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Fetal alcohol

Michael Suttie, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Scott E Parnell, Leah Wetherill, Sarah N Mattson, Elizabeth R Sowell, Eric Kan, Edward P Riley, Kenneth L Jones, Claire Coles, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a range of facial, neurostructural and neurocognitive adverse effects have been shown to be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Typically, these effects are studied individually and not in combination. Our objective is to improve the understanding of the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by simultaneously considering face-brain morphology and neurocognitive measures. METHODS: Participants were categorized as control (n=47), fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, n=22) or heavily exposed prenatally, but not eligible for a FAS diagnosis (HE, n=50)...
June 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Amanda H Mahnke, Nihal A Salem, Alexander M Tseng, Dae D Chung, Rajesh C Miranda
Early developmental exposure to ethanol, a known teratogen, can result in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Changes in the environment, including exposure to teratogens, can result in long term alterations to the epigenetic landscape of a cell, thereby altering gene expression. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can affect transcription and translation of networks of genes. ncRNAs are dynamically expressed during development and have been identified as a target of alcohol...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Lisa K Akison, Jenny Kuo, Natasha Reid, Roslyn N Boyd, Karen M Moritz
Prenatal alcohol exposure results in cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits in offspring. There is an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to overcome these effects. Maternal choline supplementation has been identified as a potential intervention. Our objective was to review preclinical and clinical studies using choline supplementation in known cases of fetal alcohol exposure to determine its effectiveness in ameliorating deficits in offspring. A systematic search of six electronic databases was conducted and studies selected by reviewing titles/abstracts against specific inclusion/exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Shahani Noor, Erin D Milligan
In utero alcohol exposure is emerging as a major risk factor for lifelong aberrant neuroimmune function. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological sequelae that may occur throughout life and includes cognitive developmental disabilities as well as disease susceptibility related to aberrant immune and neuroimmune actions. Emerging data from clinical studies and findings from animal models support that very low to moderate levels of fetal alcohol exposure may reprogram the developing central nervous system leading to altered neuroimmune and neuroglial signaling during adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Patricia C Swart, Vivienne A Russell, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Friederike Ehrhart, Sylvia Roozen, Jef Verbeek, Ger Koek, Gerjo Kok, Henk van Kranen, Chris T Evelo, Leopold M G Curfs
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy affects the development of the fetus in various ways and may lead to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD is one of the leading preventable forms of neurodevelopmental disorders. In the light of prevention and early intervention, knowledge on how ethanol exposure induces fetal damage is urgently needed. Besides direct ethanol and acetaldehyde toxicity, alcohol increases oxidative stress, and subsequent general effects (e.g., epigenetic imprinting, gene expression, and metabolite levels)...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Mario Manto, Gaetano Perrotta
The cerebellum is a brain region which is particularly susceptible to intoxication. Clinical presentation is heterogeneous. It is often considered that elderly patients and patients presenting pre-existing structural lesions of the posterior fossa are particularly at risk of developing a toxic-induced cerebellar syndrome (TOICS). However, TOICS may occur at any age, including in utero. Indeed, the cerebellum is highly vulnerable during neurodevelopment. Amongst cerebellotoxic agents, ethanol is the most commonly implicated...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, Jessica A Jakubowski, Shannon M Shisler, Marilyn A Huestis, Daniel S Shaw, Rina D Eiden, David Reiss, Emily S Miller, Eileen K Graham, Meaghan McCallum, Jody M Ganiban, Leslie D Leve, Laura R Stroud, Jenae M Neiderhiser
BACKGROUND: Methodologic challenges related to the concomitant use (co-use) of substances and changes in policy and potency of marijuana contribute to ongoing uncertainty about risks to fetal neurodevelopment associated with prenatal marijuana use. In this study, we examined two biomarkers of fetal neurodevelopmental risk-birth weight and length of gestation-associated with prenatal marijuana use, independent of tobacco (TOB), alcohol (ALC), other drug use (OTH), and socioeconomic risk (SES), in a pooled sample (N = 1191) derived from 3 recent developmental cohorts (2003-2015) with state-of-the-art substance use measures...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Clare J Wilhelm, Joel G Hashimoto, Melissa L Roberts, Xiaolu Zhang, Calla M Goeke, Shelley H Bloom, Marina Guizzetti
In utero alcohol exposure can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), characterized by structural brain abnormalities and long-lasting behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. Neuronal plasticity is affected by in utero alcohol exposure and can be modulated by extracellular proteolysis. Plasmin is a major extracellular serine-protease whose activation is tightly regulated by the plasminogen activator (PA) system. In the present study we explored the effect of ethanol on the expression of the main components of the brain PA system in sex-specific cortical astrocyte primary cultures in vitro and in the cortex and hippocampus of post-natal day (PD) 9 male and female rats...
June 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Tatiana V Morozova, Yasmeen Hussain, Lenovia J McCoy, Eugenea V Zhirnov, Morgan R Davis, Victoria A Pray, Rachel A Lyman, Laura H Duncan, Anna McMillen, Aiden Jones, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes a wide range of adverse physiological, behavioral and cognitive consequences. However, identifying allelic variants and genetic networks associated with variation in susceptibility to prenatal alcohol exposure is challenging in human populations, since time and frequency of exposure and effective dose cannot be determined quantitatively and phenotypic manifestations are diverse. Here, we harnessed the power of natural variation in the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to identify genes and genetic networks associated with variation in sensitivity to developmental alcohol exposure...
June 5, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
R Colin Carter, Jia Chen, Qian Li, Maya Deyssenroth, Neil C Dodge, Helen C Wainwright, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence in animal models has implicated alcohol-induced alterations in epigenetic programming as an important mechanism in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Imprinted genes, a subset of epigenetically-regulated genes that are sensitive to the prenatal environment, are chiefly involved in growth and neurobehavior. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in placental imprinted gene expression mediate fetal alcohol growth restriction. METHODS: Placental expression of 109 genes previously shown to be imprinted and expressed in the placenta was assessed using the NanoStringTM nCounter Analysis System in flash-frozen samples from 34 heavy drinkers and 31 control women in Cape Town, South Africa, from whom prospective pregnancy alcohol consumption data had been obtained...
June 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Carl C Bell, Jessie Ajula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek, Karen M Moritz
Exposure to a sub-optimal environment in the womb can result in poor fetal growth and impair the normal development of organs. The kidney, specifically the process of nephrogenesis, has been shown to be impacted by many common pregnancy exposures including an inadequate diet, poor placental function, maternal stress as well as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. This can result in offspring being born with a reduced nephron endowment, which places these individuals at increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 31, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren, Joseph Yanai
We discuss the possibilities to prevent the post-exposure teratogenic effects of several teratogens: valproic acid (VPA), diabetes and alcohol. Co-administration of folic acid with VPA reduced the rate of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) and other anomalies in rodents, but apparently not in pregnant women. Antioxidants or the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine prevented Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like behavior in mice and rats. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that antioxidants, arachidonic acid, myoinositol and nutritional agents may prevent diabetes-embryopathy...
May 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Sarah M Inkelis, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can result in a range of neurobehavioral impairments and physical abnormalities. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) encompasses the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), the most severe of which is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). These effects have lifelong consequences, placing a significant burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and communities. Caregivers of affected children often report that their child has sleep problems, and many symptoms of sleep deprivation overlap with the cognitive and behavioral deficits characteristic of FASD...
May 31, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Samantha Mahabir, Dipashree Chatterjee, Keith Misquitta, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is one of the leading causes of mental health issues worldwide. Analysis of zebrafish exposed to alcohol during embryonic development confirmed that even low concentrations of alcohol for a short period of time may have lasting behavioral consequences at the adult or old age. The mechanism of this alteration has not been studied. Here, we immersed zebrafish embryos into 1% alcohol solution (vol/vol%) at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) for 2 hours, and analyze potential changes using immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jasmine M Brown, Roger Bland, Egon Jonsson, Andrew J Greenshaw
OBJECTIVE: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a medical term used to describe a range of mental and physical disabilities caused by maternal alcohol consumption. The role of alcohol as a teratogen and its effects on the cellular growth of the embryo and the fetus were not determined on scientific grounds until the late 1960s. However, the link between alcohol use during pregnancy and its harms to offspring might have been observed frequently over the many thousands of years during which alcohol has been available and used for social and other reasons...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Danielle M Kabella, Lucinda Flynn, Amanda Peters, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Prior studies indicate that the auditory mismatch response is sensitive to early alterations in brain development in multiple developmental disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to impact early auditory processing. The current study hypothesized alterations in the mismatch response in young children with FASD. METHODS: Participants in this study were 9 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 17 control children (Control) aged 3 to 6 years...
May 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jacqueline F Yates, Matthew M Troester, David G Ingram
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system may be seen in isolation or in association with syndromes that have multiorgan involvement. Among the potential health challenges these children may face, sleep concerns are frequent and may include chronic insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, and circadian rhythm disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we describe recent research into sleep disorders affecting children with congenital malformations of the CNS including visual impairment, septo-optic dysplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Aicardi syndrome, Chiari malformation, spina bifida, achondroplasia, Joubert syndrome, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and congenital Zika syndrome...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Jasmine M Brown, Roger Bland, Egon Jonsson, Andrew J Greenshaw
OBJECTIVE: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disorder caused by maternal alcohol consumption and marked by a range of physical and mental disabilities. Although recognized by the scientific and medical community as a clinical disorder, no internationally standardized diagnostic tool yet exists for FASD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This review seeks to analyse the discrepancies in existing diagnostic tools for FASD, and the repercussions these differences have on research, public health, and government policy...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
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