that injection of mdx embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into Wild Type (WT) blastocysts produces adult mouse chimeras with severe DMD phenotypes in the heart and skeletal muscle...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells
S M Klein, L Prantl, S Geis, O Felthaus, J Dolderer, A Anker, K Zeitler, E Alt, J Vykoukal
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) consists of a lack in the expression of the subsarcolemmal protein dystrophin causing progressive muscle dysfunction. Among the widely applied animal models in DMD research is the C57BL/1010ScSn-Dmdmdx mouse, commonly referred to as the "mdx mouse". The potential benefit of novel interventions in this model is often assessed by variables such as functional improvement, histological changes, and creatine kinase (CK) serum levels as an indicator for the extent of in situ muscle damage...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Cynthia Machado Cascabulho, Daniela Gois Beghini, Marcelo Meuser-Batista, Carmen Penido, Andrea Henriques-Pons
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that lead to degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscles and to chronic inflammation. Despite the importance of γδ T cells in many diseases, this cellular subpopulation has not been described in DMD patients or in mdx mice, a widely used mouse model for studying DMD. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the migration of γδ T cells to the cardiac muscle of mdx mice and to characterize their phenotype and functional activity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Amir Mizbani, Edlira Luca, Elisabeth J Rushing, Jan Krützfeldt
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of skeletal muscle regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, comparative miRNA sequencing analysis of myogenic progenitor cells (MPs) and non-myogenic fibroblast-adipocyte progenitors (FAPs) during cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury uncovered miR-501 as a novel muscle-specific miRNA. miR-501 is an intronic miRNA and its expression levels in MPs correlated with its host gene, chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 5, Clcn5 Pharmacological inhibition of miR-501 dramatically blunted the induction of embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) and, to a lesser extent, adult myosin isoforms during muscle regeneration and promoted small-diameter neofibers...
October 5, 2016: Development
Ute Ulrike Botzenhart, Constantin Wegenstein, Teodor Todorov, Christiane Kunert-Keil
The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jessica R Terrill, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
BACKGROUND: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice...
April 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
N S Mohamad, A Sinadinos, D C Górecki, P Zioupos, J Tong
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, lethal disorder characterised by progressive muscle degeneration and associated bone abnormalities. We have previously demonstrated that P2RX7 purinergic receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of DMD, and found that P2RX7 ablation alleviated the severity of the disease. In this work we have used a dystrophic mdx mouse crossed with the global P2RX7 receptor to generate a knockout mouse (mdx/P2X7(-)(/)(-)), and compared its morphometric, mechanical and tissue properties against those of mdx, as well as the wild type (WT) and the P2RX7 knockout (P2X7(-)(/)(-))...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Thomas Fröhlich, Elisabeth Kemter, Florian Flenkenthaler, Nikolai Klymiuk, Kathrin A Otte, Andreas Blutke, Sabine Krause, Maggie C Walter, Rüdiger Wanke, Eckhard Wolf, Georg J Arnold
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic deficiency of dystrophin and characterized by massive structural and functional changes of skeletal muscle tissue, leading to terminal muscle failure. We recently generated a novel genetically engineered pig model reflecting pathological hallmarks of human DMD better than the widely used mdx mouse. To get insight into the hierarchy of molecular derangements during DMD progression, we performed a proteome analysis of biceps femoris muscle samples from 2-day-old and 3-month-old DMD and wild-type (WT) pigs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Morium Begam, Valerie M Abro, Amber L Mueller, Joseph A Roche
We performed a placebo-controlled pre-clinical study to determine if sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PB) can reduce contraction-induced myofiber damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). At 72 h post-eccentric contractions, 4PB significantly increased contractile torque and reduced myofiber damage and macrophage infiltration. We conclude that 4PB, which is approved by Health Canada (Pheburane) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (Buphenyl) for urea cycle disorders, might modify disease severity in patients with DMD...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Rubén Miranda, Serge Laroche, Cyrille Vaillend
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with non-progressive cognitive dysfunction including hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. Loss of the cytoskeleton-associated dystrophin protein in central inhibitory synapses, associated with consequent alterations in GABAergic function and synaptic plasticity, has been proposed as a primary mechanism responsible for cognitive impairments. However, several lines of evidence suggest a multifactorial etiology involving alternative signaling pathways, some of which could affect neuronal survival...
August 17, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Jessica R Terrill, Marisa N Duong, Rufus Turner, Caroline Le Guiner, Amber Boyatzis, Anthony J Kettle, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species...
August 30, 2016: Redox Biology
Mark M Perry, Francesco Muntoni
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs modulate gene transcription in response to environmental stressors and other stimuli. A role for ncRNAs in muscle pathologies has been demonstrated and further evidence suggests that ncRNAs also play a role in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Studies investigating the differential expression of miRNAs in biological fluids between DMD patients and models of dystrophin deficiency (the MDX mouse model, canine models of DMD) and controls have been published, as these have a role in fibrosis...
September 7, 2016: Epigenomics
Nicholas P Whitehead, Kenneth L Bible, Min Jeong Kim, Guy L Odom, Marvin E Adams, Stanley C Froehner
KEY POINTS: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, degenerative muscle disease that is commonly studied using the mdx mouse. The mdx diaphragm muscle closely mimics the pathophysiological changes in DMD muscles. mdx diaphragm force is commonly assessed ex vivo, precluding time course studies. Here we used ultrasonography to evaluate time-dependent changes in diaphragm function in vivo, by measuring diaphragm movement amplitude. In mdx mice, diaphragm amplitude decreased with age and values were much lower than for wild-type mice...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
John Cw Hildyard, Dominic J Wells
Exon-skipping via synthetic antisense oligonucleotides represents one of the most promising potential therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), yet this approach is highly sequence-specific and thus each oligonucleotide is of benefit to only a subset of patients. The discovery that dystrophin mRNA is subject to translational suppression by the microRNA miR31, and that miR31 is elevated in the muscle of DMD patients, raises the possibility that the same oligonucleotide chemistries employed for exon skipping could be directed toward relieving this translational block...
2016: PLoS Currents
Jing Liu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Ling Lai, Liwei Xiao, Lin Liu, Tingting Fu, Yan Kong, Qian Zhou, Rick B Vega, Min-Sheng Zhu, Daniel P Kelly, Xiang Gao, Zhenji Gan
Upon adaption of skeletal muscle to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, muscle fiber type and mitochondrial function are coordinately regulated. Recent studies have identified pathways involved in control of contractile proteins of oxidative-type fibers. However, the mechanism for coupling of mitochondrial function to the muscle contractile machinery during fiber type transition remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression of the genes encoding type I myosins, Myh7/Myh7b and their intronic miR-208b/miR-499, parallels mitochondrial function during fiber type transitions...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
David W Hammers, Margaret M Sleeper, Sean C Forbes, Ai Shima, Glenn A Walter, H Lee Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of mortality among Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and lacks effective therapies. Phosphodiesterase type 5 is implicated in dystrophic pathology, and the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil has recently been studied in a clinical trial for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tadalafil was evaluated for the prevention of cardiomyopathy in the mdx mouse and golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Patrizia Pessina, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
The excessive accumulation of collagens (fibrosis) impairs the function of vital tissues and organs. Fibrosis is a hallmark of severe muscular dystrophies, such as the incurable Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), where skeletal muscle is substituted by scar (fibrotic) tissue as disease advances. One of the major obstacles in increasing our ability to combat fibrosis-driven muscular dystrophy progression is that no optimal in vivo models of muscle fibrosis are currently available, limiting fibrosis research and the development of novel therapies...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mikako Ito, Yuka Ehara, Shin Li, Kosuke Inada, Kinji Ohno
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in <i>DMD</i> encoding dystrophin. No rational therapy is currently available. Utrophin is a paralog of dystrophin and is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction. In <i>mdx</i> mice, utrophin is naturally upregulated throughout the muscle fibers, which mitigates muscular dystrophy. We previously reported the protein-anchoring therapy, in which a recombinant extracellular matrix protein is delivered to and anchored to a specific target using its proprietary binding domains...
August 2, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Eyal Hassoun, Mary Safrin, Hana Ziv, Sarah Pri-Chen, Efrat Kessler
Current non-invasive diagnostic methods of fibrosis are limited in their ability to identify early and intermediate stages of fibrosis and assess the efficacy of therapy. New biomarkers of fibrosis are therefore constantly sought for, leading us to evaluate procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1), a fibrosis-related extracellular matrix glycoprotein, as a plasma marker of fibrosis. A sandwich ELISA that permitted accurate measurements of PCPE-1 concentrations in mouse plasma was established. Tissue fibrosis was assessed using histochemical, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting analyses for type I collagen and PCPE-1...
2016: PloS One
Tiziana Annese, Patrizia Corsi, Simona Ruggieri, Roberto Tamma, Christian Marinaccio, Sabrina Picocci, Mariella Errede, Giorgina Specchia, Annamaria DeLuca, Maria Antonia Frassanito, Vanessa Desantis, Angelo Vacca, Domenico Ribatti, Beatrice Nico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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