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Marty D Spranger, Jasdeep Kaur, Javier A Sala-Mercado, Abhinav C Krishnan, Rania Abu-Hamdah, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Robert A Augustyniak, Donal S O'Leary
Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise is, in part, a function of muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA). As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction during mild treadmill exercise with MMA (elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Zhengke Zhang, Qinggang Zhu, Meijiao Hu, Zhaoyin Gao, Feng An, Min Li, Yueming Jiang
In this study, mango fruit were pre-treated with low-temperature conditioning (LTC) at 12°C for 24h, followed by refrigeration at 5°C for 25days before removal to ambient temperature (25°C) to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LTC on chilling injury (CI). The results showed that LTC effectively suppressed the development of CI in mango fruit, accelerated softening, and increased the soluble solids and proline content. Furthermore, LTC reduced electrolyte leakage, and levels of malondialdehyde, O2(-) and H2O2, maintaining membrane integrity...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yang Ding, Jinhong Zhao, Ying Nie, Bei Fan, Shujuan Wu, Yu Zhang, Jiping Sheng, Lin Shen, Ruirui Zhao, Xuanming Tang
Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, cold-responsive transcription factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit was investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4°C for 28 days. Compared with 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA3) surge and DELLA protein degradation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yu Hasegawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
OBJECTIVE: Although hypertensive patients show significant elevation of blood pressure (BP) in acute phase after cerebral infarction, it is still unknown how it should be managed to carry the best prognosis. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of acute control of elevated BP by bilateral renal denervation (RD) against ischemic stroke in SHRSP rats with 90 minutes transient middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). DESIGN AND METHOD: Seventy-five male SHRSP rats of 15 weeks of age were assigned to sham-operated (control, n = 15) and MCAO + sham (sham, n = 30), and MCAO + RD (RD, n = 30)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Akinori Higaki, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Li-Juan Min, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Toshihiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Masatsugu Horiuchi
OBJECTIVE: Classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is mainly known as angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor axis which induces various organ damages including cognitive decline. On the other hand, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been known to exert antagonistic actions against the classical RAS axis in cardiovascular system. However, the roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined possible roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function in vascular dementia model...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Duygu Tosun, Norbert Schuff, Gil D Rabinovici, Nagehan Ayakta, Bruce L Miller, William Jagust, Joel Kramer, Michael M Weiner, Howard J Rosen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the values of arterial spin-labeled (ASL) MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in the diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Partial least squares logistic regression was used to identify voxels with diagnostic value in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRgl) maps from patients with bvFTD (n = 32) and AD (n = 28), who were compared with each other and with cognitively normal controls (CN, n = 15)...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hidehito Kimura, Masaaki Taniguchi, Tatsuya Mori, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
We present a rare case of a patient suffering temporary aphasia after an extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, which was shown as a transient hypointense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, evidence of postoperative hyperperfusion. Postoperative hyperperfusion syndrome after EC-IC bypass causing temporary neurological deterioration has been reported rarely as isosignal intensity on DWI with hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image as an expression of vasogenic edema...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Nadine Lilla, Jasmin Hartmann, Stefan Koehler, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Thomas Westermaier
A lack of nitric oxide (NO) may be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of an acute decrease of cerebral blood flow (CBF) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with an NO-donor can improve CBF and offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH by the endovascular filament model and treated with 1.5μg/kg/min of intravenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or vehicle (n=10) starting 15min after induction of SAH until 180min thereafter...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Nolan S Hartkamp, Reinoud P H Bokkers, M J P van Osch, Gert J de Borst, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the effect of unilateral large vessel disease upon the cerebral hemodynamic autoregulatory status in the basal ganglia of patients with steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 38 patients with a unilateral symptomatic steno-occlusive ICA lesion and were investigated; 20 with a stenosis >50% and 18 with an occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after administration of acetazolamide...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Kristine E Ensrud, Stephanie L Harrison, Jane A Cauley, Lisa Langsetmo, John T Schousboe, Deborah M Kado, Margaret L Gourlay, Jennifer G Lyons, Lisa Fredman, Nicolas Napoli, Carolyn J Crandall, Cora E Lewis, Eric S Orwoll, Marcia L Stefanick, Peggy M Cawthon
To determine the association of weight loss with risk of clinical fractures at the hip, spine and pelvis (central body fractures [CBF]) in older men with and without accounting for the competing risk of mortality, we used data from 4,523 men (mean age 77.5 years). Weight change between baseline and follow-up (mean 4.5 years between examinations) was categorized as moderate loss (loss ≥10%), mild loss (loss 5% to <10%), stable (<5% change) or gain (gain ≥5%). Participants were contacted every 4 months after the follow-up examination to ascertain vital status (deaths verified by death certificates) and ask about fractures (confirmed by radiographic reports)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Henrik B W Larsson, Mark B Vestergaard, Ulrich Lindberg, Helle K Iversen, Stig P Cramer
PURPOSE: Capillary transit time heterogeneity, measured as CTH, may set the upper limit for extraction of substances in brain tissue, e.g., oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MRI (DCE-MRI) at 3 Tesla (T), in estimating CTH based on a gamma-variate model of the capillary transit time distribution. In addition, we wanted to investigate if a subtle increase of the blood-brain barrier permeability can be incorporated into the model, still allowing estimation of CTH...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sylvia Bolt, Ellen Zuther, Stefanie Zintl, Dirk K Hincha, Thomas Schmülling
Tolerance of and acclimation to low temperatures are important for plant performance. Transcriptional regulation is part of the plant´s response to low temperatures but only a portion of the relevant transcription factors are known. In this work, we report the characterization of a transcription factor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR105 (ERF105), which has a particularly relevant function in the cold stress response. Expression analyses revealed that ERF105 is early and transiently upregulated by cold. In electrolyte leakage and plant survival tests, loss-of-function and gain-of-function (overexpressing) plants of ERF105 showed reduced and enhanced freezing tolerance, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jose Luis Ortiz, Amparo Ortiz, Javier Milara, Miguel Armengot, Celia Sanz, Desamparados Compañ, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig...
2016: PloS One
Wolfgang G Kunz, Wieland H Sommer, Lukas Havla, Franziska Dorn, Felix G Meinel, Olaf Dietrich, Grete Buchholz, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Kolja M Thierfelder
OBJECTIVES: To determine the detection rate of intracranial vessel occlusions using CT perfusion-based wavelet-transformed angiography (waveletCTA) in acute ischemic stroke patients, in whom single-phase CTA (spCTA) failed to detect an occlusion. METHODS: Subjects were selected from a cohort of 791 consecutive patients who underwent multiparametric CT including whole-brain CT perfusion. Inclusion criteria were (1) significant cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficit, (2) no evidence of vessel occlusion on spCTA and (3) follow-up-confirmed acute ischemic infarction...
October 8, 2016: European Radiology
Marcel T H Oei, Frederick J A Meijer, Willem-Jan van der Woude, Ewoud J Smit, Bram van Ginneken, Mathias Prokop, Rashindra Manniesing
OBJECTIVES: We present a novel One-Step-Stroke protocol for wide-detector CT scanners that interleaves cerebral CTP with volumetric neck CTA (vCTA). We evaluate whether the resulting time gap in CTP affects the accuracy of CTP values. METHODS: Cerebral CTP maps were retrospectively obtained from 20 patients with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke and served as the reference standard. To simulate a 4 s gap for interleaving CTP with vCTA, we eliminated one acquisition at various time points of CTP starting from the bolus-arrival-time(BAT)...
October 7, 2016: European Radiology
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Humberto Contreras-Cornejo, Germán Saucedo-Correa, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Víctor Manuel Baizabal-Aguirre, Marcos Cajero-Juárez, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño
The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym for CBF-1/RBPJ-κ in Homo sapiens/Mus musculus respectively, Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila melanogaster, Lag-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway...
2016: Cell Division
Eugene V Golanov, James M Shiflett, Gavin W Britz
Diving response (DR) is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans, it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier, we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect, decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces DR in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic [AP, heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF)] and EEG responses to the known DR-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Tracy Ssali, Udunna C Anazodo, Yves Bureau, Bradley J MacIntosh, Matthias Günther, Keith St Lawrence
Although arterial spin labeling (ASL) is appealing for mapping long-term changes in functional activity, inter-sessional variations in basal blood flow, arterial transit times (ATTs), and alignment errors, can result in significant false activation when comparing images from separate sessions. By taking steps to reduce these sources of noise, this study assessed the ability of ASL to detect functional CBF changes between sessions. ASL data were collected in three sessions to image ATT, resting CBF and CBF changes associated with motor activation (7 participants)...
2016: PloS One
Maria Skytioti, Signe Søvik, Maja Elstad
Intact cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for cerebral metabolism and function, whereas hypoperfusion in relation to hypovolemia and hypocapnia can lead to severe cerebral damage. This study was designed to assess internal carotid artery blood flow (ICA-BF) during simulated hypovolemia and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in young healthy humans. Beat-by-beat blood velocity (ICA and aorta) were measured by Doppler ultrasound during normovolemia and simulated hypovolemia (lower body negative pressure), with or without PPV in 15 awake subjects...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
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