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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346354/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-irisin-mediator-of-physical-activity-are-connected-with-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway-activation
#1
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć, Marcin Zarawski
Irisin, an adipomiokine known as a mediator of physical activity, induces the browning of adipose tissue and it has potentially protective properties in the development of obesity-related states, such as insulin resistance, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Despite numerous studies conducted on this factor, still little is known about its impact on the functioning of immunocompetent cells, but its potential anti-inflammatory properties were previously suggested. In the current study we investigated the role of irisin (0-100 nM) in the downstream pathway activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346226/a-tlr9-dependent-checkpoint-governs-b-cell-responses-to-dna-containing-antigens
#2
Vishal J Sindhava, Michael A Oropallo, Krishna Moody, Martin Naradikian, Lauren E Higdon, Lin Zhou, Arpita Myles, Nathaniel Green, Kerstin Nündel, William Stohl, Amanda M Schmidt, Wei Cao, Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Taku Kambayashi, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Michael P Cancro
Mature B cell pools retain a substantial proportion of polyreactive and self-reactive clonotypes, suggesting that activation checkpoints exist to reduce the initiation of autoreactive B cell responses. Here, we have described a relationship among the B cell receptor (BCR), TLR9, and cytokine signals that regulate B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens. In both mouse and human B cells, BCR ligands that deliver a TLR9 agonist induce an initial proliferative burst that is followed by apoptotic death. The latter mechanism involves p38-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest and subsequent intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and is shared by all preimmune murine B cell subsets and CD27- human B cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345462/functional-interaction-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-8b-and-androgen-in-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation
#3
Wen-Jun Xiao, Gui-Ming Zhang, Ding-Wei Ye
Fibroblast growth factor 8b and androgen play important roles in cell proliferation of prostate cancer. We investigated the effects of fibroblast growth factor 8b and androgen on the proliferation of prostate cell lines and the corresponding intracellular mechanisms. It is found that dihydrotestosterone and fibroblast growth factor 8b stimulated Lncap cell mitosis in a concentration-responsive manner, with 30 ng/mL as the most suitable concentration, respectively. Dihydrotestosterone treatment alone did not enhance the expression and phosphorylation level of fibroblast growth factor receptor but significantly enhanced the level of fibroblast growth factor receptor phosphorylation elicited by fibroblast growth factor 8b...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344879/prostaglandin-e2-mediated-adenosinergic-effects-on-cd14-cells-self-amplifying-immunosuppression-in-cancer
#4
Saly Al-Taei, Josephine Salimu, Lisa K Spary, Aled Clayton, Jason F Lester, Zsuzsanna Tabi
CD39 and CD73 are surface-expressed ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze ATP in a highly regulated, serial manner into ADP, AMP and adenosine. The end product, adenosine, has both tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive effects. The aim of this study was to determine CD73 expression on immune cells in pleural effusion (PE) in order to have a better understanding of the immune environment in mesothelioma. PE- or blood-derived CD14(+) cells of mesothelioma patients and healthy donors were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD39 and CD73...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344324/diallyl-trisulfide-suppresses-tumor-growth-through-the-attenuation-of-nrf2-akt-and-activation-of-p38-jnk-and-potentiates-cisplatin-efficacy-in-gastric-cancer-treatment
#5
Xiao-Yan Jiang, Xiao-Song Zhu, Hong-Ya Xu, Zhong-Xi Zhao, Si-Ying Li, Shan-Zhong Li, Jian-Hua Cai, Ji-Min Cao
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a garlic organosulfide, has shown excellent chemopreventive potential. Cisplatin (DDP) is widely used to treat solid malignant tumors, but causing serious side effects. In the current study, we attempted to elucidate the chemopreventive mechanisms of DATS in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells in vitro, and to investigate whether DATS could enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of DDP and improve quality of life in BGC-823 xenograft mice in vivo. Treatment with DATS (25-400 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the viability of BGC-823 cells in vitro with an IC50 of 115...
March 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344171/lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-6-production-is-mediated-through-activation-of-erk-1-2-p38-mapk-mek-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-chicken-thrombocytes
#6
C Winkler, F Ferdous, M Dimmick, T Scott
Thrombocytes express Toll-like receptor 4 and apparently use both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) pathways for nuclear signaling. However, it is not well known if the same enzyme systems found in mammalian cells are fully functional in chickens. Therefore, kinase inhibitors were used with thrombocytes to block kinases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated cells to determine if interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production would be diminished...
March 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343998/carnosic-acid-ca-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-db-db-mice-via-inflammation-suppression-by-regulating-ros-dependent-p38-pathway
#7
Guangtao Xia, Xia Wang, Hongsheng Sun, Yuhong Qin, Min Fu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, characterized by inflammation of synovial joints. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinails, playing a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress and inflammation response. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of CA on RA progression in diabetic animals. Carnosic acid (CA) was used to treat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced db/db mice. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were investigated to explore insulin resistance...
March 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343630/de-novo-truncating-mutations-in-the-last-and-penultimate-exons-of-ppm1d-cause-an-intellectual-disability-syndrome
#8
Sandra Jansen, Sinje Geuer, Rolph Pfundt, Rachel Brough, Priyanka Ghongane, Johanna C Herkert, Elysa J Marco, Marjolein H Willemsen, Tjitske Kleefstra, Mark Hannibal, Joseph T Shieh, Sally Ann Lynch, Frances Flinter, David R FitzPatrick, Alice Gardham, Birgitta Bernhard, Nicola Ragge, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Raphael Bernier, Malin Kvarnung, E A Helena Magnusson, Marja W Wessels, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Kristin G Monaghan, Petra de Vries, Joris A Veltman, Christopher J Lord, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Bert B A de Vries
Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343272/effect-of-atra-and-ato-on-the-expression-of-tissue-factor-in-nb4-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-cells-and-regulatory-function-of-the-inflammatory-cytokines-tnf-and-il-1%C3%AE
#9
Sylvie Dunoyer-Geindre, Anne-Sophie Rivier-Cordey, Olga Tsopra, Thomas Lecompte, Egbert K O Kruithof
The characteristic hemorrhages of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are caused in part by the high expression of tissue factor (TF) on leukemic cells, which also produce TNF and IL-1β, proinflammatory cytokines known to increase TF in various cell types. Exposure of NB4 cells, an APL cell line, to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) rapidly and strongly reduced TF mRNA. Both drugs also reduced TNF mRNA, but later, and moreover increased IL-1β mRNA. The effect on procoagulant activity of cells and microparticles, as measured with calibrated automated thrombography, was delayed and only partial at 24 h...
March 25, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342980/muscarinic-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocytes-from-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrotic-rat
#10
Lin Luo, Chenghao Xi, Tingting Xu, Gaoshan Zhang, E Qun, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerves are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate for patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes, but little is known about the role of mAChR in hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis and the signaling pathway of this receptor in regulation of hepatocytes remains elusive. Here, 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats and the hepatocytes were isolated to investigate the expression of mAchR and the cell signaling pathways which were involved in...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342871/oxidative-damage-induces-apoptosis-and-promotes-calcification-in-disc-cartilage-endplate-cell-through-ros-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-implications-for-disc-degeneration
#11
Yingchao Han, Xinhua Li, Meijun Yan, Mingjie Yang, Shanjin Wang, Jie Pan, Lili Jun, Jun Tan
Cartilage endplate (CEP) cell calcification and apoptosis play a vital role in the intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Oxidative stress is a key factor in inducing programmed cell death and cartilage calcification. However, the cell death and calcification of cartilage endplate cells under oxidative stress have never been described. The present study investigated the apoptosis and calcification in the cartilage endplate cell under oxidative stress induced by H2O2 to understand the underlying mechanism of IVDD...
March 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342021/establishment-of-immortalized-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cells-line-and-study-of-effects-of-arg-arg-on-inflammatory-response
#12
Kang Zhan, Maocheng Jiang, Yannan Sui, Kang Yan, Miao Lin, Guoqi Zhao
Primary mouse intestinal epithelial cells (MIEs) are not ideal models for long-term culture in vitro and a limited amount of approximate three generations. In addition, the mechanism that arginine-arginine dipeptide (Arg-Arg) regulates mouse intestinal inflammatory response remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish immortal MIEs and study the effects of Arg-Arg on inflammatory response after challenging the MIEs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (rSEC). Our data showed that immortalized MIEs could be cultured over 100 generations...
March 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341848/role-of-p62-in-the-suppression-of-inflammatory-cytokine-production-by-adiponectin-in-macrophages-involvement-of-autophagy-and-p21-nrf2-axis
#13
Nirmala Tilija Pun, Pil-Hoon Park
Adiponectin possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. p62, an adaptor protein composed of multi-functional domain, is known to play a role in controlling inflammatory responses. In the present study, we examined the role of p62 in suppressing inflammatory cytokines produced by globular adiponectin (gAcrp) and the potential underlying mechanisms in macrophages. We demonstrated that gAcrp significantly increased p62 expression. Knockdown of p62 abrogated the suppressive effects of gAcrp on LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-1β expression and TRAF6/p38 MAPK pathway, indicating that p62 signaling is critical for suppressing inflammatory cytokines production by gAcrp...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341822/berberine-restricts-coxsackievirus-b-type-3-replication-via-inhibition-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-and-p38-mapk-activation-in-vitro
#14
Qian Dai, Di Zhang, Hua Yu, Wei Xie, Rong Xin, Lei Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaomei He, Junzhi Xiong, Halei Sheng, Le Zhang, Kebin Zhang, Xiaomei Hu
BACKGROUND At present, the treatment of coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis remains difficult. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, exhibits significant anti-viral efficacy against various viruses. However, the underlying mechanism by which BBR controls CVB3 infection has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-viral efficacy of BBR against CVB3 infection and its mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our experiments, the protein levels of VP1 and MAPKs signal pathway were measured by Western blot...
March 25, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341741/endogenous-prostaglandin-e2-amplifies-il-33-production-by-macrophages-through-an-e-prostanoid-ep-2-ep4-cyclic-camp-epac-dependent-pathway
#15
Sachin K Samuchiwal, Barbara Balestrieri, Hannah Raff, Joshua A Boyce
When activated through toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages generate interleukin-33 (IL-33), an IL-1 family member that induces innate immune responses through ST2 signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand, induces macrophages to generate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through inducible cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) (1). We demonstrate that IL-33 production by bone marrow derived murine macrophages (bmMFs) requires the generation of endogenous PGE2 and the intrinsic expression of EP2 receptors to amplify NF-κB-dependent LPS-induced IL-33 expression via Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (EPAC)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341671/lipopolysaccharide-elicited-tslpr-expression-enriches-a-functionally-discrete-subset-of-human-cd14-cd1c-monocytes
#16
Francesco Borriello, Raffaella Iannone, Sarah Di Somma, Viviana Vastolo, Giuseppe Petrosino, Feliciano Visconte, Maddalena Raia, Giulia Scalia, Stefania Loffredo, Gilda Varricchi, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Francescopaolo Granata, Luigi Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Portella, Gianni Marone
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced mainly by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory or microbial stimuli and binds to the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) complex, a heterodimer composed of TSLPR and IL-7 receptor α (CD127). TSLP activates multiple immune cell subsets expressing the TSLPR complex and plays a role in several models of disease. Although human monocytes express TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in response to the TLR4 agonist LPS, their responsiveness to TSLP is poorly defined. We demonstrate that TSLP enhances human CD14(+) monocyte CCL17 production in response to LPS and IL-4...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341536/the-role-of-cpla2-in-methylglyoxal-induced-cell-apoptosis-of-huvecs
#17
Jie Yuan, Chao Zhu, Yali Hong, Zongxing Sun, Xianjun Fang, Biao Wu, Shengnan Li
Methylglyoxal (MGO), a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, is mainly formed as a byproduct of glycolysis. Elevated MGO level is known to induce apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells, which is implicated with progression of atherosclerosis and diabetic complications. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been exhaustively investigated yet. Here, we further characterized the mechanisms how MGO induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data revealed that cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) played an important role in MGO-induced cell apoptosis...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341244/imperatorin-suppresses-proliferation-and-angiogenesis-of-human-colon-cancer-cell-by-targeting-hif-1%C3%AE-via-the-mtor-p70s6k-4e-bp1-and-mapk-pathways
#18
Chunliu Mi, Juan Ma, Ke Si Wang, Hong Xiang Zuo, Zhe Wang, Ming Yue Li, Lian Xun Piao, Guang Hua Xu, Xuezheng Li, Zhe Shan Quan, Xuejun Jin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Angelica dahurica is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to treat migraine headache, toothache and cancer. Imperatorin is an active natural furocoumarin component originating from Angelica dahurica and has been shown to exhibit multiple bioeffector functions, including anti-cancer activity. However, the mechanism by which imperatorin inhibits tumor growth is not fully understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of imperatorin as a treatment of cancer and to identify the underlying mechanisms of its anticancer activity...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341057/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-suppress-immature-dendritic-cell-s-migration-by-regulating-cc-chemokine-receptor-1-expression
#19
Young-Hoon Kim, Jae Kwon Lee
The modulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs), which involves processes such as phagocytosis, migration, and maturation, is considered a beneficial research theme. Once activated by an antigen, iDCs turn to mature DCs (mDCs) and migrate towards secondary lymphoid organs, and initiate the progress of cellular immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are also thought to be a major modulator of cellular immunity. Herein, we demonstrate that HDACis (trichostatin-A (TSA), sodium butylate (SB), scriptaid (ST)) play a central regulatory role in the migratory activity of iDCs...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340115/cellular-senescence-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-irradiation-and-the-role-of-p53-and-p21
#20
Zoey Cheng, Yan Zhen Zheng, Yu-Qing Li, C Shun Wong
Diverse stress signals including irradiation may trigger cellular senescence. We asked whether irradiation induced senescence in mouse hippocampus, and whether p53 or p21 played a role in this response. Following whole-brain irradiation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays for senescence-associated genes showed increased expression of CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2A (p19ARF) in mouse hippocampus at 9 weeks. Upregulation of p21 and p19ARF was confirmed using real-time PCR, which also demonstrated increased CDKN2A/p16INKa expression after irradiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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