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CSF and autoimmune disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#1
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118423/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-are-efficiently-generated-using-minocycline-and-dexamethasone
#2
Jae-Hee Lee, Chan-Su Park, Sundong Jang, Ji-Wan Kim, Sang-Hyeon Kim, Sukgil Song, Kyungjae Kim, Chong-Kil Lee
Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) represent a promising tool for cellular therapy against autoimmune diseases, allergies, and transplantation rejection. Numerous pharmacological agents are known to induce tDC generation. Minocycline, which has long been used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was recently shown to significantly increase the generation of DCs with regulatory properties. Here, we examined the effect of the combination of minocycline with dexamethasone, rapamycin, vitamin D3, and interleukin (IL)-10, which are all known inducers of tDC generation...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110780/multiple-sclerosis-and-other-demyelinating-and-autoimmune-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Clara Matute-Blanch, Xavier Montalban, Manuel Comabella
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by a substantial degree of heterogeneity in relation to clinical manifestations, disease course, radiologic findings, histopathologic characteristics of brain lesions, and response to treatment. In this scenario, there is a strong need in MS for biomarkers that reliably capture these diverse aspects of disease heterogeneity and assist, for instance, in disease diagnosis and stratification, in the prediction of disease course, or in the identification of new and effective therapies for the disease...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099039/cytokine-signaling-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-therapeutic-applications
#4
REVIEW
Pushpalatha Palle, Kelly L Monaghan, Sarah M Milne, Edwin C K Wan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders in young adults. The etiology of MS is not known but it is widely accepted that it is autoimmune in nature. Disease onset is believed to be initiated by the activation of CD4+ T cells that target autoantigens of the central nervous system (CNS) and their infiltration into the CNS, followed by the expansion of local and infiltrated peripheral effector myeloid cells that create an inflammatory milieu within the CNS, which ultimately lead to tissue damage and demyelination...
October 13, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073617/preimplantation-factor-pif-promotes-hla-g-e-f-c-expression-in-jeg-3-choriocarcinoma-cells-and-endogenous-progesterone-activity
#5
Miya Soukaina Hakam, Jose Maria Miranda-Sayago, Soren Hayrabedyan, Krassimira Todorova, Patrick Simon Spencer, Asma Jabeen, Eytan R Barnea, Nelson Fernandez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pregnancy success requires mandatory maternal tolerance of the semi/ allogeneic embryo involving embryo-derived signals. Expression levels of PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos, correlate with embryo development, and its early detection in circulation correlates with a favourable pregnancy outcome. PIF enhances endometrial receptivity to promote embryo implantation. Via the p53 pathway, it increases trophoblast invasion, improving cell survival / immune privilege...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057962/tnfr1-inhibition-with-a-nanobody-protects-against-eae-development-in-mice
#6
Sophie Steeland, Sara Van Ryckeghem, Griet Van Imschoot, Riet De Rycke, Wendy Toussaint, Leen Vanhoutte, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke, Claude Libert
TNF has as detrimental role in multiple sclerosis (MS), however, anti-TNF medication is not working. Selective TNF/TNFR1 inhibition whilst sparing TNFR2 signaling reduces the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF but preserves the important neuroprotective signals via TNFR2. We previously reported the generation of a Nanobody-based selective inhibitor of human TNFR1, TROS that will be tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We specifically antagonized TNF/TNFR1 signaling using TROS in a murine model of MS, namely MOG35-55-induced EAE...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042524/-autoimmune-and-epilepsy
#7
Riki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Sakamoto, Akio Ikeda
The recent discovery of autoimmune antibodies to the neuronal cell surface membrane and extra- or intra-cellular proteins, such as NMDAR and LGI1, shed light on a proposed new etiology of epilepsy, namely, "autoimmune epilepsy". A large part of this entity most likely belongs to a forme fruste of autoimmune (limbic) encephalitis. Seizures are usually subacute in onset and refractory to antiepileptic medications. Patients occasionally manifest multiple seizure semiologies, such as autonomic or faciobrachial dystonic seizures...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040339/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptpn22-is-dispensable-for-dendritic-cell-antigen-processing-and-promotion-of-t-cell-activation-by-dendritic-cells
#8
Fiona Clarke, Christine K Jordan, Enrique Gutiérrez-Martinez, Jack A Bibby, Cristina Sanchez-Blanco, Georgina H Cornish, Xuezhi Dai, David J Rawlings, Rose Zamoyska, Pierre Guermonprez, Andrew P Cope, Harriet A Purvis
The PTPN22R620W single nucleotide polymorphism increases the risk of developing multiple autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. PTPN22 is highly expressed in antigen presenting cells (APCs) where the expression of the murine disease associated variant orthologue (Ptpn22R619W) is reported to dysregulate pattern recognition receptor signalling in dendritic cells (DCs) and promote T-cell proliferation. Because T-cell activation is dependent on DC antigen uptake, degradation and presentation, we analysed the efficiency of these functions in splenic and GM-CSF bone marrow derived DC from wild type (WT), Ptpn22-/- or Ptpn22R619W mutant mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023630/the-hmgb1-is-increased-in-csf-of-patients-with-an-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#9
P Ai, X Zhang, Z Xie, G Liu, X Liu, S Pan, H Wang
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A may play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a small but highly conserved ubiquitous protein, is recognized to be a potent innate inflammatory mediator that can activate the nuclear factor light chain enhancer of activated B cells and release cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-17A when released extracellularly...
October 12, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972432/interleukin-34-promotes-fibrocyte-proliferation
#10
Carole L Galligan, Eleanor N Fish
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting multiple joints. It remains unclear which factors in the circulation are associated with the systemic spread of the disease. Fibrocytes are pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells present in the circulation of RA patients. Our earlier findings implicated activated fibrocytes in the etiology of onset and pathogenesis of RA. Elevated levels of interleukin-34 (IL-34) in the serum and synovial fluid of RA patients are associated with rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, indicators of RA...
October 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966213/elevated-serum-anti-gm-csf-antibodies-before-the-onset-of-autoimmune-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-in-a-patient-with-sarcoidosis-and-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Mari Yamasue, Shin-Ichi Nureki, Yuko Usagawa, Tomoko Ono, Hiroyuki Matsumoto, Takamasa Kan, Jun-Ichi Kadota
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by the accumulation of periodic acid-schiff stain-positive lipoproteinaceous materials in the alveolar space due to impaired surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophage. Autoimmune PAP is the most common form of PAP, but rarely accompanies collagen disease or sarcoidosis. We report here a rare case of autoimmune PAP preceded by systemic sclerosis and sarcoidosis. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for blurred vision, muscle weakness of extremities, Raynaud's phenomenon, and exertional dyspnea...
September 2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961037/cns-not-an-immunoprivilaged-site-anymore-but-a-virtual-secondary-lymphoid-organ
#12
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951498/clinical-and-immunological-characteristics-of-the-spectrum-of-gfap-autoimmunity-a-case-series-of-22-patients
#13
Raffaele Iorio, Valentina Damato, Amelia Evoli, Marco Gessi, Simona Gaudino, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Gregorio Spagni, Jacqueline A Sluijs, Elly M Hol
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and immunological characteristics of 22 new patients with glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2017, we recruited 451 patients with suspected neurological autoimmune disease at the Catholic University of Rome. Patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for neural autoantibodies by immunohistochemistry on mouse and rat brain sections, by cell-based assays (CBA) and immunoblot...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947212/microrna-590-promotes-pathogenic-th17%C3%A2-cell-differentiation-through-targeting-tob1-and-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Qing Liu, Qing Gao, Yu Zhang, Zhibao Li, Xiaoxue Mei
Although the exact pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains largely unclear, Th17 cells have been suggested as an essential regulator in the disease induction. Emerging evidence have demonstrated that noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRs), play a crucial role in modulation of Th17 cell differentiation and autoimmune disease development. Here, we revealed that miR-590 expression was markedly increased in periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS, and positively correlated with the disease severity...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945200/neural-precursor-cell-secreted-tgf-%C3%AE-2-redirects-inflammatory-monocyte-derived-cells-in-cns-autoimmunity
#15
Donatella De Feo, Arianna Merlini, Elena Brambilla, Linda Ottoboni, Cecilia Laterza, Ramesh Menon, Sundararajan Srinivasan, Cinthia Farina, Jose Manuel Garcia Manteiga, Erica Butti, Marco Bacigaluppi, Giancarlo Comi, Melanie Greter, Gianvito Martino
In multiple sclerosis, the pathological interaction between autoreactive Th cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the CNS drives initiation and maintenance of chronic neuroinflammation. Here, we found that intrathecal transplantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) impairs the accumulation of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells (MCs) in the CNS, leading to improved clinical outcome. Secretion of IL-23, IL-1, and TNF-α, the cytokines required for terminal differentiation of Th cells, decreased in the CNS of NPC-treated mice, consequently inhibiting the induction of GM-CSF-producing pathogenic Th cells...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922662/treatment-of-autoimmune-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-astrocytopathy-follow-up-in-7-cases
#16
Xinguang Yang, Junyan Liang, Qingmei Huang, Huiming Xu, Cong Gao, Youming Long, Xiaoyu Xiao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report an autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy with long-term follow-up in 7 patients. METHODS: Antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and patient data were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Seven patients (4 female, 3 male) with ≥1 year follow-up were included. All patients had positive GFAP antibodies in their cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Their median age at disease onset was 56 years (range 27-69) and the median disease duration was 1 year (range 1-4)...
2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914804/the-role-of-erk-signaling-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#17
Katharina Birkner, Beatrice Wasser, Julia Loos, Alexander Plotnikov, Rony Seger, Frauke Zipp, Esther Witsch, Stefan Bittner
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling plays a crucial role in regulating immune cell function and has been implicated in autoimmune disorders. To date, all commercially available inhibitors of ERK target upstream components, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK kinase (MEKs), but not ERK itself. Here, we directly inhibit nuclear ERK translocation by a novel pharmacological approach (Glu-Pro-Glu (EPE) peptide), leading to an increase in cytosolic ERK phosphorylation during T helper (Th)17 cell differentiation...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914568/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-decrease-the-development-of-severe-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-in-b10-riii-mice
#18
Yu Qin, Ann M Chan, Yu-Ling Chang, Anna Matynia, Nicholas A Kouris, Erin A Kimbrel, Negin Ashki, Sachin Parikh, Michael B Gorin, Robert Lanza, Ralph D Levinson, Lynn K Gordon
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of exogenously administered human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hESC-MSCs) in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in B10.RIII mice, a murine model of severe uveitis. METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized with an uveitogenic peptide, and intraperitoneal injections of 5 million hESC-MSCs per animal were given on the same day. Behavioral light sensitivity assays, histological evaluation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cells were analyzed at the peak of the disease...
September 15, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899400/impact-of-combined-sodium-chloride-and-saturated-long-chain-fatty-acid-challenge-on-the-differentiation-of-t-helper-cells-in-neuroinflammation
#19
Anna Hammer, Anne Schliep, Stefanie Jörg, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidence suggests that ingredients of a Western diet like high intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) or saturated fatty acids may impact systemic immune responses, thus increasing disease susceptibility. Recently, we have shown that high dietary salt or long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake indeed aggravates T helper (Th) cell responses and neuroinflammation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#20
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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