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CSF and autoimmune disease

Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Wei Peng
G-CSF is a hematopoietic growth factor that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of myeloid lineage cells, which has protective effects in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as EAE. Here we use EAE model treated by G-CSF to address the hypothesis that G-CSF inhibits the proliferative response of splenic T cells via the enhancement of apoptosis, and this priming effect of G-CSF depends on the cell cycle. Our results show that G-CSF administration reduced EAE frequency and severity of attacks...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IFN-1 are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Deepak K Kaushik, Heather Y F Yong, Jennifer N Hahn, Claudia Silva, Steven Casha, R John Hurlbert, Francois H Jacques, Robert Lisak, Omar Khan, Carolina Ionete, Catherine Larochelle, Alex Prat, Amit Bar-Or, V Wee Yong
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) is an inducer of matrix metalloproteinases and has roles in leukocyte activation and migration. We reported previously that in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, cell surface-associated EMMPRIN was significantly elevated in leukocytes around inflammatory perivascular cuffs in the CNS. In this study we report that activated T-cells can secrete soluble form of EMMPRIN (sEMMPRIN) upon activation. As sEMMPRIN is also present in biological fluids, we determined whether sEMMPRIN is altered in the CSF and sera of MS subjects...
2016: PloS One
Denise S M Medrado da Costa, Joana Hygino, Thais B Ferreira, Taissa M Kasahara, Priscila O Barros, Clarice Monteiro, Aleida Oliveira, Felipe Tavares, Claudia Cristina Vasconcelos, Regina Alvarenga, Cleonice A M Bento
Vitamin D deficiency is an environmental risk factor for MS, a Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune disease that results in demyelination in the CNS. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the ability of in vitro 1,25(OH)2D in modulating different Th17 cell subsets in MS patients in remission phase. In the present study, the production of Th17-related cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22), as well as GM-CSF, was significantly higher in cell cultures from MS patients than in healthy subjects (HS). The 1,25(OH)2D reduced all pro-inflammatory cytokines essayed, mainly those released from HS cell cultures...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ryu Watanabe, Ebru Hosgur, Hui Zhang, Zhenke Wen, Gerald Berry, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis is an autoimmune disease defined by explicit tissue tropism to the walls of medium and large arteries. Pathognomic inflammatory lesions are granulomatous in nature, emphasizing the functional role of CD4T cells and macrophages. Evidence for a pathogenic role of antibodies and immune complexes is missing. Analysis of T cell populations in giant cell arteritis, both in the tissue lesions and in the circulation, has supported a model of broad, polyclonal T cell activation, involving an array of functional T cell lineages...
September 20, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Isaak Quast, Christian W Keller, Falk Hiepe, Björn Tackenberg, Jan D Lünemann
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic autoimmune neuropathy. While both cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms contribute to its pathogenesis, the rapid clinical response to plasmapheresis implicates a circulating factor responsible for peripheral nerve injury. We report that treatment-naïve patients with CIDP show increased serum and CSF levels of the anaphylatoxin C5a and the soluble terminal complement complex (sTCC). Systemic terminal complement activation correlates with clinical disease severity as determined by the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Marie Colombe Agahozo, Laura Peferoen, David Baker, Sandra Amor
MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Cheryl Schofield, Saloumeh K Fischer, Michael J Townsend, Sofia Mosesova, Kun Peng, Alvernia Francesca Setiadi, An Song, Amos Baruch
AIM: IL-17 is thought to play a prominent role in immune disorders. Sensitive and specific IL-17AA and IL-17FF assays were developed and used to determine levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). RESULTS: Qualified assays detected IL-17AA and IL-17FF in healthy and disease samples. Serum IL-17AA was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis and RRMS as compared with normal healthy subjects...
November 2016: Bioanalysis
Mirjana Trukalj, Marija Perica, Željko Ferenčić, Damir Erceg, Marta Navratil, Gzim Redžepi, Boro Nogalo
BACKGROUND Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition characterized by the intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant-derived material, which impairs gas exchange and results in respiratory insufficiency. Two major subtypes of PAP are autoimmune and non-autoimmune PAP. The diagnosis relies on clinical presentation, ground glass opacities on CT scan, bronchoscopy with PAS stain of BAL fluid (BALF), lung biopsy with PAS-positive material in the alveoli, and the presence of anti GM-CSF antibodies in serum or BALF for an autoimmune subtype...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Shannon L McArdel, Daniel R Brown, Raymond A Sobel, Arlene H Sharpe
CD48 (SLAMF2) is an adhesion and costimulatory molecule constitutively expressed on hematopoietic cells. Polymorphisms in CD48 have been linked to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), and altered expression of the structurally related protein CD58 (LFA-3) is associated with disease remission in MS. We examined CD48 expression and function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. We found that a subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells highly upregulated CD48 expression during EAE and were enriched for pathogenic CD4(+) T cells...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Kavitha Kothur, Louise Wienholt, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Esther M Tantsis, Sekhar Pillai, Philip N Britton, Cheryl A Jones, Rajeshwar R Angiti, Elizabeth H Barnes, Timothy Schlub, Sushil Bandodkar, Fabienne Brilot, Russell C Dale
BACKGROUND: Despite the discovery of CSF and serum diagnostic autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis, there are still very limited CSF biomarkers for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in children with inflammatory or autoimmune brain disease. The cause of encephalitis is unknown in up to a third of encephalitis cohorts, and it is important to differentiate infective from autoimmune encephalitis given the therapeutic implications. AIM: To study CSF cytokines and chemokines as diagnostic biomarkers of active neuroinflammation, and assess their role in differentiating demyelinating, autoimmune, and viral encephalitis...
2016: PloS One
Daniela Pohl, Gulay Alper, Keith Van Haren, Andrew J Kornberg, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Silvia Tenembaum, Anita L Belman
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Samantha A Chalmers, Jing Wen, Justine Shum, Jessica Doerner, Leal Herlitz, Chaim Putterman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that can affect multiple end organs. Kidney and brain are two of the organs most commonly involved in SLE. Past studies have suggested the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). Furthermore, as the immune effectors of the brain, microglia have been implicated in pathways leading to neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). We depleted macrophages and microglia using GW2580, a small colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase inhibitor, in MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, a classic murine lupus model that displays features of both LN and NPSLE...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Hai Chen, Shi-Meng Liu, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Ou Liu, Si-Zhao Li, Zheng Liu, Hui-Qing Dong
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was long believed to be an aggressive form of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to describe the clinical features of patients with MS and NMOSD to assist in differential diagnoses in clinical practice. METHODS: Data including the patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, image findings, and clinical information from 175 patients with MS or NMOSD at Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from November 2012 to May 2014 were collected and analyzed retrospectively...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Alexander Ulges, Esther J Witsch, Gautam Pramanik, Matthias Klein, Katharina Birkner, Ulrike Bühler, Beatrice Wasser, Felix Luessi, Natascha Stergiou, Sarah Dietzen, Till-Julius Brühl, Toszka Bohn, Georg Bündgen, Horst Kunz, Ari Waisman, Hansjörg Schild, Edgar Schmitt, Frauke Zipp, Tobias Bopp
T helper 17 (TH17) cells represent a discrete TH cell subset instrumental in the immune response to extracellular bacteria and fungi. However, TH17 cells are considered to be detrimentally involved in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast to TH17 cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells were shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Thus, the balance between Treg cells and TH17 cells determines the severity of a TH17 cell-driven disease and therefore is a promising target for treating autoimmune diseases...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ren-Peng Zhou, Xiao-Shan Wu, Ya-Ya Xie, Bei-Bei Dai, Wei Hu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, which is characterized by chronic, synovial inflammation affecting multiple joints, finally leading to extra articular lesions for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Interleukin-34 (IL-34), recently discovered as the second colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) ligand, is a newly discovered cytokine. Accumulating evidence has disclosed crucial roles of IL-34 in proliferation and differentiation of mononuclear phagocyte lineage cells, osteoclastogenesis, and inflammation...
August 23, 2016: Immunology
Alessandra Camarca, Carmen Gianfrani, Fabiana Ariemma, Ilaria Cimmino, Dario Bruzzese, Roberta Scerbo, Stefania Picascia, Vittoria D'Esposito, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano, Rossella Valentino
Environmental pollutants, including endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), interfere on human health, leading to hormonal, immune and metabolic perturbations. Bisphenol-A (BPA), a main component of polycarbonate plastics, has been receiving increased attention due to its worldwide distribution with a large exposure. In humans, BPA, for its estrogenic activity, may have a role in autoimmunity, inflammatory and allergic diseases. To this aim, we assessed the effect of low BPA doses on functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and on in vitro differentiation of dendritic cells from monocytes (mDCs)...
2016: PloS One
G Westman, M Studahl, C Ahlm, B M Eriksson, B Persson, J Rönnelid, S Schliamser, E Aurelius
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and temporal development of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in relation to neurocognitive performance in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled a total of 49 HSE patients within a randomized controlled trial of valacyclovir. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were drawn in the initial stage of disease, after 2 to 3 weeks and after 3 months...
August 3, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alexandre Paré, Benoit Mailhot, Sébastien A Lévesque, Steve Lacroix
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. Given the autoimmune nature of the disease, a large part of the research has focused on autoreactive T and B cells. However, research on the involvement of myeloid cells in the pathophysiology of MS has received a strong and renewed attention over the recent years. Despite the multitude of inflammatory mediators involved in innate immunity, only a select group of cytokines are absolutely critical to the development of CNS autoimmunity, among which is interleukin (IL)-1...
July 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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