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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877453/disentangling-high-fat-low-carb-and-healthy-aging
#1
Holly M Brown-Borg
Dietary interventions are simple, non-invasive tools that can be utilized to improve health and lifespan. In this issue, Roberts et al. (2017) and Newman et al. (2017) reveal the physiological benefits of feeding mice ketogenic diets and suggest different underlying mechanisms that may promote healthy aging.
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#2
Bryan R Helm, Garett P Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254873/inter-and-intraobserver-agreement-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-image-interpretation-in-patients-referred-for-assessment-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#3
Hiroshi Ohira, Brian Mc Ardle, Robert A deKemp, Pablo Nery, Daniel Juneau, Jennifer M Renaud, Ran Klein, Owen Clarkin, Karen MacDonald, Eugene Leung, Girish Nair, Rob Beanlands, David Birnie
Recent studies have reported the usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET in aiding with the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, image interpretation of (18)F-FDG PET for CS is sometimes challenging. We sought to investigate the inter- and intraobserver agreement and explore factors that led to important discrepancies between readers. Methods: We studied consecutive patients with no significant coronary artery disease who were referred for assessment of CS. Two experienced readers masked to clinical information, imaging reports, independently reviewed (18)F-FDG PET/CT images...
August 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195006/the-differential-effects-of-high-fat-and-high-fructose-diets-on-physiology-and-behavior-in-male-rats
#4
Lauren Woodie, Sarah Blythe
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study is to directly compare a diet high in fat with a diet high in fructose. This side-by-side comparison will allow us to determine the physiological and behavioral effects resulting from the consumption of a diet dominated by one macronutrient. METHODS: Rats were fed pelletized food containing either 60% fat or 55% fructose diet, or control chow (5.8% kcal of fat, 44.3% kcal carb) for 9 weeks. Animals performed a classic Morris Water Maze (MWM) and a reversal MWM to assess spatial and working memory near the end of the feeding period...
February 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919361/adverse-effects-on-insulin-secretion-of-replacing-saturated-fat-with-refined-carbohydrate-but-not-with-monounsaturated-fat-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-centrally-obese-subjects
#5
Lin F Chang, Shireene R Vethakkan, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Thomas A B Sanders, Kim-Tiu Teng
BACKGROUND: Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733250/a-human-model-of-dietary-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-insulin-resistance
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490353/-characteristics-of-nutrition-in-competitive-sports-ranging-from-leisure-activities-to-high-performance-athletics
#7
REVIEW
H Braun
Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes...
August 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26487764/dietary-intake-in-swedish-medical-students-during-2007-2012
#8
Ellinor Fredriksson, Hilde Kristin Brekke, Lars Ellegård
BACKGROUND: The dietary intake in Swedish medical students has been reported for the periods 1987-1993 and 1994-2006. OBJECTIVE: To analyse dietary intake in medical students between 2007 and 2012, in relation to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, to previous surveys and to a contemporary Swedish population. DESIGN: Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records conducted by 698 medical students. The differences between surveys were evaluated using a t-test and the changes over time by linear regression...
February 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223127/-therapeutic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-opuntia-dillenii-haw-on-atherosclerosis-of-rats
#9
Yu-chun Wang, Zhan-peng Qi, Zhen-zhong Liu, Tao Li, Hong-xia Cui, Bao-qing Wang, Na Chi
The research aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Opuntia dillenii Haw polysaccharide (OPS) on atherosclerosis of rats. First atherosclerotic rat models were established by high-fat and high-calcium diet. Thirty days later, the rats were treated with low dosage of OPS (0.2 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) or high dosage of OPS (0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection for 60 days continuously. At the end of treatment, thoracic aorta rings were prepared and vasorelaxation of rat thoracic aorta in different experiment groups were determined by using 620M multi wire myograph system in vitro...
April 2015: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26178720/diets-with-high-fat-cheese-high-fat-meat-or-carbohydrate-on-cardiovascular-risk-markers-in-overweight-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tanja K Thorning, Farinaz Raziani, Nathalie T Bendsen, Arne Astrup, Tine Tholstrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids...
September 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25797030/a-low-carbohydrate-high-protein-diet-suppresses-intratumoral-androgen-synthesis-and-slows-castration-resistant-prostate-tumor-growth-in-mice
#11
H Bobby Fokidis, Mei Yieng Chin, Victor W Ho, Hans H Adomat, Kiran K Soma, Ladan Fazli, Ka Mun Nip, Michael Cox, Gerald Krystal, Amina Zoubeidi, Emma S Tomlinson Guns
Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0...
June 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506933/healthy-dietary-interventions-and-lipoprotein-a-plasma-levels-results-from-the-omni-heart-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bernhard Haring, Moritz C Wyler von Ballmoos, Lawrence J Appel, Frank M Sacks
BACKGROUND: Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25431232/glycogen-storage-disease-type-iii-modified-atkins-diet-improves-myopathy
#13
Sebene Mayorandan, Uta Meyer, Hans Hartmann, Anibh Martin Das
BACKGROUND: Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa...
2014: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24352095/long-term-successful-weight-loss-with-a-combination-biphasic-ketogenic-mediterranean-diet-and-mediterranean-diet-maintenance-protocol
#14
Antonio Paoli, Antonino Bianco, Keith A Grimaldi, Alessandra Lodi, Gerardo Bosco
Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight...
December 18, 2013: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24015700/comparing-effects-of-carbohydrate-cho-blockers-and-trivalent-chromium-on-cho-induced-insulin-resistance-and-elevated-blood-pressure-in-rats
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Harry G Preuss, Bobby Echard, Debasis Bagchi, Nicholas V Perricone
OBJECTIVE: In Sprague-Dawley rats (SD), we compared two categories of natural dietary supplements that influence carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism via different basic mechanisms to ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) and elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with heavy sugar/starch consumption. Two dietary supplements (bean extract and l-arabinose) are often referred to as carb blockers (CBs), because they slow the gastrointestinal absorption of CHO. Trivalent chromium (CR) falls into a group of so-called insulin sensitizers, because its major effect is to enhance peripheral insulin sensitivity...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23477204/-relationship-of-consumption-of-high-glycemic-index-food-in-the-diet-and-levels-of-hba1c-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-treated-with-diet-and-or-metformin
#16
Nicol Varela, Claudia Vega, Karen Valenzuela
At present there is still no clear consensus on recommendations on the use of GI of foods for the dietary management of T2DM. Rather different entities propose the use of carbohydrate counting, because there is not even enough evidence for dietary planning based on this index. The aim of this study was to relate consumption of high GI food with glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients from the cardiovascular health program of 3 CESFAM (Family Health Centers) in Santiago, Chile. Forty individuals were selected, anthropometric measurements were conducted as well as a modified poll of frequency of food consumption of 30 days...
March 2012: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23413602/colon-cancer-survival-worse-for-patients-with-high-carb-diet
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23223345/the-effects-of-carbohydrate-unsaturated-fat-and-protein-intake-on-measures-of-insulin-sensitivity-results-from-the-omniheart-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Meghana D Gadgil, Lawrence J Appel, Edwina Yeung, Cheryl A M Anderson, Frank M Sacks, Edgar R Miller
OBJECTIVE: Impaired insulin sensitivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although calorie restriction and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity, the effects of modifying macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity are uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on insulin sensitivity of a carbohydrate-rich diet (CARB; similar to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] diet), a protein-rich diet (PROT; protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich diet (UNSAT; predominantly monounsaturated)...
May 2013: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23107521/dietary-protein-its-role-in-satiety-energetics-weight-loss-and-health
#19
REVIEW
Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Sofie G Lemmens, Klaas R Westerterp
Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter...
August 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22935440/relatively-high-protein-or-low-carb-energy-restricted-diets-for-body-weight-loss-and-body-weight-maintenance
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stijn Soenen, Alberto G Bonomi, Sofie G T Lemmens, Jolande Scholte, Myriam A M A Thijssen, Frank van Berkum, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga
BACKGROUND: 'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. OBJECTIVE: To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. DESIGN: Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47...
October 10, 2012: Physiology & Behavior
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