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Fetal alcohol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899082/interventions-to-improve-gross-motor-performance-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#1
Barbara R Lucas, Elizabeth J Elliott, Sarah Coggan, Rafael Z Pinto, Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND: Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#2
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893083/cohesive-referencing-errors-during-narrative-production-as-clinical-evidence-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
John C Thorne, Truman E Coggins
Purpose: Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Method: Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892236/1-in-100-babies-the-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-pathway
#4
Kerry Lyons
Alcohol consumed during pregnancy is the nation's leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities and birth defects. One in 100 babies is estimated to be born with alcohol-related damage, according to the World Health Organization. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are more common than autism but are under-diagnosed.
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891300/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-an-approach-to-effective-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Sylvia Roozen, D Black, G-J Y Peters, G Kok, D Townend, J G Nijhuis, G H Koek, L M G Curfs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to reduce drinking in pregnancy...
2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#6
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#7
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883195/the-use-of-cardiac-orienting-responses-as-an-early-and-scalable-biomarker-of-alcohol-related-neurodevelopmental-impairment
#8
Diego A Mesa, Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Lyubov Yevtushok, Yaroslav Kulikovsky, Wladimir Wertelecki, Todd P Coleman, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Considered the leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a global health problem. To take advantage of neural plasticity, early identification of affected infants is critical. The cardiac orienting response (COR) has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and is an inexpensive, easy to administer assessment tool. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the COR effectiveness in assessing individual risk of developmental delay...
November 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#9
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 11, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859643/undernourishment-in-utero-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-later-life-a-potential-issue-in-japanese-people-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Hiroaki Itoh, Keiko Muramatsu-Kato, Urmi J Ferdous, Yukiko Kohmura-Kobayashi, Naohiro Kanayama
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD in Japan has nearly doubled in the last 10-15 years. Increasing evidence supports undernourishment in utero being causatively connected with the risk of NAFLD in later life. Low body mass index (BMI) has been common among Japanese women of childbearing age for several decades due to their strong desire to be thin. It is plausible that insufficient maternal energy intake by pregnant Japanese women may underlie the rapid increase in the prevalence of NAFLD in Japan...
November 16, 2016: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853271/foetal-programming-by-methyl-donor-deficiency-produces-steato-hepatitis-in-rats-exposed-to-high-fat-diet
#11
Anaïs Bison, Aude Marchal-Bressenot, Zhen Li, Ilef Elamouri, Eva Feigerlova, Lu Peng, Remi Houlgatte, Bernard Beck, Gregory Pourié, Jean-Marc Alberto, Remy Umoret, Guillaume Conroy, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Jean-Louis Guéant, Rosa-Maria Guéant-Rodriguez
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which emerges as a major public health problem. Deficiency in methyl donors (folate and vitamin B12) during gestation and lactation is frequent in humans and produces foetal programming effects of metabolic syndrome, with small birth weight and liver steatosis at day 21 (d21), in rat pups. We investigated the effects of fetal programming on liver of rats born from deficient mothers (iMDD) and subsequently subjected to normal diet after d21 and high fat diet (HF) after d50...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849248/what-we-know-of-the-central-auditory-disorders-in-children-exposed-to-alcohol-during-pregnancy-systematic-review
#12
Humberto de Oliveira Simões, Sthella Zanchetta, Erikson Felipe Furtado
Purpose: To identify the effects of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the central auditory nervous system in relation to their possible diagnosis, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, his extension and the hearing assessment method. Research strategy: Systematic and integrative review searched the databases PubMed, LILACS and SciELO, with terms in Portuguese and English "fetal alcohol syndrome", "alcohol-related disorders" associated with "hearing"...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#13
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831662/loss-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-effector-%C3%AE-2sp-promotes-genomic-instability
#14
Jian Chen, Vivek Shukla, Patrizia Farci, Jaclyn Andricovich, Wilma Jogunoori, Lawrence N Kwong, Lior H Katz, Kirti Shetty, Asif Rashid, Xiaoping Su, Jon White, Lei Li, Alan Yaoqi Wang, Boris Blechacz, Gottumukkala S Raju, Marta Davila, Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, John R Stroehlein, Junjie Chen, Sang Soo Kim, Heather Levin, Keigo Machida, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Peter Michaely, Alexandros Tzatsos, Lopa Mishra
Exposure to genotoxins such as ethanol-derived acetaldehyde leads to DNA damage and liver injury, and promotes the development of cancer. We report here a major role for the TGF-β/Smad3 adaptor β2-Spectrin (β2SP, gene Sptbn1) in maintaining genomic stability following alcohol-induced DNA damage. β2SP supports DNA repair through β2SP-dependent activation of Fancd2, a core component of the Fanconi anemia complex. Loss of β2SP leads to decreased Fancd2 levels and sensitizes β2SP mutants to DNA damage by ethanol treatment, leading to phenotypes that closely resemble those observed in animals lacking both Aldh2 and Fancd2, and resemble human fetal alcohol syndrome...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830992/factors-predictive-of-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-neuropsychological-assessment
#15
Leah N Enns, Nicole M Taylor
A variety of neurodevelopmental impairments related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnoses have been consistently documented. However, it is not clear whether such variables are predictive of a diagnosis. The purpose of the present study is to use logistic regressions to identify predictors of FASD in neuropsychological assessment. Charts of 180 children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who underwent psychological and diagnostic assessment for FASD were retrospectively reviewed...
November 10, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#16
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828986/plasma-mirna-profiles-in-pregnant-women-predict-infant-outcomes-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#17
Sridevi Balaraman, Jordan J Schafer, Alexander M Tseng, Wladimir Wertelecki, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Christina D Chambers, Rajesh C Miranda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are difficult to diagnose since many heavily exposed infants, at risk for intellectual disability, do not exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology or growth deficits. Consequently, there is a need for biomarkers that predict disability. In both animal models and human studies, alcohol exposure during pregnancy resulted in significant alterations in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in maternal blood. In the current study, we asked if changes in plasma miRNAs in alcohol-exposed pregnant mothers, either alone or in conjunction with other clinical variables, could predict infant outcomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824939/factors-associated-with-maternal-serum-levels-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-organochlorines-a-descriptive-study-of-parous-women-in-norway-and-sweden
#18
Hilde B Lauritzen, Tricia L Larose, Torbjørn Øien, Jon Ø Odland, Margot van de Bor, Geir W Jacobsen, Torkjel M Sandanger
INTRODUCTION: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organochlorines (OCs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment and proposed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). They can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, and studies suggest that the prenatal period may be particularly sensitive for influences on fetal growth and development. Several studies have investigated socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal serum PFAS and OC levels, but few studies have been conducted in time periods with increasing emissions of PFASs and recent emissions of OCs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812507/gene-expression-in-the-mouse-brain-following-early-pregnancy-exposure-to-ethanol
#19
Christine R Zhang, Suyinn Chong
Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3], [4]...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806977/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-choline-supplementation-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#20
Tanya T Nguyen, Rashmi D Risbud, Sarah N Mattson, Christina D Chambers, Jennifer D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a broad range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the long-lasting problems that are associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the development of effective treatment programs is critical. Preclinical animal studies have shown that choline, which is an essential nutrient, can attenuate the severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to translate preclinical findings to a clinical population to investigate whether choline supplementation can ameliorate the severity of memory, executive function, and attention deficits in children with FASDs...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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