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Miwa Suzuki, Kaho Banno, Toshiki Usui, Noriko Funasaka, Takao Segawa, Tetsuo Kirihata, Haruka Kamisako, Keiichi Ueda, Arimune Munakata
In general, thyroid hormones (THs) stimulate cellular metabolism by inducing ATP utilization that collaterally leads to thermogenesis. However, in cetaceans, TH functions and the contribution of THs to cold adaptation are not fully understood. To investigate the role of THs in metabolism of cetaceans, seasonal changes in circulating levels in THs were investigated in the common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus that were monitored under two different conditions for two years, with routine measurements of body temperature (BT), water temperature (WT) and air temperature (AT)...
June 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Franck Marie Leclère, Justo M Alcolea, Peter M Vogt, Javier Moreno-Moraga, Vincent Casoli, Serge Mordon, Mario A Trelles
BACKGROUND: Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. OBJECTIVE: To objectively assess whether, in Teimourian high-grade upper arm remodelling, laser-assisted lypolysis (LAL) alone could result in patient satisfaction. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, 22 patients were treated for excessive upper arm fat (Teimourian grade III and IV) solely with LAL...
2016: Plastic Surgery
Kazutoyo Yoda, Xiaocum Sun, Manabu Kawase, Akira Kubota, Kenji Miyazawa, Gaku Harata, Masataka Hosoda, Masaru Hiramatsu, Fang He, Michael B Zemel
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus paracasei TMC0409, Streptococcus thermophilus TMC1543 and whey proteins were used to prepare fermented milk. For the experiment aP2- agouti transgenic mice were pre-treated with a high-sucrose/high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese mice were fed a diet containing 1·2% Ca and either non-fat dried milk (NFDM) or probiotic-fermented milk (PFM) with nutritional energy restriction for 6 weeks. The animals were examined after the treatment for changes in body weight, fat pad weight, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, lypolysis, the expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and skeletal muscle and the presence of biomarkers for oxidative and inflammatory stress in plasma...
June 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Chun-Jun Li, Qian Yu, Pei Yu, Tie-Lian Yu, Qiu-Mei Zhang, Shan Lu, De-Min Yu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liraglutide treatment can improve glycemic control with a concomitant weight loss, but the underlying mechanism on weight loss is not completely understood. Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) can resist body fat accumulation through increasing adipocytes lypolysis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that liraglutide-induced weight loss was associated with increased plasma NPs concentrations. METHODS: Thirty-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with metformin and other oral antidiabetic drugs except for thiazolidinediones (TZDs) were subcutaneously administered with liraglutide for 12 weeks...
2014: Cardiovascular Diabetology
B Lal, T P Singh
The levels of free fatty acid (FFA), monoglyceride (MG), diglyceride (DG), triglyceride (TG), phospholipid (PL), free cholesterol (CF) and esterified cholesterol (CE) were measured in the liver, plasma, ovary, abdominal fat and muscle during different phases of the annual reproductive cycle in femaleClarias batrachus. During the preparatory phase, hepatic lipogenic activity predominated over mobilization and consumption. In the prespawning season, an increased hepatic lipogenic activity was maintained, but lipids were transferred from the liver to the ovary...
June 1987: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Sylvain Auclair, Rustem Uzbekov, Sébastien Elis, Laura Sanchez, Igor Kireev, Lionel Lardic, Rozenn Dalbies-Tran, Svetlana Uzbekova
Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO...
March 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eric Neyraud, Olivier Palicki, Camille Schwartz, Sophie Nicklaus, Gilles Feron
Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat...
May 2012: Archives of Oral Biology
A O Shpakov, K V Derkach, O V Chistiakova, V M Bondareva
Sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase signaling system (ACSS) to polypeptide hormones and biogenic amines is studied in testis and ovary of rats after the 2- and 4-day fasting as compared with control animals. In tissues of the fasted rats there is shown a decrease in the basal activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and of the basal level of the GTP binding of heterotrimeric G protein. An increase of duration of fasting from 2 to 4 days led to intensification of these changes. In the fasted rats, the stimulating effects of chorionic gonadotropin, PACAP-38...
January 2011: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Carlos A Habitante, Lila M Oyama, Allain Amador Bueno, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro, Débora Estadella, Ana R Dâmaso, Claudia M Oller do Nascimento
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training on the metabolism of rats following the partial removal of fat pads. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were subjected to the partial removal (L) of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RET) and epididymal white adipose tissue (EPI), or a sham operation (Sh). Seven days after surgery, both sets of rats were subdivided into exercised (LE or ShE) (swimming 90 min/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks) and sedentary (LS or ShS) groups. Partial removal of the fat pads increased the lipogenesis rates in both the RET and EPI and decreased the weight and lypolysis rate of the EPI, while the RET weight was not significantly affected by lipectomy...
June 2010: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Barry E DiBernardo, Jennifer Reyes
BACKGROUND: Lasers have been used to enhance the emulsification of fat and coagulation of small blood vessels in conjunction with lipoaspiration. Although seen anecdotally, documented skin tightening has not been established. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to establish a model and a quantifiable method for documenting changes in skin tightening and skin shrinkage after laser lypolysis. METHODS: Five female patients with focal abdominal adiposity were treated in a prospective evaluation with a sequentially firing 1064-/1320-nm laser...
September 2009: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Mauricio Mondaca, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Bernardo Krause, Emilio A Herrera, Raquel Riquelme, Anibal J Llanos, Maria Seron-Ferre
Although the fetal pineal gland does not secrete melatonin, the fetus is exposed to melatonin of maternal origin. In the non-human primate fetus, melatonin acts as a trophic hormone for the adrenal gland, stimulating growth while restraining cortisol production. This latter physiological activity led us to hypothesize that melatonin may influence some fetal functions critical for neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life. To test this hypothesis we explored (i) the presence of G-protein-coupled melatonin binding sites and (ii) the direct modulatory effects of melatonin on noradrenaline (norepinephrine)-induced middle cerebral artery (MCA) contraction, brown adipose tissue (BAT) lypolysis and ACTH-induced adrenal cortisol production in fetal sheep...
August 15, 2008: Journal of Physiology
C Bairras, P Mauriege, L Bukowiecki, C Atgie
Obese Zucker rat is often used as a model of genetic obesity to understand the mechanism of the development of obesity. In the present work, in order to better understand the regulation of lipolysis in the Zucker rat, the lipolytic activities of adipocytes isolated from different adipose depots of lean and obese Zucker rats, in the basal state or after catecholamine stimulation have been measured. The obese Zucker rat presents hyperinsulinemia without hyperglycemia and with elevated plasma free fatty acids, suggesting a dyslipidemia...
December 2007: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Michael I Trenell, Emma Stevenson, Karola Stockmann, Jennie Brand-Miller
Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and plasma NEFA are important skeletal muscle fuel sources. By raising blood insulin concentrations, carbohydrate ingestion inhibits lypolysis and reduces circulating NEFA. We hypothesised that differences in the postprandial glycaemic and insulin response to carbohydrates (i.e. glycaemic index; GI) could alter NEFA availability and IMCL use during subsequent exercise. Endurance-trained individuals (n 7) cycled for 90 min at 70 % V O2peak and then consumed either high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) meals over the following 12 h...
February 2008: British Journal of Nutrition
Hirobumi Asakura
The metabolic rate of the fetus per tissue weight is relatively high when compared to that of an adult. Moreover, heat is transferred to the fetus via the placenta and the uterus, resulting in a 0.3 degrees C to 0.5 degrees C higher temperature than that of the mother. Therefore, fetal temperature is maternally dependent until birth. At birth, the neonate rapidly cools in response to the relatively cold extrauterine environment. Thus, the neonatal temperature rapidly drops soon after birth. In order to survive, the neonate must accelerate heat production via nonshivering thermogenesis (NST), which is coupled to lypolysis in brown adipose tissue...
December 2004: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Ana Lydia Sawaya, Paula A Martins, Luciane P Grillo, Telma T Florêncio
Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Studies have shown an increase in the number of obese individuals in very poor urban communities. This review shows a co-existence between malnutrition and obesity in households of slums in Brazil and a higher prevalence of stunted/overweight or obese individuals (30%) in comparison with stunted/underweight (16%). These conditions are associated with important metabolic changes. Results from stunted children showed higher susceptibility to the effects of higher fats diets, lower fat oxidation, higher central fat, and higher body fat gain...
July 2004: Nutrition Reviews
Warunee Leesajakul, Minoru Nakano, Atsuhiko Taniguchi, Tetsurou Handa
Cubosomes are novel dispersed nanoparticles with bicontinuous cubic phases of monoolein in their interior. We investigated their disintegration process in plasma by in vitro and in vivo studies. Cubosomes were incubated with whole plasma or plasma components such as HDL, LDL, and albumin. The lypolysis study indicated lipolytic activity of whole plasma towards cubosomes. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that HDL, LDL and albumin interacted with cubosomes. HDL affected cubosomes' integrity and gave rise to smaller particles which contained the components of both cubosomes and HDL...
April 15, 2004: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Tomoo Ikarashi, Osamu Hanyu, Seitaro Maruyama, Satoshi Souda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Eri Abe, Jyunko Ukisu, Keiko Naganuma, Akiko Suzuki, Maki Toya, Susumu Kaneko, Katsunori Suzuki, Osamu Nakagawa, Yoshifusa Aizawa
The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (B2AR) is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and modulates insulin secretion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Arg16Gly variant allele of B2AR on insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used minimal model analysis of the frequently sampled insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism to examine differences of insulin secretion and insulin resistance among three genotypes...
January 2004: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 1964: Zeitschrift Für die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete
H Kh Bozhko, V S Chursina, V M Kulabukhov
Contents of 7 serum lipoprotein (LP) fractions both native and after their incubation under 37 degrees C during 24 h in the patients with atherosclerosis and hypertension discirculatory encephalopathy were investigated by a gradient gel-electrophoresis method. Two groups of patients in the age of 30-59 in the first group and 61-73 in the second one were examined. It was found that for the age interval examined in native serum of the patients with atherosclerosis and hypertension similar changes of LP contents were observed...
September 2001: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
E O Buczkowska, P Jarosz-Chobot
Insulin enhances glucose disposal, storage and oxidation in muscles. It control the metabolites required in the muscle and is involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein and glycogen and it inhibits the degradation of these compounds in muscle tissue. Glucose normally provides energy sources for tissues of the body, its uptake by muscle requires a secretion of insulin. The initial step of glucose utilization requires the transport of glucose into the cells...
2001: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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