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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445811/liraglutide-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-by-enhancing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-cell-cycle-regulation-and-delays-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#1
Teruo Jojima, Kohsuke Uchida, Kazumi Akimoto, Takanori Tomotsune, Kazunori Yanagi, Toshie Iijima, Kunihiro Suzuki, Kikuo Kasai, Yoshimasa Aso
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have demonstrated that both native glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor agonists suppress the progression of atherosclerosis in animal models. METHODS: We investigated whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, could prevent the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)) on a high-fat diet. We also examined the influence of liraglutide on angiotensin II-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via enhancement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulation of cell cycle progression...
April 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444942/combined-inhibition-of-autophagy-protein-5-and-galectin-1-by-thiodigalactoside-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-through-induction-of-white-fat-browning
#2
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jong Won Yun
Our previous study demonstrated that thiodigalactoside (TDG) ameliorates obesity by targeted inhibition of galectin-1 (GAL1). Here, for the first time, we report the unexpected role of GAL1 and ATG5 inhibition by TDG in lipid metabolism. Core thermogenic marker proteins and genes were highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) and TDG, resulting in the significant development of brown fat-like adipocytes in inguinal WAT. TDG treatment reduced weight gain and fat mass as well as activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in HFD-fed rats...
April 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444853/experimental-type-2-diabetes-induction-reduces-serum-vaspin-but-not-serum-omentin-in-wistar-rats
#3
Cynthia Aparecida de Castro, Karina Ana da Silva, Marina Molina Buffo, Karina Nogueira Zambone Pinto, Fernanda de Oliveira Duarte, Keico Okino Nonaka, Fernanda de Freitas Aníbal, Ana Cláudia Garcia de Oliveira Duarte
Vaspin and omentin are adipose tissue adipokines that have often been related to obesity and its comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of serum omentin and vaspin in models of type 2 diabetes. To do this, Wistar rats (~200 g) were randomly divided into two groups: a non-diabetic group (n = 6) and a diabetic group fed on a high-fat diet (n = 6) and a low dose of streptozotocin (Sigma(®) ). All procedures were approved by the Brazilian Ethics Committee. Body weight (BW) and food intake were recorded daily...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444804/effect-of-resistant-starch-on-the-intestinal-health-of-old-dogs-fermentation-products-and-histological-features-of-the-intestinal-mucosa
#4
M C Peixoto, É M Ribeiro, A P J Maria, B A Loureiro, L G di Santo, T C Putarov, F N Yoshitoshi, G T Pereira, L R M Sá, A C Carciofi
The effects of resistant starch (RS) intake on nutrient digestibility, microbial fermentation products, faecal IgA, faecal pH, and histological features of the intestinal mucosa of old dogs were evaluated. The same formulation was extruded in two different conditions: one to obtain elevated starch cooking degree with low RS content (0.21%) and the other lower starch cooking with high RS content (1.46%). Eight geriatric Beagles (11.5 ± 0.38 years old) were fed each diet for 61 days in a crossover design...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444791/trialling-nutrient-recommendations-for-slow-lorises-nycticebus-spp-based-on-wild-feeding-ecology
#5
F Cabana, E Dierenfeld, W Wirdateti, G Donati, K A I Nekaris
Slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) captive diets have been based on routine and anecdotes rather than scientific fact. The growing body of evidence contradicts the high fruit diet supported by such anecdotes. Non-human primate nutrient requirements are grouped into new (based on the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus) or old world (based on rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta) primates. Slow lorises are known to suffer from many health ailments in captivity such as dental disease, obesity, wasting and kidney issues all of which have been linked to diet...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444662/early-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-and-obesity-resistance-differentially-regulated-by-high-fat-diet
#6
Jingyu Sun, Tao Huang, Zhengtang Qi, Songhui You, Jingmei Dong, Chen Zhang, Lili Qin, Yunhe Zhou, Shuzhe Ding
The mechanism for different susceptibilities to obesity after short-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding is largely unknown. Given the close association between obesity occurrence and mitochondrial dysfunction, the early events in skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations between HFD-induced obesity (DIO) and HFD-induced obesity resistant (DIO-R) lean phenotype under excess nutritional environment were explored.ICR/JCL male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, as follows: low-fat diet (LFD) and HFD groups...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443785/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-high-protein-diets-on-endocrine-and-metabolic-function-body-composition-and-exercise-induced-adaptations
#7
Flor E Morales, Grant M Tinsley, Paul M Gordon
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. AIM: Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. METHODS: Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443527/an-investigation-into-the-effects-of-maternal-supplementation-with-excess-iodine-on-the-mechanisms-and-impacts-of-reduced-igg-absorption-in-the-lamb-postpartum
#8
F M McGovern, T Sweeney, M T Ryan, S Lott, F P Campion, T M Boland
An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs' response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442748/pentamethylquercetin-induces-adipose-browning-and-exerts-beneficial-effects-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#9
Yi Han, Jian-Zhao Wu, Ji-Zhong Shen, Lei Chen, Ting He, Man-Wen Jin, Hui Liu
Browning white adipocytes may be a new target in anti-obesity therapy. Pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) has been shown to have anti-obesity effects in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice. Here, we aimed to study the anti-obesity effects of PMQ in vitro and in vivo and to determine if adipose browning is involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-obesity effects of PMQ. We evaluated the effects of PMQ on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, glucose consumption, cellular lipid metabolism, and related brown gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442507/protein-kinase-stk25-aggravates-the-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease-in-mice
#10
Esther Nunez Duran, Belen Chanclon, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt-Asterholm, Emelie Cansby, Margit Mahlapuu
Characterising the molecular networks that negatively regulate pancreatic β-cell function is essential for understanding the underlying pathogenesis and developing new treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of ectopic fat storage, meta-inflammation, and fibrosis in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of progression of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease in the context of chronic exposure to dietary lipids in mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442500/high-fat-diet-feeding-alters-expression-of-hepatic-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-in-mice
#11
Miaoran Ning, Hyunyoung Jeong
Medical conditions accompanying obesity often require drug therapy, but whether and how obesity alters the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and thus drug pharmacokinetics is poorly defined. Previous studies have shown that high fat diet (HFD) feeding and subsequent obesity in mice lead to altered expression of transcriptional regulators for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α, a transcriptional activator of CYP2D6) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, a transcriptional repressor of CYP2D6)...
April 25, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440522/-nutrition-management-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#12
Weihong Tang, Yuhua Chen, Meizhen Pan, Lihua Chen, Lele Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Xiong Zhang, Peng Zhang, Chengzhu Zheng, Bo Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of nutrition management in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy(LSG). METHODS: Clinical data of 22 obese T2DM patients undergoing LSG from March 2013 to July 2015 in Fudan University Pudong Medical Center were collected. All the patients strictly followed the specialized instruction by nutritionists: diabetic and low calorie diet 3347.2 to 5020.8 kJ (800 to 1200 kcal) per day before the operation; low calorie liquid diet 2510...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440046/attenuated-low-grade-inflammation-following-long-term-dietary-intervention-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity
#13
Caroline Blomquist, Malin Alvehus, Jonas Burén, Mats Ryberg, Christel Larsson, Bernt Lindahl, Caroline Mellberg, Ingegerd Söderström, Elin Chorell, Tommy Olsson
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters...
May 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439947/sirt1-hsf1-hsps-pathway-is-essential-for-exenatide-alleviated-lipid-induced-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#14
Xiaobin Zheng, Fen Xu, Hua Liang, Huanyi Cao, Mengyin Cai, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng
Recent studies have indicated lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to be a major contributor to the progression of hepatic steatosis. Exenatide (Exendin-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is known to improve hepatic steatosis with accumulating evidence. In this study, we investigated whether exenatide could alleviate lipid-induced hepatic ER stress through mammal sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and illustrated the detailed mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) were then treated with exenatide or normal saline by intraperitoneal injection for 4 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438741/maternal-macronutrient-intake-and-offspring-blood-pressure-20%C3%A2-years-later
#15
Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Dorte Rytter, Bodil Hammer Bech, Bryndis E Birgisdottir, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Charlotta Granström, Tine Brink Henriksen, Sjurdur F Olsen, Ekaterina Maslova
BACKGROUND: Results from 2 cohort studies in Scotland established in the 1940s and 1950s (Aberdeen and Motherwell) suggested that a high protein diet during pregnancy might adversely influence offspring blood pressure at adult age. Our objective was to examine this association in the Danish Fetal Origins Cohort (DaFO88). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective birth cohort of 965 women who gave birth in 1988-1989 in Aarhus, Denmark, and whose offspring (n=434) participated in a clinical examination ≈20 years later...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438715/impact-of-physical-exercise-on-visceral-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-profile-and-inflammation-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-regimen
#16
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Inês O Gonçalves, Ana Moreira, Elisabete Maciel, Sónia Santos, Maria R Domingues, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
PURPOSE: Studies associate specific fatty-acids (FA) with the pathophysiology of inflammation. We aimed to analyze the impact of exercise on adipose tissue FA profile in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) and to ascertain whether these exercise-induced changes in specific FA have repercussions on obesity-related inflammation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into sedentary, voluntary physical-activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) groups fed a standard (S, 35kcal% fat) or high-fat (71kcal% fat) diets...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438687/dietary-nitrite-supplementation-attenuates-cardiac-remodeling-in-l-name-induced-hypertensive-rats
#17
Kunihiro Sonoda, Kazuo Ohtake, Hiroyuki Uchida, Junta Ito, Masaki Uchida, Hideshi Natsume, Hazuki Tamada, Jun Kobayashi
Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability underlies the development of hypertensive heart disease. We investigated the effects of dietary nitrite on N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an untreated control group, an l-NAME-treated group, and three other l-NAME-treated groups supplemented with 10 mg/L or 100 mg/L of nitrite or 100 mg/L of captopril in drinking water. After the 8-week experimental period, mean arterial blood pressure was measured, followed by sampling of blood and heart tissue for assessment of nitrite/nitrate levels in the plasma and heart, the plasma level of angiotensin II (AT II), and the heart transcriptional levels of AT II type 1 receptor (AT1R), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue proteins such as type 1 collagen and fibronectin...
April 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438314/progression-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-is-associated-with-up-regulation-of-major-sodium-transporters-in-the-mouse-kidney-cortex-under-a-normal-salt-diet
#18
Xiaoming Zhou, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Yao Xiao, Saule Nurmukhambetova, Jason R Lees
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437863/sirt3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-autophagy-dictating-hepatocyte-susceptibility-to-lipotoxicity
#19
Songtao Li, Xiaobing Dou, Hua Ning, Qing Song, Wei Wei, Ximei Zhang, Chen Shen, Jiaxin Li, Changhao Sun, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be fully elucidated. SIRT3 is an NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase primarily located inside mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrated that a SFAs-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was more detrimental to the liver than an isocaloric unsaturated FAs-rich HFD. Unexpectedly, SIRT3 expression/activity were significantly elevated in the livers of mice exposed to the SFAs-rich HFD...
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437574/dietary-lactalbumin-and-lactoferrin-interact-with-inulin-to-modulate-energy-balance-in-obese-rats
#20
Arashdeep Singh, Rizaldy C Zapata, Adel Pezeshki, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diets enriched with the whey protein components lactalbumin and lactoferrin interact additively with inulin to improve energy balance by decreasing food intake and body weight (BW). METHODS: In four experiments, diet-induced obese rats were randomized to diets containing either lactalbumin or lactoferrin at low (20% kcal) or high (40% kcal) doses, and inulin at low (7.5% w/w) or high (15% w/w) doses, alone or in combination. Energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), BW, body composition, plasma insulin, and leptin concentrations were measured...
April 24, 2017: Obesity
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