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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820894/short-term-apparent-brain-tissue-changes-are-contributed-by-cerebral-blood-flow-alterations
#1
Qiu Ge, Wei Peng, Jian Zhang, Xuchu Weng, Yong Zhang, Thomas Liu, Yu-Feng Zang, Ze Wang
Structural MRI (sMRI)-identified tissue "growth" after neuropsychological training has been reported in many studies but the origins of those apparent tissue changes (ATC) still remain elusive. One possible contributor to ATC is brain perfusion since T1-weighted MRI, the tool used to identify ATC, is sensitive to perfusion-change induced tissue T1 alterations. To test the hypothetical perfusion contribution to ATC, sMRI data were acquired before and after short-term global and regional perfusion manipulations via intaking a 200 mg caffeine pill and performing a sensorimotor task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818262/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-mediates-cognitive-improvements-following-acute-exercise
#2
Andrew Borror
The mechanisms causing improved cognition following acute exercise are poorly understood. This article proposes that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main factor contributing to improved cognition following exercise. Additionally, it argues that cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxidative stress explain the release of BDNF from cerebral endothelial cells. One way to test these hypotheses is to block endothelial function and measure the effect on BDNF levels and cognitive performance. The CBF and oxidative stress can also be examined in relationship to BDNF using a multiple linear regression...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818140/dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-during-the-combination-of-mild-hypercapnia-and-cephalad-fluid-shift
#3
Takuya Kurazumi, Yojiro Ogawa, Ryo Yanagida, Hiroshi Morisaki, Ken-Ichi Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Mild hypercapnia combined with a cephalad fluid shift [e.g., that occurring during spaceflight or laparoscopic surgery with head-down tilt (HDT)] might affect cerebral autoregulation. However, no reports have described the effects of the combination on dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the combination of mild hypercapnia and a cephalad fluid shift would attenuate dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: There were 15 healthy male volunteers who were exposed to 4 10-min protocols in which they received air in the supine position (Placebo/Supine), 3% carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supine position (CO2/Supine), air with -10° HDT (Placebo/HDT) and 3% CO2 with -10° HDT (CO2/HDT)...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816571/effects-of-flow-changes-on-radiotracer-binding-simultaneous-measurement-of-neuroreceptor-binding-and-cerebral-blood-flow-modulation
#4
Christin Y Sander, Joseph B Mandeville, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Ciprian Catana, Jacob M Hooker, Bruce R Rosen
The potential effects of changes in blood flow on the delivery and washout of radiotracers has been an ongoing question in PET bolus injection studies. This study provides practical insight into this topic by experimentally measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuroreceptor binding using simultaneous PET/MRI. Hypercapnic challenges (7% CO2) were administered to non-human primates in order to induce controlled increases in CBF, measured with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. Simultaneously, dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding of [(11)C]raclopride or [(18)F]fallypride was monitored with dynamic PET...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815879/calibrated-imaging-reveals-altered-grey-matter-metabolism-related-to-white-matter-microstructure-and-symptom-severity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Nicholas A Hubbard, Monroe P Turner, Minhui Ouyang, Lyndahl Himes, Binu P Thomas, Joanna L Hutchison, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Scott L Davis, Jeremy F Strain, Jeffrey Spence, Daniel C Krawczyk, Hao Huang, Hanzhang Lu, John Hart, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman, Darin T Okuda, Bart Rypma
Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves damage to white matter microstructures. This damage has been related to grey matter function as measured by standard, physiologically-nonspecific neuroimaging indices (i.e., blood-oxygen-level dependent signal [BOLD]). Here, we used calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine the extent to which specific, evoked grey matter physiological processes were associated with white matter diffusion in MS. Evoked changes in BOLD, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ) were measured in visual cortex...
August 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810558/functional-assessment-of-prefrontal-lobes-in-patients-with-major-depression-disorder-using-a-dual-mode-technique-of-3d-arterial-spin-labeling-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#6
Chang Fu, Dapeng Shi, Yongju Gao, Junling Xu
The aim of this study was to explore the functions of cerebral blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of patients with major depression disorder (MDD), and to analyze the correlations between these functional changes and depressive symptoms. 3D-arterial spin labeling (ASL) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were successfully performed in 17 patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls in a resting state. The depressive symptoms of the patients were classified into seven factors and scored with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810259/reliability-reproducibility-and-prognostic-accuracy-of-the-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-on-ct-perfusion-and-non-contrast-ct-in-hyperacute-stroke
#7
Jillian Naylor, Leonid Churilov, Ziyuan Chen, Miriam Koome, Neil Rane, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND: Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) assesses early ischemic change on non-contrast CT (NCCT). We hypothesised that assessing ASPECTS regions on CT Perfusion (CTP) rather than NCCT would improve inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy, particularly in patients presenting early after stroke onset. METHODS: Ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous alteplase from 2009 to 2014 at our institution were included in this study. Inter-rater agreement and prognostic accuracy of ASPECTS across modalities were analysed by the time between stroke onset and initial NCCT, dichotomized 1st quartile versus quartiles 2-4, referred to as epochs...
August 16, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809854/in-the-grip-of-worry-cerebral-blood-flow-changes-during-worry-induction-and-reappraisal-in-late-life-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#8
H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, M A Butters, S Walker, H J Aizenstein, C Andreescu
Severe worry includes a complex blend of maladaptive affective and cognitive processes. Contrary to other forms of anxiety, there is no consensus in the field regarding the neural basis of worry. To date, no study has looked at neural patterns associated specifically with in-scanner induction and reappraisal of worry. In this study, we attempt to describe distinct components of the 'neural phenomenology' of worry: induction, maintenance, severity and reappraisal, by using a personalized, in-scanner worry script...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#9
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798681/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-treatment-enhances-hemodynamics-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#10
Zhilin Xiong, Weibiao Lu, Lihui Zhu, Ling Zeng, Changzheng Shi, Zhen Jing, Yonghui Xiang, Wenxian Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Yiwen Ruan, Li'an Huang
Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798199/human-cerebral-blood-flow-control-during-hypoxia-focus-on-chronic-pulmonary-obstructive-disease-copd-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa
#11
Andrew E Beaudin, Sara E Hartmann, Matiram Pun, Marc J Poulin
The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate blood flow to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurons. Thus, exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is particularly important under hypoxic conditions to prevent a detrimental decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen within the brain tissues. Cerebrovascular sensitivity to hypoxia, assessed as the change in CBF during a hypoxic challenge, represents the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond to, and compensate for, a reduced oxygen supply, and has been shown to be impaired or blunted in a number of conditions...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794982/symptom-correlates-of-cerebral-blood-flow-following-acute-concussion
#12
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion is associated with significant symptoms within hours to days post-injury, including disturbances in physical function, cognition, sleep and emotion. However, little is known about how subjective impairments correlate with objective measures of cerebrovascular function following brain injury. This study examined the relationship between symptoms and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in individuals following sport-related concussion. Seventy university level athletes had CBF measured using Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL), including 35 with acute concussion and 35 matched controls and their symptoms were assessed using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793285/resistance-of-gerbil-auditory-function-to-reversible-decrease-in-cochlear-blood-flow
#13
Fahd El Afia, Fabrice Giraudet, Laurent Gilain, Thierry Mom, Paul Avan
The objective was to design in gerbils a model of reversible decrease in cochlear blood flow (CBF) and analyze its influence on cochlear function. In Mongolian gerbils injected with ferromagnetic microbeads, a magnet placed near the porus acusticus allowed CBF to be manipulated. The cochlear microphonic potential (CM) from the basal cochlea was monitored by a round-window electrode. In 13 of the 20 successfully injected gerbils, stable CBF reduction was obtained for 11.5 min on average. The CM was affected only when CBF fell to less than 60% of its baseline, yet remained >40% of its initial level in about 2/3 of such cases...
August 10, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792653/comparing-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-sequential-and-hadamard-encoded-multidelay-pseudocontinuous-arterial-spin-labeling-for-measuring-cerebral-blood-flow-and-arterial-transit-time-in-healthy-subjects-a-simulation-and-in-vivo-study
#14
Jia Guo, Samantha J Holdsworth, Audrey P Fan, Marc R Lebel, Zungho Zun, Ajit Shankaranarayanan, Greg Zaharchuk
PURPOSE: To compare performance of sequential and Hadamard-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo experiments were performed in 10 healthy subjects. Field strength and sequence: 5-delay sequential (5-del. Seq.), 7-delay Hadamard-encoded (7-del. Had.), and a single-delay (1-del.) PCASL, without and with vascular crushing at 3.0T. The errors and variations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial transit time (ATT) from simulations and the CBF and ATT estimates and variations in gray matter (GM) with different ATT ranges were compared...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792268/kit-mutations-correlate-with-adverse-survival-in-children-with-core-binding-factor-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Xi Chen, Hu Dou, Xingjuan Wang, Yi Huang, Ling Lu, Junqing Bin, Yongchun Su, Lin Zou, Jie Yu, Liming Bao
The prevalence and clinical relevance of KIT mutations in childhood core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have not been well characterized. In this study, a total of 212 children with de novo AML were enrolled from a Chinese population and 50 (23.5%) of the patients were deemed CBF-AML. KIT mutations were identified in 30% of the CBF-AML cohort. The KIT mutations were clustered in exon 17 and exon 8, and KIT mutations in exons 8 and 17 were correlated with a shorter overall survival (OS) (5-year OS: 30...
August 9, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782872/the-role-of-vascular-resistance-in-bold-responses-to-progressive-hypercapnia
#16
James Duffin, Olivia Sobczyk, Adrian Crawley, Julien Poublanc, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Kevin Sam, Alan Mutch, David Mikulis, Joseph Fisher
The ability of the cerebral vasculature to regulate vascular diameter, hence resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to metabolic demands (neurovascular coupling), and perfusion pressure changes (autoregulation) may be assessed by measuring the CBF response to carbon dioxide (CO2 ). In healthy individuals, the CBF response to a ramp CO2 stimulus from hypocapnia to hypercapnia is assumed sigmoidal or linear. However, other response patterns commonly occur, especially in individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and these remain unexplained...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777693/beyond-descriptive-neurology-broca-cerebral-hemodynamics-and-cortical-function
#17
Richard Leblanc
Pierre-Paul Broca's studies in neurobiology remain of interest. I review a previously neglected aspect of Broca's work in which he presages the use of modern scanning techniques. Broca's goal was to correlate cerebral metabolism to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a novel method, to which he referred as cerebral thermometry. Broca attempted to measure changes in temperatures from the ischemic area and across the watershed regions during a stroke, and the increased CBF produced by performing a cognitive task such as reading aloud...
August 4, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776469/relationship-between-haemodynamic-impairment-and-collateral-blood-flow-in-carotid-artery-disease
#18
Nolan S Hartkamp, Esben T Petersen, Michael A Chappell, Thomas W Okell, Maarten Uyttenboogaart, Clark J Zeebregts, Reinoud Ph Bokkers
Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776269/apparent-brain-temperature-imaging-with-multi-voxel-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-compared-with-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-imaging-on-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-unilateral-chronic-major-cerebral-artery-steno-occlusive-disease
#19
Takamasa Nanba, Hideaki Nishimoto, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Toshiyuki Murakami, Makoto Sasaki, Ikuko Uwano, Shunrou Fujiwara, Kazunori Terasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether apparent brain temperature imaging using multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy correlates with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism imaging in the deep white matter of patients with unilateral chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. METHODS: Apparent brain temperature and CBF and metabolism imaging were measured using proton MR spectroscopy and (15)O-positron emission tomography (PET), respectively, in 35 patients...
August 3, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770549/therapy-related-longitudinal-brain-perfusion-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#20
Christian Weisstanner, Livio Mordasini, George N Thalmann, Rajeev K Verma, Christian Rummel, Andrea Federspiel, Thomas M Kessler, Roland Wiest
BACKGROUND: The imaging method most frequently employed to identify brain areas involved in neuronal processing of nociception and brain pain perception is blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Arterial spin labelling (ASL), in contrast, offers advantages when slow varying changes in brain function are investigated. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a disorder of, mostly, young males that leads to altered pain perceptions in structures related to the pelvis...
August 3, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
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