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high carb diet

Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
H Braun
Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes...
August 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Ellinor Fredriksson, Hilde Kristin Brekke, Lars Ellegård
BACKGROUND: The dietary intake in Swedish medical students has been reported for the periods 1987-1993 and 1994-2006. OBJECTIVE: To analyse dietary intake in medical students between 2007 and 2012, in relation to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, to previous surveys and to a contemporary Swedish population. DESIGN: Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records conducted by 698 medical students. The differences between surveys were evaluated using a t-test and the changes over time by linear regression...
February 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Yu-chun Wang, Zhan-peng Qi, Zhen-zhong Liu, Tao Li, Hong-xia Cui, Bao-qing Wang, Na Chi
The research aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Opuntia dillenii Haw polysaccharide (OPS) on atherosclerosis of rats. First atherosclerotic rat models were established by high-fat and high-calcium diet. Thirty days later, the rats were treated with low dosage of OPS (0.2 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) or high dosage of OPS (0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection for 60 days continuously. At the end of treatment, thoracic aorta rings were prepared and vasorelaxation of rat thoracic aorta in different experiment groups were determined by using 620M multi wire myograph system in vitro...
April 2015: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Tanja K Thorning, Farinaz Raziani, Nathalie T Bendsen, Arne Astrup, Tine Tholstrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids...
September 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
H Bobby Fokidis, Mei Yieng Chin, Victor W Ho, Hans H Adomat, Kiran K Soma, Ladan Fazli, Ka Mun Nip, Michael Cox, Gerald Krystal, Amina Zoubeidi, Emma S Tomlinson Guns
Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0...
June 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bernhard Haring, Moritz C Wyler von Ballmoos, Lawrence J Appel, Frank M Sacks
BACKGROUND: Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each...
2014: PloS One
Sebene Mayorandan, Uta Meyer, Hans Hartmann, Anibh Martin Das
BACKGROUND: Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa...
2014: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Antonio Paoli, Antonino Bianco, Keith A Grimaldi, Alessandra Lodi, Gerardo Bosco
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight...
December 2013: Nutrients
Harry G Preuss, Bobby Echard, Debasis Bagchi, Nicholas V Perricone
OBJECTIVE: In Sprague-Dawley rats (SD), we compared two categories of natural dietary supplements that influence carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism via different basic mechanisms to ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) and elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with heavy sugar/starch consumption. Two dietary supplements (bean extract and l-arabinose) are often referred to as carb blockers (CBs), because they slow the gastrointestinal absorption of CHO. Trivalent chromium (CR) falls into a group of so-called insulin sensitizers, because its major effect is to enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Nicol Varela, Claudia Vega, Karen Valenzuela
At present there is still no clear consensus on recommendations on the use of GI of foods for the dietary management of T2DM. Rather different entities propose the use of carbohydrate counting, because there is not even enough evidence for dietary planning based on this index. The aim of this study was to relate consumption of high GI food with glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients from the cardiovascular health program of 3 CESFAM (Family Health Centers) in Santiago, Chile. Forty individuals were selected, anthropometric measurements were conducted as well as a modified poll of frequency of food consumption of 30 days...
March 2012: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Meghana D Gadgil, Lawrence J Appel, Edwina Yeung, Cheryl A M Anderson, Frank M Sacks, Edgar R Miller
OBJECTIVE: Impaired insulin sensitivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although calorie restriction and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity, the effects of modifying macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity are uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on insulin sensitivity of a carbohydrate-rich diet (CARB; similar to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] diet), a protein-rich diet (PROT; protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich diet (UNSAT; predominantly monounsaturated)...
May 2013: Diabetes Care
Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Sofie G Lemmens, Klaas R Westerterp
Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter...
August 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
Stijn Soenen, Alberto G Bonomi, Sofie G T Lemmens, Jolande Scholte, Myriam A M A Thijssen, Frank van Berkum, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga
BACKGROUND: 'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. OBJECTIVE: To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. DESIGN: Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47...
October 10, 2012: Physiology & Behavior
Johannes Scholl
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CVD HAVE CHANGED: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the "mainstream knowledge" despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1) the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet...
2012: Cholesterol
Xiuyun Jiang, Heidi L Kenerson, Raymond S Yeung
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells possess unique metabolic phenotypes that are determined by their underlying oncogenic pathways. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade promotes glycolysis and leads to glucose-dependence in tumors. In particular, cells with constitutive mTORC1 activity secondary to the loss of TSC1/TSC2 function are prone to undergo apoptosis upon glucose withdrawal in vitro, but this concept has not been tested in vivo. This study examines the effects of restricting glucose metabolism by pharmacologic and dietary means in a tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) tumor xenograft model...
2011: Cell & Bioscience
M A Carbajo, Maria J Castro, S Kleinfinger, S Gómez-Arenas, J Ortiz-Solórzano, R Wellman, C García-Ianza, E Luque
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is considered the only therapeutic alternative for morbid obesity and its comorbidities. High risks factors are usually linked with this kind of surgery. In order to reduce it, we consider that losing at least 10% of overweight in Morbid Obese (MO) and a minimum of 20% in Super- Obese patients (SO) before surgery, may reduce the morbidity of the procedure. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the effectiveness and tolerance of a balanced energy formula diet at the preoperative stage, comparing it against a low calorie regular diet...
November 2010: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
D C Lubbs, B M Vester Boler, T K Ridge, J K Spears, T K Graves, K S Swanson
Identifying dietary effects on appetite-regulating hormones will enhance our understanding of appetite control. Before complex diets are tested, effects of specific macronutrients or feeding frequency should be identified. The objectives of this nutrition study were to identify differences in endocrine response with feeding frequency (Exp. 1) and after a single dose of a sole macronutrient (Exp. 2). A control diet supplying similar energy content from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was fed to maintain ideal BW...
December 2010: Journal of Animal Science
Harry G Preuss
Many believe that excessive intake of refined carbohydrates (CHO) plays a major role in the development of obesity/overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, a collection of events commonly referred to as "diabesity," and have sought natural means to overcome these linked perturbations. As a first approach, planned diets with low portions of refined CHO have become popular. However, these diets do not satisfy everyone; and many are concerned over replacing CHO with more fats. As a second option, addition of soluble fiber to the diet can slow absorption of refined CHO, i...
June 2009: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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