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Active cooling

Marisa J Pacella, Dhanashree A Rajderkar, Nicole Copenhaver, Kristine Boykin, Michael D Weiss
OBJECTIVE:  Due to logistical constraints, physicians traditionally delay diagnostic imaging for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) until the neonate has completed all 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming. In some cases, neonates may require neuroimaging before 72 hours has passed. STUDY DESIGN:  We present a case in which an MRI was acquired during active hypothermia. RESULTS:  Upon return to the NICU, Baby X's temperature probe read 33...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Hui-Min Shen, Liang Hu, Xin Fu
With the extensive applications of biomagnetic signals derived from active biological tissue in both clinical diagnoses and human-computer-interaction, there is an increasing need for approachable weak biomagnetic sensing technology. The inherent merits of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and its high integration with multiple technologies makes it possible to detect weak biomagnetic signals with micron-sized, non-cooled and low-cost sensors, considering that the magnetic field intensity attenuates rapidly with distance...
January 7, 2018: Sensors
Celeste E van Rinsum, Sanne M P L Gerards, Geert M Rutten, Ien A M van de Goor, Stef P J Kremers
BACKGROUND: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have proved to be effective in changing and maintaining behavioural lifestyle changes and reducing overweight and obesity, in clinical and real-world settings. In this CLI, lifestyle coaches are expected to promote lifestyle changes of participants regarding physical activity and diet. In the Coaching on Lifestyle (CooL) intervention, which takes a period of 8 to 10 months, lifestyle coaches counsel adults and children aged 4 years and older (and their parents) who are obese or are overweight with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases or type II diabetes...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wenyi Deng, Andong Yin, Jingchen Ma, Yaxin Su
Different types of sludge chars, i.e. the original (S1), HNO3 washed (S2), KOH activated (S3), and H2 reduced chars, were prepared to investigate their performances for NO conversion under low temperature. Results indicated that the surface area of the sludge chars did not play key role on NO conversion. S1 showed the higher NO conversion performance than S2 and S3, due to the reducing effect of iron components in S1 (mainly FeS and Fe2P). Both H2 reduction at high temperature and the followed cooling atmosphere (H2 or N2) have great influences on the activity of S1...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bozumeh Som, Jessica R Shue, Mark D Smith, Linda S Shimizu
Molecular salts, often observed as cocrystals, play an important role in the fields of pharmaceutics and materials science, where salt formation is used to tune the properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and improve the stability of solid-state materials. Salt formation via a proton-transfer reaction typically alters hydrogen-bonding motifs and influences supramolecular assembly patterns. We report here the molecular salts formed by the pyridyl bis-urea macrocycle 3,5,13,15,21,22-hexaazatricyclo[15...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Victor J T Loehr
Ectotherms have various means of dealing with low environmental temperatures, but relatively few species have been rigorously investigated. Consequently, we have little information to predict how ectotherm populations might respond to global temperature changes. Tortoises from temperate and subtropical regions often overcome periodically cool conditions by hibernation, but speckled dwarf tortoises (Chersobius signatus) need to remain active to exploit ephemeral resources in their arid winter-rainfall habitat...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Daiki Imai, Ryosuke Takeda, Akina Suzuki, Nooshin Naghavi, Yoshihiro Yamashina, Akemi Ota, Shinya Matsumura, Hisayo Yokoyama, Toshiaki Miyagawa, Kazunobu Okazaki
PURPOSE: We assessed whether plasma lactate accumulation increased and the lactate threshold (LT) declined when the skin temperature was lowered by whole body skin surface cooling before exercise in cool, but not temperate, conditions, and whether the lowered LT was associated with sympathetic activation or lowered plasma volume (PV) by cold-induced diuresis. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects performed a graded maximal cycling exercise after pre-conditioning under three different conditions for 60 min...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ignacio Martín-Navarro, Jean P Brodie, Aaron J Romanowsky, Tomás Ruiz-Lara, Glenn van de Ven
Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies...
January 1, 2018: Nature
X Weng, A P A Monteiro, J Guo, C Li, R M Orellana, T N Marins, J K Bernard, D J Tomlinson, J M DeFrain, S E Wohlgemuth, S Tao
Dietary Zn and heat stress alter gut integrity in monogastric animals. However, effects of Zn on mammary epithelial integrity in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows have not been studied. Multiparous lactating Holstein cows (n = 72) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of environment and Zn source on performance and mammary epithelial integrity. Treatments included 2 environments [cooled (CL) or not cooled (NC)] and 2 Zn sources [75 mg/kg of supplemental Zn as Zn hydroxychloride (IOZ) or 35 mg/kg of Zn hydroxychloride + 40 mg/kg of Zn-Met complex (ZMC)]...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Qiang Zhang, Boxing Zhu, Deping Zhang, Jingwang Gu, Dongfeng Zhao, Yang Chen
We present a pulsed single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator that was recently constructed for sub-Doppler spectroscopic studies of transient species in a supersonic slit jet expansion environment. The system consists of a Littman-type grazing-incidence-grating resonator and a KTP crystal and is pumped at 532 nm. By spatially filtering the pump laser beam and employing an active cavity-length-stabilization scheme, a frequency down-conversion efficiency up to 18% and generation of Fourier-transform limited pulses with a typical pulse duration of ∼5...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Vyacheslav Lebedev, Joshua H Bartlett, Alexander Malyzhenkov, Alonso Castro
We present a novel compact design for a multichannel atomic oven which generates collimated beams of refractory atoms for fieldable laser spectroscopy. Using this resistively heated crucible, we demonstrate spectroscopy of an erbium sample at 1300 °C with improved isotopic resolution with respect to a single-channel design. In addition, our oven has a high thermal efficiency. By minimizing the surface area of the crucible, we achieve 2000 °C at 140 W of applied electrical power. As a result, the design does not require any active cooling and is compact enough to allow for its incorporation into fieldable instruments...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yiping Deng, Fengjian Yang, Xiuhua Zhao, Lu Wang, Weiwei Wu, Chang Zu, Mingfang Wu
Ibuprofen (IBU) is an effective analgesic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Unfortunately, oral IBU can cause adverse gastrointestinal drug reactions, such as bleeding and ulcerations, and increases the risk for stomach or intestinal perforations. In this study, IBU nanoparticles (IBU-NPs) were prepared through emulsion solvent evaporation and freeze-drying to improve their solubility. IBU nanoemulsion and nanosuspension were optimized through a single-factor experiment. IBU-NPs with a mean particle size of 216...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Radhika Palkar, Serra Ongun, Edward Catich, Natalie Li, Neil Borad, Angela Sarkisian, David D McKemy
Cooling or the application of mentholated liniments to the skin has been used to treat itch for centuries, yet remarkably little is known of how counter-stimuli such as these induce itch relief. Indeed, there is no clear consensus in the scientific literature as to whether or not cooling does in fact block the transduction of itch signals or if it is simply a placebo effect. This gap in our understanding led us to hypothesize that cooling is antipruritic and, like cooling analgesia, requires function of the cold-gated ion channel TRPM8, a receptor for menthol expressed on peripheral afferent nerve endings...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Min-Jung Kim, Hye-Jeong Shin, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Hoon Kwon, Hyo-Joung Seol
This study examined the effect of ice-quenching after oxidation treatment on hardness change of a Pd-Cu-Ga-Zn metal-ceramic alloy during porcelain firing simulation. Although not statistically significant, the alloy was softened slightly during porcelain firing simulation with conventional slow cooling rate. On the other hand, the hardness increased significantly by ice-quenching instead of the slow cooling after oxidation (p<0.001). The gap in the final hardness depending on ice-quenching occurred in the matrix and plate-like precipitates but not in the particle-like structure without plate-like precipitates (p<0...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Aram Kostanyan, Rasmus Westerström, Yang Zhang, David Kunhardt, Roland Stania, Bernd Büchner, Alexey A Popov, Thomas Greber
For the endohedral fullerene molecule HoLu_{2}N@C_{80}, it is shown that the endohedral HoLu_{2}N unit may be oriented in a magnetic field. The Ho magnetic moment is fixed in the strong ligand field and aligns along the holmium-nitrogen axis. The torque of a magnetic field on the Ho magnetic moment leads to a hopping bias of the endohedral unit inclining to an orientation parallel to the externally applied field. This endohedral cluster distribution remains frozen below the onset of thermally induced rotation of the endohedral units...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Dario Manara, Luca Soldi, Sara Mastromarino, Kostantinos Boboridis, Davide Robba, Luka Vlahovic, Rudy Konings
Major and severe accidents have occurred three times in nuclear power plants (NPPs), at Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (former USSR, 1986) and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). Research on the causes, dynamics, and consequences of these mishaps has been performed in a few laboratories worldwide in the last three decades. Common goals of such research activities are: the prevention of these kinds of accidents, both in existing and potential new nuclear power plants; the minimization of their eventual consequences; and ultimately, a full understanding of the real risks connected with NPPs...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zengliang Shi, Yue Duan, Xingjun Zhu, Qiwei Wang, DongDong Li, Ke Hu, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li, Chunxiang Xu
Lanthanide-doped up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) provide a remote temperature sensing approach to monitoring biological microenvironment. In this research, the UCNPs of NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+@NaYF4: Yb3+, Nd3+ with hexagonal(β) -phase have been synthesized and applied in cell temperature sensing as well as imaging after surface modification with Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In the core-shell UCNPs, Yb3+ ions have been introduced as energy transfer media between sensitizers of Nd3+ and activators of Er3+ to improve Er3+emission and prevent from their quenching behavior due to multiple energy levels of Nd3+...
December 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Bushra Manzar, Buer Sen, Allan B Dietz, Simon M Cool, Janet Rubin, Andre J van Wijnen
Strategies for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration apply adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that can be sourced from bone marrow- and lipo-aspirates. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs are more easily harvested in the large quantities required for skeletal tissue-engineering approaches, but are generally considered to be less osteogenic than bone marrow MSCs. Therefore, we tested a new molecular strategy to improve their osteogenic lineage-differentiation potential using the fungal metabolite cytochalasin D (CytoD)...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Masayuki Ishihara, Kaoru Murakami, Koichi Fukuda, Shingo Nakamura, Masahiro Kuwabara, Hidemi Hattori, Masanori Fujita, Tomoharu Kiyosawa, Hidetaka Yokoe
 Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution (200 ppm, pH 6) was prepared and evaluated for their stabilities and microbicidal activities. We demonstrated that HOCl is unstable against ultraviolet (UV) light, sunshine, contact with air, and elevated temperature (≧25℃). Furthermore, in the HOCl solution, the presence of excess NH2- or CHO-containing organic compounds such as proteins and carbohydrates, or of inorganic ions such as NO2-, SO3-, PO3-, Fe2+, Cu2+, and CuS, resulted in the rapid consumption of HOCl by oxidation reactions, and significantly decreased the microbicidal activity of the HOCl solution against coliform bacteria and total viable cell count...
2017: Biocontrol Science
Matsue Ebitani, Toshiaki Ebitani
  Diphenhydramine(DP), an antihistaminic agent, may become colored and daker or more fluorescent during storage. Herein, we spectroscopically examined the causes of this phenomenon under various DP storage conditions and durations. The infrared vibration-rotation spectrum shows multiple Gauche (G )-type conformers with different intramolecular n→π* interaction strengths. The splitting pattern of the dimethylamino group protons in the 1H-NMR spectrum indicates that DP is mainly in the G-type with a small portion in the Trans(T)-type...
December 27, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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