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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823092/inhibition-of-p2x7-receptors-improves-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Xiaofeng Liu, Zhengqing Zhao, Ruihua Ji, Jiao Zhu, Qian-Qian Sui, Gillian E Knight, Geoffrey Burnstock, Cheng He, Hongbin Yuan, Zhenghua Xiang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability for people under the age of 45 years worldwide. Neuropathology after TBI is the result of both the immediate impact injury and secondary injury mechanisms. Secondary injury is the result of cascade events, including glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overloading, free radical generation, and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to brain cell death. In this study, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) was detected predominately in microglia of the cerebral cortex and was up-regulated on microglial cells after TBI...
August 19, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822990/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-mangostins-induces-autophagy-and-shows-synergistic-effectwith-gemcitabine-in-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines
#2
Myoungjae Kim, Young-Won Chin, Eun Joo Lee
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal and aggressive cancers in the world. However, no effective treatment is currently available for pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-pancreatic cancer effect of α-mangostin (αM) and γ-mangostin (γM) extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L.. Both αM and γM reduced the viability of pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. These compounds induced apoptosis by increasing c-PARP and c-Caspase 3 levels...
August 21, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822989/cellular-prion-protein-enhances-drug-resistance-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-regulation-of-a-survival-signal-pathway
#3
Jun Hee Lee, Chul Won Yun, Sang Hun Lee
Anti-cancer drug resistance is a major problem in colorectal cancer (CRC) research. Although several studies have revealed the mechanism of cancer drug resistance, molecular targets for chemotherapeutic combinations remain elusive. To address this issue, we focused on the expression of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells. In 5-FU-resistant CRC cells, PrP(C) expression is significantly increased, compared with that in normal CRC cells. In the presence of 5-FU, PrP(C) increased CRC cell survival and proliferation by maintaining the activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin D1, and CDK4...
August 21, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822965/diabetes-increases-the-susceptibility-to-acute-kidney-injury-after-myocardial-infarction-through-augmented-activation-of-renal-toll-like-receptors-in-rats
#4
Kouhei Ohno, Atsushi Kuno, Hiromichi Murase, Shingo Muratsubaki, Takayuki Miki, Masaya Tanno, Toshiyuki Yano, Satoko Ishikawa, Tomohisa Yamashita, Tetsuji Miura
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined roles of renal toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in OLETF, a rat DM model, and LETO, non-diabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and MyD88 were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF than in sham-operated LETO, though levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TRL4 were similar...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822817/rosiglitazone-promotes-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-alters-chromatin-remodeling-in-isolated-cardiomyocytes
#5
Lama Fawaz Pharaon, Naglaa Fathi El-Orabi, Muhammad Kunhi, Nadya Al Yacoub, Salma Mahmoud Awad, Coralie Poizat
Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic agent that raised a major controversy over its cardiovascular adverse effects. There is in vivo evidence that Rosiglitazone promotes cardiac hypertrophy by PPAR -γ-independent mechanisms. However, whether Rosiglitazone directly alters hypertrophic growth in cardiac cells is unknown. Chromatin remodeling by histone post-translational modifications has emerged as critical for many cardiomyopathies. Based on these observations, this study was initiated to investigate the cardiac hypertrophic effect of Rosiglitazone in a cellular model of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM)...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822766/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-increases-muc1-expression-in-macrophages-through-the-tlr4-p38-pathway
#6
Kosuke Kato, Alec D Hanss, Marina A Zemskova, Nicole E Morgan, Marianne Kim, Kenneth S Knox, Yong Lin, Erik P Lillehoj, Kwang Chul Kim
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) from the airways. However, hyper-activation of macrophages can impair bacterial clearance and contribute to morbidity and mortality. MUC1 mucin is a membrane-tethered, high molecular mass glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelial cells and some hematopoietic cells, including macrophages, where it counter-regulates inflammation. We recently reported that Pa up-regulates the expression of MUC1 in primary human AMs and THP-1 macrophages, and that increased MUC1 expression in these cells prevents hyper-activation of macrophages that appears to be important for host defense against severe pathology of Pa lung infection...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822352/vibrio-vulnificus-martx-cytotoxin-causes-inactivation-of-phagocytosis-related-signaling-molecules-in-macrophages
#7
Chun-Liang Chen, Shu-Chun Chien, Tzeng-Horng Leu, Hans I-Chen Harn, Ming-Jer Tang, Lien-I Hor
BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterial species that causes opportunistic infections manifested by serious skin lesions and fulminant septicemia in humans. We have previously shown that the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats in toxin (MARTXVv1) of a biotype 1 V. vulnificus strain promotes survival of this organism in the host by preventing it from engulfment by the phagocytes. The purpose of this study was to further explore how MARTXVv1 inhibits phagocytosis of this microorganism by the macrophage...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822192/-taurine-affects-expression-of-icam-1-vcam-1-by-p38-pathway-in-hypoxic-endothelial-cells
#8
Xiao-Dan Zhang, Shu-Ya Zhao, Yun-Lin Li, Da-Ling Zhu, Ru Zhang, Jie-Jing Sheng, Shu-Jing Wang
To investigate the effect of taurine(Tau) on ICAM-1, VCAM-1 by p-p38 pathway in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells(PAECs) and explore its mechanism of action. Generation 4-12 cells in primary cultures of PAECs were used in experiments and divided into five groups: control group, hypoxia(hyp) group, inhibitor(SB203580) group, treatment(Tau) group, and treatment+inhibitor(SB+Tau) group. The concentration of Tau:100 mmol•L⁻¹; p38 inhibitor SB203580: 20 μmol•L⁻¹; and the treatment time was 12 h...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822019/gypenoside-ix-suppresses-p38-mapk-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes-stimulated-by-proinflammatory-mediators
#9
Xiaoshuang Wang, Liu Yang, Li Yang, Faping Xing, Hua Yang, Liyue Qin, Yunyi Lan, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Cheng Lu, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822000/effects-of-fusariotoxin-co-exposure-on-thp-1-human-immune-cells
#10
Marie-Caroline Smith, Stéphanie Madec, Samuel Troadec, Emmanuel Coton, Nolwenn Hymery
Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA), and moniliformin (MON) mycotoxins are common food and feed contaminants produced by Fusarium spp. However, while they are usually found to co-occur in a large range of commodities, only few data are available on mycotoxin co-exposure effects and cellular response mechanisms. In this study, the individual and combined toxic effects of these fusariotoxins were evaluated on the THP-1 human immune cell line as major fusariotoxins are mostly potent immunomodulators...
August 18, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821620/arjunolic-acid-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-agonist-regresses-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-non-canonical-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#11
Trisha Bansal, Emeli Chatterjee, Jasdeep Singh, Arjun Ray, Bishwajit Kundu, V Thankamani, Shantanu Sengupta, Sagartirtha Sarkar
Cardiac hypertrophy and associated heart fibrosis remain a major cause of death worldwide. Phytochemicals have gained attention as alternative therapeutics for managing cardiovascular diseases. These include the extract from the plant Terminalia arjuna which is a popular cardioprotectant and may prevent or slow progression of pathological hypertrophy to heart failure. Here, we investigated the mode of action of a principal bioactive T. arjuna compound, arjunolic acid (AA) in ameliorating hemodynamic load-induced cardiac fibrosis and identified its intracellular target...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821374/il-17-production-of-neutrophils-enhances-antibacteria-ability-but-promotes-arthritis-development-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
Shengfeng Hu, Wenting He, Xialin Du, Jiahui Yang, Qian Wen, Xiao-Ping Zhong, Li Ma
To our knowledge, no studies have examined the role of IL-17 production by neutrophils in immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) caused by MTB infection. Here, we determined that neutrophils express IL-17 in an autocrine IL-6- and IL-23-dependent manner during MTB infection. MTB H37Rv-induced IL-6 production was dependent on the NF-κB, p38, and JNK signaling pathways; however, IL-23 production was dependent on NF-κB and EKR in neutrophils...
August 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820056/involvement-of-cd24-in-multiple-cancer-related-pathways-makes-it-an-interesting-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#13
Shirin Eyvazi, Bahram Kazemi, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Mojgan Bandehpour
CD24 (cluster of differentiation 24) is a small heavy glycosylated protein, which is overexpressed in many cancer and some cancer stem cells and is associated with the development, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The exact role of CD24 in these processes is not fully understood, however, in this article, it has been tried to present collection of cancer-related mechanisms attributed to CD24. Based on the literature, CD24 dis-regulates different signaling pathways in various cancer cells, including; Src kinases, STAT3, EGFR, Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK...
August 18, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818340/lps-binding-to-hmgb1-promotes-angiogenic-behavior-of-endothelial-cells-through-inhibition-of-p120-and-cd31-via-erk-p38-src-signaling
#14
Zhenguo Liu, Juan Wang, Wu Xing, Yingqiong Peng, Jun Quan, Xuegong Fan
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to mediate angiogenic effects in endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that LPS induced high motility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) secretion in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). Knockdown and overexpression of HMGB1 by adenoviral vectors effectively inhibited and promoted LPS-induced HPMEC migration and capillary-like tube formation, respectively. On the other hand, HMGB1 exerted an inhibitory effect on LPS-suppressed expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) and p120 catenin (p120); HMGB1 knockdown reversed this effect...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816402/blocking-the-erk1-2-signal-pathway-can-inhibit-s100a12-induced-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-damage
#15
Wanli Jiang, Zhiwei Wang, Zhipeng Hu, Hongbing Wu, Rui Hu, Xiaoping Hu, Zongli Ren, Jizhen Huang
Increased levels of S100A12 and activated matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 (MMP-2/9) produced by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) have recently implicated in the development of thoracic aortic disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S100A12 on HASMCs and identified the intracellular signal pathways involved by western blot. The results were shown that up-expression of S100A12 in HASMCs induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. Additionally, S100A12 significantly increased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VCAM-1 in HASMCs at translational levels...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815947/olive-oil-phenolics-prevent-oxysterol-induced-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-and-ros-production-in-human-pbmcs-through-modulation-of-p38-and-jnk-pathways
#16
Gessica Serra, Monica Deiana, Jeremy P E Spencer, Giulia Corona
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols to counteract the pro-inflammatory effects induced by dietary and endogenous oxysterols in ex-vivo immune cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), separated from the whole blood of healthy donors, were utilised and were stimulated with an oxysterols mixture, in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of the EVOO polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT), tyrosol (TYR) and homovanillic alcohol (HVA)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813704/p38-kinase-sgk1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-up-regulation-of-na-ca2-exchanger-expression-and-activity-following-tgf%C3%A3-1-treatment-of-megakaryocytes
#17
Tamer Al-Maghout, Lisann Pelzl, Itishri Sahu, Basma Sukkar, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Ravi Gutti, Stefan Laufer, Jakob Voelkl, Burkert Pieske, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: TGFβ1, a decisive regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation, has previously been shown to up-regulate both, store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. The growth factor thus augments the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) following release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and accelerates the subsequent decline of [Ca2+]i. The effect on SOCE is dependent on a signaling cascade including p38 kinase, serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, and nuclear factor NFκB...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813533/18%C3%A3-glycyrrhetinic-acid-derivative-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-aquaporin-3-expression-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#18
Chi-Feng Hung, Chien-Yu Hsiao, Wen-Hao Hsieh, Hsin-Ju Li, Yi-Ju Tsai, Chun-Nan Lin, Hsun-Hsien Chang, Nan-Lin Wu
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) species have been widely used as a traditional medicine and a natural sweetener in foods. The 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA) is a bioactive compound in licorice that exhibits potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Many synthesized derivatives of 18β-GA have been reported to be cytotoxic and suggested for the treatment of malignant diseases. In this study, we explored the possible pharmacological roles of an 18β-GA derivative in skin biology using primary human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes as cell models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#19
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812425/nasunin-inhibits-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-mediator-production-in-raw264-mouse-macrophages-by-suppressing-ros-mediated-activation-of-pi3%C3%A2-k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-signaling-pathways
#20
Wataru Komatsu, Kazuko Itoh, Satomi Akutsu, Hisashi Kishi, Shuji Ohhira
Nasunin is a major anthocyanin in eggplant peel. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of nasunin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264 macrophages and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We found that nasunin reduced the LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a dose-dependent manner. Nasunin diminished LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB...
August 16, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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