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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628018/autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-case-reports
#1
K Kobaidze, A Harrison, Y Burklin, V Patidar, M Riccardi
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease that affects the medial temporal lobes. The patient will usually present with cognitive impairment, psychiatric changes, and seizures. Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) is a challenging diagnosis as it is not always included in the typical paraneoplastic/autoimmune panels. Anti-GAD antibodies are associated with various disease including type I diabetes mellitus, various autoimmune processes, some neoplastic and infectious diseases. Thus, it is not as specific as some of the antibodies causing LE...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619424/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-levels-of-interleukin-8-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-correlation-with-q-albumin
#2
Z Matejčíková, J Mareš, V Sládková, T Svrčinová, J Vysloužilová, J Zapletalová, P Kaňovský
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS and is followed by neurodegenerative processes. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. The paraclinical examination methods are an important part of the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the cervical spinal cord and an examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are common paraclinical examinations...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572801/elevated-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#3
Timur Khaibullin, Vilena Ivanova, Ekaterina Martynova, Georgy Cherepnev, Farit Khabirov, Evgenii Granatov, Albert Rizvanov, Svetlana Khaiboullina
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic brain inflammation. Leukocyte infiltration of brain tissue causes inflammation, demyelination, and the subsequent formation of sclerotic plaques, which are a hallmark of MS. Activation of proinflammatory cytokines is essential for regulation of lymphocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier. We demonstrate increased levels of many cytokines, including IL-2RA, CCL5, CCL11, MIF, CXCL1, CXCL10, IFNγ, SCF, and TRAIL, were upregulated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), whereas IL-17, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and IL-12(p40) were activated in MS serum...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552332/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-suppressed-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-through-both-immunomodulation-and-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#4
Hasti Atashi Shirazi, Javad Rasouli, Bogoljub Ciric, Danmeng Wei, Abdolmohamad Rostami, Guang-Xian Zhang
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has recently been found to have the anti-inflammatory potential to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis; however, its direct effect on neural cells is not clear. In the current study we show that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment effectively suppressed clinical signs of ongoing EAE and reduced inflammation and demyelination scores in the central nervous system (CNS). The treatment significantly decreased production/expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, GM-CSF and IL-17A, while it increased anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10...
May 25, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476103/intracranial-lesion-as-onset-symptom-in-a-patient-with-early-undifferentiated-connective-tissue-disease-a-case-report
#5
Ying Du, Chuan Li, Dai-di Zhao, Jia-Rui Lu, Wei Zhang, Zhu-Yi Li
BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is widely considered to be a distinct clinical entity, and now divided into two subgroups: stable UCTD and early UCTD. The most frequent onset symptoms of UCTD include arthralgias, arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, mucocutaneous involvement, and sicca symptoms. However, Neurologic involvement is rare, and intracranial lesion as onset symptom in a patient with early UCTD has not yet been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Chinese female experienced progressive left leg weakness for 14 days before hospitalizing in our department...
May 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468969/protein-kinase-ck2-controls-the-fate-between-th17-cell-and-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation
#6
Sara A Gibson, Wei Yang, Zhaoqi Yan, Yudong Liu, Amber L Rowse, Amy S Weinmann, Hongwei Qin, Etty N Benveniste
CK2 is a highly conserved and pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase that promotes many prosurvival and proinflammatory signaling pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT. These pathways are essential for CD4(+) T cell activation and polarization, but little is known about how CK2 functions in T cells. In this article, we demonstrate that CK2 expression and kinase activity are induced upon CD4(+) T cell activation. Targeting the catalytic activity of CK2 using the next-generation small molecule inhibitor CX-4945 in vitro significantly and specifically inhibited mouse and human Th17 cell differentiation while promoting the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427689/demographic-and-clinical-profile-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-kashmir-a-short-report
#7
Insha Zahoor, Ravouf Asimi, Ehtishamul Haq, Irfan Yousuf Wani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There have been only few population/hospital based studies on MS in India, and at the same time there is no data on its profile in Kashmir. METHODS: A total of 41 MS patients diagnosed on the basis of 2010 Revised Mc Donald criteria were enrolled in this study from Kashmir region of India. Clinical, demographic, radiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed for most of the patients...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421817/sequential-gm-csf-inhalation-after-whole-lung-lavage-for-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-a-report-of-five-intractable-cases
#9
Shinya Ohkouchi, Keiichi Akasaka, Toshio Ichiwata, Shu Hisata, Hideya Iijima, Toshinori Takada, Hiroki Tsukada, Hideaki Nakayama, Jun-Ichi Machiya, Toshiya Irokawa, Hiromasa Ogawa, Yoko Shibata, Masakazu Ichinose, Masahito Ebina, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Hajime Kurosawa, Koh Nakata, Ryushi Tazawa
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) is a rare disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of surfactant proteins within the alveolar spaces and by higher titers of autoantibodies to granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The antibodies inhibit the maturation and phagocytosis of alveolar macrophages (AMs). Although the standard therapy for aPAP has been whole-lung lavage (WLL), this procedure is invasive and needs to be repeated for several years...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#10
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413734/implantable-systems-for-continuous-liquorpheresis-and-csf-replacement
#11
Manuel Menéndez González
Liquorpheresis (cerebrospinal fluid filtration) comprises a therapeutical approach that has been proposed to treat several neurological conditions where antibodies, inflammatory mediators, or abnormal peptides are the cause or play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Continuous or intermittent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) replacement may be an alternative approach not explored thus far. Here, we review previous experiences in the use of liquorpheresis in autoimmune and degenerative neurological diseases...
February 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405624/gm-csf-is-not-essential-for-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-but-promotes-brain-targeted-disease
#12
Emily R Pierson, Joan M Goverman
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been used as an animal model of multiple sclerosis to identify pathogenic cytokines that could be therapeutic targets. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is the only cytokine reported to be essential for EAE. We investigated the role of GM-CSF in EAE in C3HeB/FeJ mice that uniquely exhibit extensive brain and spinal cord inflammation. Unexpectedly, GM-CSF-deficient C3HeB/FeJ mice were fully susceptible to EAE because IL-17 activity compensated for the loss of GM-CSF during induction of spinal cord-targeted disease...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356385/rgc-32-promotes-th17-cell-differentiation-and-enhances-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Violeta Rus, Vinh Nguyen, Alexandru Tatomir, Jason R Lees, Armugam P Mekala, Dallas Boodhoo, Cosmin A Tegla, Irina G Luzina, Paul A Antony, Cornelia D Cudrici, Tudor C Badea, Horea G Rus
Th17 cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Response gene to complement (RGC)-32 is a cell cycle regulator and a downstream target of TGF-β that mediates its profibrotic activity. In this study, we report that RGC-32 is preferentially upregulated during Th17 cell differentiation. RGC-32(-/-) mice have normal Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cell differentiation but show defective Th17 differentiation in vitro...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348631/optic-neuropathy-as-the-initial-presenting-sign-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis
#14
Mark Mugavin, Brett H Mueller, Masoom Desai, Karl C Golnik
A 52-year-old woman presented with painless vision loss for 3 months. She was in custody for allegedly robbing a bank and had recently been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. She had 20/100 VA OD, a 2+RAPD, and optic atrophy. Extensive diagnostic workup including MRI, Fluorescein Angiography, Infectious Disease Panel, lumbar puncture, and leptomeningeal biopsy were unrevealing. Vision in her right eye declined to NLP and her left eye declined to 20/200 VA. Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Autoimmune Encephalitis was diagnosed based on CSF serology and clinical suspicion...
April 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343998/carnosic-acid-ca-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-db-db-mice-via-inflammation-suppression-by-regulating-ros-dependent-p38-pathway
#15
Guangtao Xia, Xia Wang, Hongsheng Sun, Yuhong Qin, Min Fu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, characterized by inflammation of synovial joints. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinailis, playing a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress and inflammation response. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of CA on RA progression in diabetic animals. Carnosic acid (CA) was used to treat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced db/db mice. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were investigated to explore insulin resistance...
March 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342869/microrna-448-promotes-multiple-sclerosis-development-through-induction-of-th17-response-through-targeting-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-non-receptor-type-2-ptpn2
#16
Rihan Wu, Qinyu He, Haitao Chen, Miao Xu, Ning Zhao, Ying Xiao, Qian-Qian Tu, Wenjun Zhang, Xiaoying Bi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis remains largely unclear. Much attention has been paid to the role of microRNAs (miRs) in regulation of autoimmune disease. Here, we found, for the first time, that miR-448 expression was significantly increased in periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS, and its expression positively correlated with the disease severity. We further demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells, especially the Th17 lineage, were the major source of miR-448 expression...
May 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336414/ccr6-th-cells-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-are-dominated-by-pathogenic-non-classic-th1-cells-and-gm-csf-only-secreting-th-cells
#17
S M Restorick, L Durant, S Kalra, G Hassan-Smith, E Rathbone, M R Douglas, S J Curnow
Considerable attention has been given to CCR6(+) IL-17-secreting CD4(+) T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells...
March 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316374/the-role-of-il-17-and-related-cytokines-in-inflammatory-autoimmune-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Taku Kuwabara, Fumio Ishikawa, Motonari Kondo, Terutaka Kakiuchi
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) induces the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokines such as CXCL1 and CXCL2 and is a cytokine that acts as an inflammation mediator. During infection, IL-17 is needed to eliminate extracellular bacteria and fungi, by inducing antimicrobial peptides such as defensin. This cytokine also plays an important role in chronic inflammation that occurs during the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergies such as human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for which a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is available...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288184/cd73-is-expressed-by-inflammatory-th17-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-but-does-not-limit-differentiation-or-pathogenesis
#19
Gerard Hernandez-Mir, Mandy J McGeachy
CD73 works together with CD39 to convert extracellular ATP to immunoregulatory adenosine, thus inhibiting inflammation. TGFβ-mediated CD73 expression on 'regulatory' Th17 cells limits their ability to eradicate tumors, similar to the immunosuppressive mechanism described for CD73 on Tregs. However, CD73 is also expressed on Th17 cells thought to be inflammatory in Crohn's disease. CD73 has previously been reported to contribute to inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we found that inflammatory cytokine-producing Th17 cells showed increased CD73 expression as disease progressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275140/antibody-independent-function-of-human-b-cells-contributes-to-antifungal-t-cell-responses
#20
Rui Li, Ayman Rezk, Hulun Li, Jennifer L Gommerman, Alexandre Prat, Amit Bar-Or
Fungal infections (e.g., Candida albicans) can manifest as serious medical illnesses, especially in the elderly and immune-compromised hosts. T cells are important for Candida control. Whether and how B cells are involved in antifungal immunity has been less clear. Although patients with agammaglobulinemia exhibit normal antifungal immunity, increased fungal infections are reported following B cell-depleting therapy, together pointing to Ab-independent roles of B cells in controlling such infections. To test how human B cells may contribute to fungal-associated human T cell responses, we developed a novel Ag-specific human T cell/B cell in vitro coculture system and found that human B cells could induce C...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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