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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054097/dynamic-characteristics-of-a-flagellar-motor-protein-analyzed-using-an-elastic-network-model
#1
Moon-Ki Choi, Soojin Jo, Byung Ho Lee, Min Hyeok Kim, Jae Boong Choi, Kyunghoon Kim, Moon Ki Kim
At the base of a flagellar motor, its rotational direction and speed are regulated by the interaction between rotor and stator proteins. A switching event occurs when the cytoplasmic rotor protein, called C-ring, changes its conformation in response to binding of the CheY signal protein. The C-ring structure consists of FliG, FliM, and FliN proteins and its conformational changes in FliM and FliG including HelixMC play an important role in switching the motor direction. Therefore, clarifying their dynamic properties as well as conformational changes is a key to understanding the switching mechanism of the motor protein...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053819/changes-in-immune-and-metabolic-gut-response-in-broilers-fed-%C3%AE-mannanase-in-%C3%AE-mannan-containing-diets
#2
R J Arsenault, J T Lee, R Latham, B Carter, M H Kogut
β-galactomannans found in soy-based broiler feed are known to cause physiological effects that are hypothesized to be related to gut inflammation. Previous studies have shown that the incorporation of β-mannanase in the diet or as a supplement results in improvements to certain performance parameters related to gut health and feed conversion. Using kinome analysis, we characterized the mechanism of β-galactomannan activity and supplementation with β-mannanase on the gut of commercial broilers to understand the mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053813/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-high-and-low-egg-producing-duck-ovaries
#3
Z Tao, W Song, C Zhu, W Xu, H Liu, S Zhang, Li Huifang
The egg-laying rate is an important indicator of egg production of laying ducks. Egg production directly impacts the economic benefits of the duck industry. In order to obtain better insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with the process of egg production, comparative transcriptomic analysis of the ovaries of Jinding ducks with high and low egg production was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of 843 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was identified, 367 that were down-regulated and 476 that were up-regulated in high egg production (HEP) ovaries, as compared with low egg production (LEP) ovaries...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053790/the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-functions-and-regulations
#4
Amin Ardestani, Kathrin Maedler
Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that critically regulates development and homeostasis of various tissues in response to a wide range of extracellular and intracellular signals. As an emerging significant player in many diseases, the Hippo pathway is also involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes on the level of the pancreatic islets. Multiple lines of evidence uncover the importance of Hippo signaling in pancreas development as well as in the regulation of β-cell survival, proliferation and regeneration...
October 18, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053747/establishment-of-pten-knockout-medaka-with-transcription-activator-like-effector-nucleases-talens-as-a-model-of-pten-deficiency-disease
#5
Yuriko Matsuzaki, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Hideyuki Saya
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase that antagonizes signaling by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway. The PTEN gene is a major tumor suppressor, with mutations of this gene occurring frequently in tumors of humans and mice. We have now developed mutant medaka deficient in PTEN with the use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology. Medaka possesses two pten genes, ptena and ptenb, similar to zebrafish. We established 16 ptena mutant lines and two ptenb mutant lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053643/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-mapk-and-mapkk-gene-families-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#6
Haoshuang Zhan, Hong Yue, Xian Zhao, Meng Wang, Weining Song, Xiaojun Nie
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K) gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L...
October 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053587/heat-responsive-photosynthetic-and-signaling-pathways-in-plants-insight-from-proteomics
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoli Wang, Chenxi Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress posing a serious threat to plants. Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants are complicated and fine-tuned. Heat signaling transduction and photosynthesis are highly sensitive. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism in heat stressed-signaling transduction and photosynthesis is necessary to protect crop yield. Current high-throughput proteomics investigations provide more useful information for underlying heat-responsive signaling pathways and photosynthesis modulation in plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053584/lomefloxacin-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-colo829-melanoma-cells
#8
Artur Beberok, Dorota Wrześniok, Martyna Szlachta, Jakub Rok, Zuzanna Rzepka, Michalina Respondek, Ewa Buszman
Although some fluoroquinolones have been found to exert anti-tumor activity, studies on the effect of these drugs on melanoma cells are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lomefloxacin on cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, redox balance, cell cycle distribution, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis in COLO829 melanoma cells. Lomefloxacin decreases the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. For COLO829 cells treated with the drug for 24, 48, and 72 h, the values of IC50 were found to be 0...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053567/eco-friendly-formulated-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-induction-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-the-mcf-7-cancer-cell-line
#9
Amin Boroumand Moghaddam, Mona Moniri, Susan Azizi, Raha Abdul Rahim, Arbakariya Bin Ariff, Mohammad Navaderi, Rosfarizan Mohamad
Green products have strong potential in the discovery and development of unique drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been observed to have powerful cytotoxicity against cells that cause breast cancer. The present study aims to examine the cell cycle profile, status of cell death, and pathways of apoptosis in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) treated with biosynthesized ZnO NPs. The anti-proliferative activity of ZnO NPs was determined using MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis and the mode of cell death were evaluated using a flow cytometry instrument...
October 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053518/role-of-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-2-in-the-pathogenesis-of-tissue-fibrosis-in-keloid-derived-keratinocytes
#10
Yi-Xuan Zhao, Guo-You Zhang, An-Yuan Wang, Ya-Hong Chen, Da-Mu Lin, Qing-Feng Li
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in fibrotic keloid formation, which is characterized by excessive collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis and deposition. Growing evidence suggests that the serine/threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) acts upstream of several major fibrosis signaling pathways; however, the role of HIPK2 in the keloid fibrogenesis remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the roles of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of keloids...
October 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053418/an-overview-of-unfolded-protein-response-signaling-and-its-role-in-cancer
#11
Buddhi Prakash Jain
Secretory and transmembrane proteins undergo post-translational modifications and folding in the subcellular organelle, that is, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to become functionally active. Various factors such as high oxidative stress, low glucose, calcium imbalance, and viral infections interfere with the ER protein folding functions, leading to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins that activate downstream signal transduction pathways, termed as unfolded protein response (UPR). This UPR signaling is adaptive and restored the normal function of cells by decreasing protein synthesis, increasing the folding capacity of ER and degradation of misfolded proteins...
October 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053414/perk-phosphorylated-eif2%C3%AE-pathway-suppresses-tumor-metastasis-through-downregulating-expression-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-and-cxcl5-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#12
Weiwei Zou, Yu Bai, Xilong Wang, Kai Cheng, Hongguang Sun, Guoqiang Zhang, Xiaohong Wang, Zhenlin Yang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported to be associated with metastasis in many malignant tumors. PKR-like ER kinase-phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (PERK-p-eIF2α) pathway is one of the three main signal pathways in ER stress, however, its mechanism in regulating breast cancer (BC) relapse or metastasis was still not completely understood. Besides, drug resistance was an important factor influencing the effect of tumor treatment and whether PERK-p-eIF2α pathway was involved in the drug resistance to BC treatment also needs to be explored...
October 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053154/basic-research-inhibition-of-hippo-pathway-signalling-reverses-systolic-heart-failure
#13
Karina Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052983/in-vivo-biochemistry-single-cell-dynamics-of-cyclic-di-gmp-in-e-coli-in-response-to-zinc-overload
#14
Jongchan Yeo, Andrew B Dippel, Xin C Wang, Ming C Hammond
Intracellular signaling enzymes drive critical changes in cellular physiology and gene expression, but their endogenous activities in vivo remain highly challenging to study in real-time and for individual cells. Here we show that flow cytometry can be performed in complex media to monitor single-cell population distributions and dynamics of cyclic di-GMP signaling, which controls the bacterial colonization program. These in vivo biochemistry experiments are enabled by our second-generation RNA-based fluorescent (RBF) biosensors, which exhibit high fluorescence turn-on in response to cyclic di-GMP...
October 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052864/short-term-hypoxia-upregulated-mas-receptor-expression-to-repress-the-at1-r-signaling-pathway-and-attenuate-ang-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#15
Ruey-Lin Chang, Chih-Fen Chang, Da-Tong Ju, Tsung-Jung Ho, Tung-Ti Chang, Jing-Wei Lin, Jia-Chun Le, Shiu-Min Cheng, Cecilia-Hsuan Day, V Vijaya Padma, Chih-Yang Huang
Hypertension-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis play critical roles in the progression of heart failure. Our previous study suggested that hypertensive angiotensin II (Ang II) enhanced insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which are involved JNK activation, sirtuin1 (SIRT1) degradation, and heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) acetylation. Moreover, previous studies have implied that short-term hypoxia (STH) might exert cardioprotective effects...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052839/effects-of-microrna-206-and-its-target-gene-igf-1-on-sevoflurane-induced-activation-of-hippocampal-astrocytes-in-aged-rats-through-the-pi3k-akt-creb-signaling-pathway
#16
Tie-Jun Liu, Bin Wang, Qun-Xi Li, Xiao-Liu Dong, Xiao-Liang Han, Shu-Bo Zhang
The study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-206 (miR-206) targeting IGF-1 on the activation of hippocampal astrocytes in aged rats induced by sevoflurane through the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway. Wistar rats and astrocytes were divided into the normal/blank, sham/negative control (NC), sevoflurane (sevo), miR-206 mimics + sevo, miR-206 inhibitors + sevo, miR-206 NC + sevo, IGF-1 shRNA + sevo and miR-206 inhibitors + IGF-1 shRNA + sevo groups. The Morris water maze test was exhibited to assess the cognitive functions...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052798/curcumin-pretreatment-prevents-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-through-enhanced-mitochondrial-function-and-deactivation-of-akt-erk-signaling-pathways-in-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Xujie Wang, Jianxin Gao, Yunchuan Wang, Bin Zhao, Yijie Zhang, Fu Han, Zhao Zheng, Dahai Hu
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-based therapy has emerged as a desirable modality for the treatment of tissue injury with promising therapeutic effects; however, low survival rate of transplanted cells due to harsh microenvironment with hypoxia and oxidative stress results in hampered therapeutic benefits of this therapy. Curcumin, a natural bioactive product, is a dietary component which has gained increasing attention owing to its beneficial health properties. Here, we reported the protective effects of curcumin pretreatment on BMSCs injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which was used as ROS source of oxidative stress in vitro...
October 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052769/terpenoid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-attacked-by-caterpillars-and-aphids-effects-of-aphid-density-on-the-attraction-of-a-caterpillar-parasitoid
#18
Anneke Kroes, Berhane T Weldegergis, Francesco Cappai, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack...
October 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052674/egfr-targeting-plga-peg-nanoparticles-as-a-curcumin-delivery-system-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#19
Hua Jin, Jiang Pi, Yue Zhao, Jinhuan Jiang, Ting Li, Xueyi Zeng, Peihui Yang, Colin E Evans, Jiye Cai
Poor bioavailability and non-specificity of chemotherapeutic agents are major challenges in breast cancer treatment. Antibodies and small molecules that block cell signaling pathways have shown promise in the clinic, but their application is also limited by the high costs and treatment dosages required. Novel therapies that aim to rapidly and specifically target malignant cells with long-lasting impact in the tumor microenvironment may ultimately improve clinical outcome in cancer patients. Here, we demonstrate that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting GE11 peptides conjugated with PEGylated polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles can be used to effectively deliver an anti-cancer agent, curcumin, into EGFR-expressing MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052520/upregulation-of-dars2-by-hbv-promotes-hepatocarcinogenesis-through-the-mir-30e-5p-mapk-nfat5-pathway
#20
Xian Qin, Changsheng Li, Tao Guo, Jing Chen, Hai-Tao Wang, Yi-Tao Wang, Yu-Sha Xiao, Jun Li, Pengpeng Liu, Zhi-Su Liu, Quan-Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The osmoregulatory transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) has been shown to play an important role in the development of many types of human cancers. The role of NFAT5 in HBV-associated HCC has never previously been investigated. METHODS: We compared expression profiles of NFAT5, DARS2 and miR-30e-5p in HCC samples, adjacent nontumor tissues and different hepatoma cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and /or Western blot...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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