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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#1
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449557/wnt-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-in-bipolar-disorder-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#2
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
The neurobiology of bipolar disorder, a chronic and systemic ailment is not completely understood. The bipolar phenotype manifests in myriad ways, and psychopharmacological agents like lithium have long term beneficial effects. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has come into focus, as lithium and several other mood stabilizing medications inhibit its activity. This kinase and its key upstream modulator, Wnt are dysregulated in mood disorders and there is a growing impetus to delineate the chief substrates involved in the development of these illnesses...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449327/skeletal-muscle-il-15-il-15r%C3%AE-and-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-after-resistance-exercise
#3
Alberto Pérez-López, James McKendry, Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Bárbara Pérez-Köhler, David Valadés, Julia Buján, Jose A L Calbet, Leigh Breen
In vitro and in vivo studies described the myokine IL-15 and its receptor IL-15Rα as anabolic/anti-atrophy agents, however the protein expression of IL-15Rα has not been measured in human skeletal muscle and data regarding IL-15 expression remain inconclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine serum and skeletal muscle IL-15 and IL-15Rα responses to resistance exercise session and to analyse their association with myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS). Fourteen participants performed a bilateral leg resistance exercise composed of 4 sets of leg press and 4 sets of knee extension at 75% 1RM to task failure...
April 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449240/bmp-signaling-in-pulmonary-hypertension-advances-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
Kai Yang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling pathway plays critical roles in pulmonary hypertension (PH) development and progression. The typical BMP signaling mostly involve BMP ligands, specific transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors, cellular responsive kinases and secreted antagonists. As more and more studies have been conducted, the specific protective or pathogenic roles of these molecules within all these subgroups of BMP signaling have been continuously uncovered. Based on these evidences, specific strategies have been designed by targeting these factors as novel treatment approach against PH...
April 27, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449122/up-regulation-of-nced3-and-aba-biosynthesis-occur-within-minutes-of-a-decrease-in-leaf-turgor-but-ahk1-is-not-required
#5
Frances C Sussmilch, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
A major environmental signal influencing day-time stomatal aperture is the vapour pressure deficit between the leaf and atmosphere (VPD). In angiosperms, increased VPD triggers biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), prompting rapid stomatal closure. Altered cell turgor has been proposed as the trigger for ABA biosynthesis, but the timing and nature of the genetic signals linking these processes have remained uncertain. We investigated this in Arabidopsis by examining changes induced by a decrease in leaf turgor, simulating a natural increase in VPD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449057/the-streptomyces-master-regulator-bldd-binds-c-di-gmp-sequentially-to-create-a-functional-bldd2-c-di-gmp-4-complex
#6
Maria A Schumacher, Wenjie Zeng, Kim C Findlay, Mark J Buttner, Richard G Brennan, Natalia Tschowri
Streptomyces are ubiquitous soil bacteria that undergo a complex developmental transition coinciding with their production of antibiotics. This transition is controlled by binding of a novel tetrameric form of the second messenger, 3΄-5΄ cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to the master repressor, BldD. In all domains of life, nucleotide-based second messengers allow a rapid integration of external and internal signals into regulatory pathways that control cellular responses to changing conditions. c-di-GMP can assume alternative oligomeric states to effect different functions, binding to effector proteins as monomers, intercalated dimers or, uniquely in the case of BldD, as a tetramer...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449056/plant-hexokinases-are-multifaceted-proteins
#7
Giovanna P Aguilera-Alvarado, Sobeida Sánchez-Nieto
Sugars are the main carbon and energy source in cells, but they can also act as signaling molecules that affect the whole plant life cycle. Certain tissues can produce sugars and supply them to others, and this plant tissue heterogeneity makes sugar signaling a highly complex process that requires elements capable of perceiving changes in sugar concentrations among different tissues, cell compartments and developmental stages. In plants, the regulatory effects of Glucose (Glc) have been the most studied to date...
April 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449039/polyphyllin-i-induces-g2-m-phase-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-u251-human-glioma-cells-via-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-the-jnk-signaling-pathway
#8
Jiaxin Liu, Yueting Zhang, Li Chen, Fei Yu, Xiaojin Li, Dan Tao, Jianhua Zhao, Shuai Zhou
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor, and its prognosis remains poor. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed for glioma therapy. Polyphyllin I (PPI), a bioactive constituent extracted from Paris polyphylla, was reported to have anti-tumor activity. However, the detailed mechanism for this activity remains unclear. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPI on glioma cells and its mechanisms in vitro. U251 cells were treated with various concentrations of PPI (2-9 μM) for 24 to 72 h...
April 26, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449010/excess-of-a-rassf1-targeting-microrna-mir-193a-3p-perturbs-cell-division-fidelity
#9
Sofia Pruikkonen, Marko J Kallio
BACKGROUND: Several microRNA (miRNA) molecules have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of tumour suppressor and oncogene expression. Ras association domain family member 1 (RASSF1) is a critical tumour suppressor that controls multiple aspects of cell proliferation such as cell cycle, cell division and apoptosis. The expression of RASSF1 is lost in a variety of cancers due to the promoter hypermethylation. METHODS: miR-193a-3p was identified as a RASSF1-targeting miRNA by a dual screening approach...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448997/altered-expression-of-hippo-signaling-pathway-molecules-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#10
Keishi Sugimachi, Miki Nishio, Shinichi Aishima, Yosuke Kuroda, Tomohiro Iguchi, Hisateru Komatsu, Hidenari Hirata, Shotaro Sakimura, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yuki Bekki, Kenji Takenaka, Yoshihiko Maehara, Akira Suzuki, Koshi Mimori
OBJECTIVE: MOB1, a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway, suppresses cell proliferation, and MOB1 liver conditional knockout mice develop intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). However, its clinical significance in human ICC has not been established. The aim of this study was to characterize protein levels and the role of Hippo and TGF pathways in ICCs. METHODS: The protein levels of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), MOB1, Smad2, and TGFβ2 in 88 ICC cases were analyzed...
April 28, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448991/participation-of-antidiuretic-hormone-adh-in-asthma-exacerbations-induced-by-psychological-stress-via-pka-pkc-signal-pathway-in-airway-related-vagal-preganglionic-neurons-avpns
#11
Lili Hou, Lei Zhu, Min Zhang, Xingyi Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Zhenwei Liu, Qiang Li, Xin Zhou
AIMS: Present study was performed to examine whether ADH was implicated in psychological stress asthma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: We not only examined ADH levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via radioimmunoassay, but also measured ADH receptor (ADHR) expression in airway-related vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) through real-time PCR in all experimental mice. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the relationship between ADH and PKA/PKC in psychological stress asthma...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448947/traveling-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-adipose-tissue-the-thermogenic-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT...
April 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448873/osthole-attenuates-lipid-accumulation-regulates-the-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-and-increases-antioxidants-in-fl83b-cells
#13
Wen-Chung Huang, Po-Chen Liao, Chun-Hsun Huang, Sindy Hu, Shih-Chun Huang, Shu-Ju Wu
Osthole is found in Cnidium monnieri (L.) and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. It also inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This study aimed to evaluate the osthole suppressive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease effects in oleic acid (OA)-induced hepatic steatosis and if it can modulate inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. FL83B cells were pretreated with OA (250μΜ) for 24h, and then added different concentrations of osthole (3-100μM) for 24h. Subsequently, lipolysis and transcription factors of adipogenesis and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase proteins were measured...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448870/knockdown-of-msp58-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#14
Xiaoqiang Zhai, Yan Wu, Dong Zhang, Tie Chong, Jun Zhao
The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) has been reported to play an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. However, little is known about the role of MSP58 in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we investigated the expression and biological roles of MSP58 in RCC. The results indicated that the expressions of MSP58 at both mRNA and protein levels were greatly up-regulated in human RCC tissues and cell lines. Down-regulation of MSP58 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration/invasion of RCC cells, as well as attenuated tumor growth in a 786-O xenograft model in vivo...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448866/function-of-microrna-143-in-different-signal-pathways-in-cancer-new-insights-into-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Leila Karimi, Behzad Mansoori, Dariush Shanebandi, Ali Mohammadi, Mahyar Aghapour, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They play important roles in cellular events such as growth and differentiation. Deregulation of miRNAs is frequently evident in human cancers where their aberrant expression is associated with uncontrolled proliferation, metastasis, impaired cell cycle and DNA damage response. The miRNAs are important in cancer as ∼50% of miRNA genes are located in cancer-associated regions such as fragile sites of genome...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448865/glycolipids-from-spinach-suppress-lps-induced-vascular-inflammation-through-enos-and-nk-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#16
Masakazu Ishii, Tatsuo Nakahara, Daisuke Araho, Juri Murakami, Masahiro Nishimura
Glycolipids are the major constituent of the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and have a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory effects of glycolipids on vascular endothelial cells have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of glycolipids extracted from spinach on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced endothelial inflammation and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with glycolipids from spinach had no cytotoxic effects on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and significantly blocked the expression of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in them...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448848/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infection-induces-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-through-rlr-mediated-signaling
#17
Zhen Ding, Kang An, Lilan Xie, Wei Wu, Ruoxi Zhang, Dang Wang, Ying Fang, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao, Liurong Fang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteric coronavirus which causes lethal severe watery diarrhea in piglets. The pathogenesis of TGEV is strongly associated with inflammation. In this study, we found that TGEV infection activates transcription factors NF-κB, IRF3 and AP-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in porcine kidney cells. Treatment with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 significantly decreased TGEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect virus replication...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448840/a-cocktail-of-volatile-compounds-emitted-from-alcaligenes-faecalis-jbcs1294-induces-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-modulating-hormonal-pathways-and-ion-transporters
#18
Dipto Bhattacharyya, Yong Hoon Lee
In our previous study we showed that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Alcaligenes faecalis JBCS1294 (JBCS1294) induced tolerance to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana by influencing the auxin and gibberellin pathways and upregulating the expression of key ion transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of each VOC and blends of the VOCs on the induction of salt tolerance and signaling pathways. The key VOCs emitted from JBCS1294 were dissolved in lanolin and applied to one side of bipartite I-plates that contained Arabidopsis seeds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with NaCl on the other side...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448802/ddk-promotes-tumor-chemoresistance-and-survival-via-multiple-pathways
#19
Nanda Kumar Sasi, Arjun Bhutkar, Nathan J Lanning, Jeffrey P MacKeigan, Michael Weinreich
DBF4-dependent kinase (DDK) is a two-subunit kinase required for initiating DNA replication at individual origins and is composed of CDC7 kinase and its regulatory subunit DBF4. Both subunits are highly expressed in many diverse tumor cell lines and primary tumors, and this is correlated with poor prognosis. Inhibiting DDK causes apoptosis of tumor cells, but not normal cells, through a largely unknown mechanism. Firstly, to understand why DDK is often overexpressed in tumors, we identified gene expression signatures that correlate with DDK high- and DDK low-expressing lung adenocarcinomas...
April 24, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448787/relationship-between-her2-and-jak-stat-socs3-signaling-pathway-and-clinicopathological-features-and-prognosis-of-ovarian-cancer
#20
An-Quan Shang, Jian Wu, Feng Bi, Yu-Jie Zhang, Lei-Rong Xu, Ling-Ling Li, Fei-Fei Chen, Wei-Wei Wang, Jian-Jun Zhu, You-Yi Liu
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the relationship between expressions of HER2 and JAK/STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway and clinicopathological features and prognosis of ovarian cancer (OC). METHODS: A total of 136 OC patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry was applied to measure the expressions of STAT3, p-STAT3, SOCS3, HER2 and p-HER2 in the tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions of HER2, SOCS3 and STAT3 and western blotting was applied for protein expressions of HER2, p-HER2, SOCS3, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in the tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues...
April 27, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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