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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040815/the-role-of-folic-acid-and-selenium-against-oxidative-ethanol-damage-in-early-life-programming-a-review
#1
Mª Luisa Ojeda Murillo, Fatima Nogales Bueno, Mª Luisa Murillo Taravillo, Olimpia Carreras Sánchez
Several disorders in children, called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), occur as result of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation. They appear, at least in part, to be related to the oxidative stress that this drug generates. Ethanol metabolism generates reactive oxygen species and causes a depletion of the antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH) leading to oxidative stress and lipid and protein damage which are related to growth retardation and neurotoxicity, increasing the incidence of FASD...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024604/the-avian-embryo-as-a-model-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
Susan M Smith, George R Flentke
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a leading preventable cause of structural birth defects and permanent neurodevelopmental disability. The chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a powerful embryological research model and was possibly the first (Fere, 1895) in which alcohol's teratogenicity was demonstrated. Pharmacologically relevant alcohol exposures in the range of 20-70 mM (20-80 mg/egg) disrupt chick embryo growth, morphogenesis, and behavior, and the resulting phenotypes strongly parallel those of mammalian models...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023818/commentary-on-montag-et%C3%A2-al-2017-the-importance-of-cbpr-in-fasd-prevention-with-american-indian-communities
#3
Jessica D Hanson, Tess L Weber
Prenatal alcohol consumption is a public health concern due to potential lifelong physical and cognitive effects in offspring, often presenting in the form of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is the continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol and includes a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is diagnosed through facial abnormalities, growth retardation, and delayed brain growth (Hoyme et al., 2016), as well as secondary disabilities such as conduct disorders, mental illness, and psychosocial functioning...
October 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017910/developmental-ethanol-exposure-alters-the-morphology-of-mouse-prefrontal-neurons-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#4
Emma L Louth, Hanna D Luctkar, Kayla A Heney, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic developmental exposure to ethanol can lead to a wide variety of teratogenic effects, which in humans are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Individuals affected by FASD may exhibit persistent impairments to cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention, which are highly dependent on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. The objective of this study was to determine long-term effects of chronic developmental ethanol exposure on mPFC neuron morphology, in order to better-understand potential neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments associated with FASD...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017023/maternal-iron-nutriture-as-a-critical-modulator-of-fasd-risk-in-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies
#5
Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy places the fetus at risk for permanent physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) outcomes vary widely, and growing evidence suggests that maternal nutrition is a modifying factor. Certain nutrients, such as iron, may modulate FASD outcomes. Untreated gestational iron deficiency (ID) causes persistent neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring that affect many of the same domains damaged by PAE...
October 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988969/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-zebrafish-in-the-analysis-of-the-milder-and-more-prevalent-form-of-the-disease
#6
REVIEW
Diane Seguin, Robert Gerlai
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) represent a large unmet medical need. Exposure of the developing human embryo to alcohol can lead to life-long suffering. Despite the well documented deleterious effects of alcohol on the developing fetus, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, and FASD remains the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and other behavioral abnormalities. Particularly prevalent are the milder forms of the disease cluster, representing children who do not show obvious physical signs and who may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987617/mitigation-of-postnatal-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammation-ameliorates-trace-fear-memory-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#7
Molly J Goodfellow, Youn Ju Shin, Derick H Lindquist
Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982294/the-effect-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-fetal-growth-and-cardiovascular-parameters-in-a-baboon-model-of-pregnancy
#8
Ana M Tobiasz, Jose R Duncan, Zoran Bursac, Ryan D Sullivan, Danielle L Tate, Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya, Giancarlo Mari
Prenatal alcohol exposure often results in an array of fetal developmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Despite the high prevalence of FASDs, the pathophysiology of fetal damage by alcohol remains poorly understood. One of the major obstacles in studying fetal development in response to alcohol exposure is the inability to standardize the amount, pattern of alcohol consumption, and peak blood alcohol levels in pregnant mothers. In the present study, we used Doppler ultrasonography to assess fetal growth and cardiovascular parameters in response to alcohol exposure in pregnant baboons...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982012/competition-between-ethanol-clearance-and-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-induction-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#9
Yehuda Shabtai, Abraham Fainsod
Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977761/understanding-and-managing-sleep-disruption-in-children-with-fasd
#10
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Maida Lynn Chen, Heather Carmichael Olson
Accumulating evidence has revealed high rates of sleep disruption among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Multiple animal and clinical studies have found a clear association between sleep problems and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and recent research is beginning to characterize the types and extent of sleep disruption in FASD. Nevertheless, sleep disruption in children with FASD often goes unrecognized or is treated without referring to an evidence base. Children's disrupted sleep interferes with parental sleep and increases caregiver burden, which is of particular importance for families raising children with FASD, a group with very high levels of caregiving stress...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977753/the-manitoba-youth-justice-program-empowering-and-supporting-fasd-affected-youth-in-conflict-with-the-law
#11
Sally Elizabeth Longstaffe, Albert Chudley, Mary Kate Harvie, Teresa Brown, Dan Neault, Trevor John Markesteyn
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) describes a constellation of physical, cognitive, neurologic and behavioral impairments resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. FASD is recognized as being one of the largest causes of preventable brain injury in children. There had long been concerns that some youth in conflict with the law may be affected with FASD given repetitive patterns of offending and apparent lack of understanding of consequences of their actions. In 2004 funding was received from Justice Canada for a pilot project with a cross departmental steering committee working together to determine a best way of working across systems to provide FASD assessments to these youth...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#12
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965458/what-about-fetal-alcohol-exposure
#13
Carl C Bell, Radhika Chimata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961168/choline-and-working-memory-training-improve-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol
#14
Jaylyn Waddell, Sandra M Mooney
Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood...
September 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948136/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-a-case-study
#15
Leila Glass, Sarah N Mattson
This grand rounds manuscript reviews important considerations in developing case conceptualizations for individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. This case study provides an introduction to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, diagnostic issues, a detailed description of the individual's history, presenting symptoms, neuropsychological test results, and an integrated summary. We describe a 9-year old girl diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE)...
June 2017: J Pediatr Neuropsychol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947208/maternal-ethanol-consumption-reduces-se-antioxidant-function-in-placenta-and-liver-of-embryos-and-breastfeeding-pups
#16
Fátima Nogales, M Luisa Ojeda, Karick Jotty, M Luisa Murillo, Olimpia Carreras
AIM: The fetal alcohol exposition during pregnancy leads to different disorders in offspring, related to the oxidative stress generated by alcohol. It is well-documented that there is an impairment of the antioxidant selenoprotein Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in ethanol offspring during the embryo period, although no-one has described Selenium (Se) status. The aim is to analyze for the first time Se deposits in vivo and Se's biological implication in embryos and placenta after alcohol exposure and in offspring whose mothers continued to drink ethanol during lactation...
September 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944474/altered-neural-oscillations-during-multisensory-integration-in-adolescents-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#17
Alfredo D Bolaños, Brian A Coffman, Felicha T Candelaria-Cook, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), who were exposed to alcohol in utero, display a broad range of sensory, cognitive, and behavioral deficits, which are broadly theorized to be rooted in altered brain function and structure. Based on the role of neural oscillations in multisensory integration from past studies, we hypothesized that adolescents with FASD would show a decrease in oscillatory power during event-related gamma oscillatory activity (30-100Hz), when compared to typically-developing healthy controls (HC), and that such decrease in oscillatory power would predict behavioral performance...
September 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942551/androgen-excess-and-metabolic-disorders-in-women-with-pcos-beyond-the-body-mass-index
#18
REVIEW
R A Condorelli, A E Calogero, M Di Mauro, L M Mongioi', R Cannarella, G Rosta, S La Vignera
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941590/method-performance-and-clinical-workflow-outcomes-associated-with-meconium-and-umbilical-cord-toxicology-testing
#19
Ruth M Labardee, Jaime R Swartzwelder, Karen E Gebhardt, Justine A Pardi, Anna C Dawsey, R Brent Dixon, Steven W Cotten
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a rising concern with unknown long-term effects. It is apparent that higher cost of care, impact on the community and reduced quality of life are associated with similar etiologies (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome). Detection of drug exposure in utero allows for earlier intervention to potentially reduce undesired outcomes. Umbilical cord tissue (UCT) has been documented as a readily accessible specimen for detection of drug exposure and has emerged as an alternative specimen to meconium...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940428/maternal-alcohol-use-and-nutrition-during-pregnancy-diet-and-anthropometry
#20
R Colin Carter, Marjanne Senekal, Neil C Dodge, Lori Bechard, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among non-pregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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