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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912757/dietary-interventions-in-liver-cirrhosis
#1
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912360/expression-levels-of-brown-beige-adipocyte-related-genes-in-fat-depots-of-vitamin-a-restricted-fattening-cattle
#2
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912357/effect-of-engineered-biocarbon-on-rumen-fermentation-microbial-protein-synthesis-and-methane-production-in-an-artificial-rumen-rusitec-fed-a-high-forage-diet
#3
Atef M Saleem, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Wenzhu Z Yang, Tao Ran, Karen A Beauchemin, Emma J McGeough, Kim H Ominski, Erasmus K Okine, Tim A McAllister
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding engineered biocarbon to a high-forage diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and enteric methane (CH4) production in a semi-continuous culture artificial rumen system (RUSITEC). The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four treatments assigned to sixteen fermentation vessels (four/treatment) in two RUSITEC apparatuses. The basal diet consisted of 60% barley silage, 27% barley grain, 10% canola meal, and 3% supplement (DM basis) with biocarbon added at 0, 0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911322/metagenomic-insights-into-the-roles-of-proteobacteria-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#4
REVIEW
Christina D Moon, Wayne Young, Paul H Maclean, Adrian L Cookson, Emma N Bermingham
Interests in the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on health and wellbeing have extended from humans to that of companion animals. While relatively fewer studies to date have examined canine and feline gut microbiomes, analysis of the metagenomic DNA from fecal communities using next-generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the microbes that are present, their function, and potential to contribute to overall host nutrition and health. As carnivores, healthy dogs and cats possess fecal microbiomes that reflect the generally higher concentrations of protein and fat in their diets, relative to omnivores and herbivores...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910739/effects-of-dietary-phosphorus-level-on-the-expression-of-calcium-and-phosphorus-transporters-in-laying-hens
#5
Peng Li, Rongmei Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingpeng Zhao, Hai Lin
The transport of calcium and phosphorus is mainly relied on their corresponding transporters. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary phosphorus level on the expression of the relevant calcium and phosphorus transporters in laying hens, which has a large amount of calcium and phosphorus input from intestine and output from kidney and eggshell gland. Thirty-six 25-week-old Hy-line Brown hens were fed diets with different available phosphorus level (AP, 0.15, 0.41, and 0.82%), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910738/immunomodulatory-effects-of-dietary-seaweeds-in-lps-challenged-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-as-determined-by-deep-rna-sequencing-of-the-head-kidney-transcriptome
#6
Arjan P Palstra, Jeroen Kals, Ainhoa Blanco Garcia, Ron P Dirks, Marnix Poelman
Seaweeds may represent immuno-stimulants that could be used as health-promoting fish feed components. This study was performed to gain insights into the immunomodulatory effects of dietary seaweeds in Atlantic salmon. Specifically tested were 10% inclusion levels of Laminaria digitata (SW1) and a commercial blend of seaweeds (Oceanfeed® ) (SW2) against a fishmeal based control diet (FMC). Differences between groups were assessed in growth, feed conversion ratio and blood parameters hematocrit and hemoglobin...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909009/knockout-of-cnr1-prevents-metabolic-stress-induced-cardiac-injury-through-improving-insulin-resistance-ir-injury-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-by-promoting-ampk-alpha-activation
#8
Su-Juan Pei, Huai-Yuan Zhu, Jin-Hui Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Deng
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1+/+ ) and CNR1-knockout (CNR1-/- ) mice were employed and subjected to HFD treatments for 16 weeks to further investigate the effects of CNR1 on DCM. The results indicated that CNR1 knockout mice after HFD feeding exhibited a significant decrease of body weight and lipid accumulation in serum...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908322/chitooligosaccharide-supplementation-in-low-fish-meal-diets-for-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-effects-on-growth-innate-immunity-gut-histology-and-immune-related-genes-expression
#9
Samad Rahimnejad, Xiangli Yuan, Ling Wang, Kangle Lu, Kai Song, Chunxiao Zhang
This study evaluated the effects of supplementing chitooligosaccharide (COS) in low fish meal (FM) diets on growth, immune response, intestine and hepatopancrease histology, and expression of inflammatory and immune-related genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A basal diet was formulated using FM and soybean meal (SM) as primary protein sources and considered as a high FM (HFM) diet, then a low FM (LFM) diet was prepared by substituting 50% of FM with SM and supplemented with 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 g COS kg-1 diet (LFM, COS3, COS6, COS9, COS12 and COS15 diets)...
June 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908260/current-scenario-of-consumption-of-lathyrus-sativus-and-lathyrism-in-three-districts-of-chhattisgarh-state-india
#10
Arjun L Khandare, R Hari Kumar, I I Meshram, N Arlappa, A Laxmaiah, K Venkaiah, P Amrutha Rao, Vakdevi Validandi, G S Toteja
Lathyrism is a disease caused by excessive consumption of grass pea, Lathyrus sativus especially under conditions of severe drought. Grass pea contains 3-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropanoic acid (β-ODAP) a putative neurotoxin which acts through excitatory mechanism causing Neurolathyrism. Due to awareness of the disease, availability of food and levels of consumption of L. sativus there is reduction in lathyrism cases where higher consumption of L. sativus is reported in India. The present study was undertaken with the objective to assess the current scenario of consumption of L...
June 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908242/medium-chain-triglyceride-diet-reduces-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-enhances-social-competitiveness-in-rats
#11
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908038/the-effect-of-dietary-corn-oil-and-fish-oil-supplementation-in-dogs-with-naturally-occurring-gingivitis
#12
Ana L Lourenço, Henriette E Booij-Vrieling, Carmen B Vossebeld, António Neves, Carlos Viegas, Ronald J Corbee
The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate if downregulation of the inflammatory response due to ingestion of high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can slow down gingivitis development, and thus delay the progression of periodontal disease (PD) in dogs. To this aim, 44 client-owned adult dogs (>1 and <8 years old) with naturally occurring PD (stages 1 and 2) were submitted to a plaque, gingivitis and calculus scoring followed by a dental cleaning procedure and collection of blood samples...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907443/apoa-1milano-muteins-orally-delivered-via-genetically-modified-rice-show-anti-atherogenic-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-vitro-and-in-apoe-atherosclerotic-mice
#13
Gabriele Romano, Serena Reggi, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Amanda Facoetti, Elisa Chisci, Mariateresa Pettinato, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Federica Vecchio, Silvia Leoni, Marco De Giorgi, Federica Avezza, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Crippa, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Ilaria Rivolta, Donatella Barisani, Ryszard Tomasz Smolenski, Roberto Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905772/nrf2-deficiency-exacerbates-obesity-induced-oxidative-stress-neurovascular-dysfunction-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-neuroinflammation-amyloidogenic-gene-expression-and-cognitive-decline-in-mice-mimicking-the-aging-phenotype
#14
Stefano Tarantini, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Peter Hertelendy, Tamas Kiss, Tripti Gautam, Xin A Zhang, William E Sonntag, Rafael de Cabo, Eszter Farkas, Michael H Elliott, Michael T Kinter, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
Obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function in the elderly adults. In mice, aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and neuroinflammation, which compromise cognitive health. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that Nrf2 signaling plays a critical role in microvascular resilience to obesity and that aging is associated with progressive Nrf2 dysfunction, promoting microvascular impairment...
June 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903237/-effects-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-on-high-density-lipoprotein-in-rats-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#15
Yong Zhang, Xueyan Yang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xiaoming Yu, Changyong Xue, Yinghua Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of medium-chain fatty acid( MCFA) on high-density-lipoprotein( HDL) in serum, liver and small intestine in Sprague Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. METHODS: Thirty obese rats were divided into 3 groups randomly, and were fed high fat diet mixed with 2% octanoic acid, 2% decanoic acid, 2% oleic acid respectively for 8 weeks. The levels of blood HDL, apolipoprotein A1( ApoA1), apolipoprotein A2( ApoA2), triglyceride( TG), total cholesterol( TC), high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol( HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol( HDL-c) in serum were measured at the fourth and eighth week...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903176/-follow-up-study-on-diet-folic-acid-and-iron-status-in-358-cases-of-uighur-pregnant-women-from-xinjiang-kashi
#16
Tuerxunjiang Maimaitiming, Xiaojun Wang, Camila Tuerxunjiang, Yanqiong Yang, Dilihuomaer Wuerkaixi, Jinfen Pu, Li Wang, Liuqianzi Yan
OBJECTIVE: To understand the dietary intake situation of Uighur pregnant women, investigate folic acid level and its influencing factors, to provide evidence for health education of maternal nutrition and implementation of proper nutrition, balanceddiet guidance. METHODS: 358 cases of Uighur trimester pregnant women for the study, took the method of 3 d 24 h dietary recall to survey their dietary and collect blood samples. The Hb was detected by the cyanide methemoglobinmethod...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901851/%C3%AE-cedrene-a-newly-identified-ligand-of-mor23-increases-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-strength
#17
Tao Tong, Minji Kim, Taesun Park
SCOPE: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the effects of α-cedrene, a natural ligand of mouse olfactory receptor 23 (MOR23) whose ectopic function regulating myogenesis was reported recently, on skeletal muscle growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: α-Cedrene, not only stimulated hypertrophy but also attenuated free fatty acid-induced atrophy of cultured skeletal myotubes, as evidenced by an increased myotube diameter, fusion index, and total cellular protein content...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900568/parental-diet-affects-embryogenesis-of-the-great-pond-snail-lymnaea-stagnalis-exposed-to-cadmium-pyraclostrobin-and-tributyltin
#18
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality has a strong impact on life history traits but it is not usually considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to cadmium, pyraclostrobin and tributyltin in Lymnaea stagnalis offspring. Three groups were fed a different diet each; lettuce, high-caloric pellets, or a combination of both. Snails fed pellets and both diets had similar growth; however, snails fed lettuce showed lower growth until the 4th month...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899851/association-of-mrna-expression-of-iron-metabolism-associated-genes-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-rats
#19
Teruhisa Higuchi, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Akiko Fukushima, Hiroshi Matsumura, Shunichi Matsuoka, Tatsuo Kanda, Masahiko Sugitani, Akiko Tsunemi, Takahiro Ueno, Noboru Fukuda
Background: Excess iron is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: mRNA expression of duodenal cytochrome b, divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin 1, hepcidin, hephaestin and transferrin receptor 1 in liver were higher in high fat, high cholesterol-containing diet (HFCD) group than in normal diet (ND) group. mRNA levels of divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, which stimulate iron absorption and excretion, were enhanced in small intestine...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899272/high-glucose-or-fructose-diet-cause-changes-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-without-body-weight-change
#20
Moon Ho Do, Eunjung Lee, Mi-Jin Oh, Yoonsook Kim, Ho-Young Park
High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD) or high-fructose (HFrD) diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
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