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Active cooling

Hayrullah Yazar, Fatma Özdemir, Elif Köse
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of cooled and standard centrifuges on the results of coagulation tests to examine the effects of centrifugation temperature. METHODS: Equal-volume blood samples from each patient were collected at the same time intervals and subjected to standard (25°C) and cooled centrifugation (2-4°C). Subsequently, the prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, and D-dimer values were determined in runs with the same lot numbers in the same coagulation device using the Dia-PT R (PT and INR), Dia-PTT-liquid (aPTT), Dia-FIB (fibrinogen), and Dia-D-dimer kits, respectively...
March 16, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Beatriz A Pazmiño Betancourt, Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas
Relaxation in glass-forming liquids occurs as a multi-stage hierarchical process involving cooperative molecular motion. First, there is a "fast" relaxation process dominated by the inertial motion of the molecules whose amplitude grows upon heating, followed by a longer time α-relaxation process involving both large-scale diffusive molecular motion and momentum diffusion. Our molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained glass-forming polymer melt indicate that the fast, collective motion becomes progressively suppressed upon cooling, necessitating large-scale collective motion by molecular diffusion for the material to relax approaching the glass-transition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christian Hassager, Ken Nagao, David Hildick-Smith
The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has improved in the past few decades because of advances in interventions used outside and in hospital. About half of patients who have OHCA with initial ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are admitted to hospital in coma after return of spontaneous circulation will survive to discharge with a reasonable neurological status. In this Series paper we discuss in-hospital management of patients with post-cardiac-arrest syndrome. In most patients, the most important in-hospital interventions other than routine intensive care are continuous active treatment (in non-comatose and comatose patients and including circulatory support in selected patients), cooling of core temperature to 32-36°C by targeted temperature management for at least 24 h, immediate coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention, and delay of final prognosis until at least 72 h after OHCA...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
S P Rout, L Payne, S Walker, T Scott, P Heard, H Eccles, G Bond, P Shah, P Bills, B R Jackson, S A Boxall, A P Laws, C Charles, S J Williams, P N Humphreys
14 C is an important consideration within safety assessments for proposed geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, since it is capable of re-entering the biosphere through the generation of14 C bearing gases. The irradiation of graphite moderators in the UK gas-cooled nuclear power stations has led to the generation of a significant volume of14 C-containing intermediate level wastes. Some of this14 C is present as a carbonaceous deposit on channel wall surfaces. Within this study, the potential of biofilm growth upon irradiated and13 C doped graphite at alkaline pH was investigated...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Pichamon Limcharoenchat, Sarah E Buchholz, Michael K James, Nicole O Hall, Elliot T Ryser, Bradley P Marks
Inoculation methods in pathogen inactivation studies ideally represent conditions that might occur in real-world scenarios. Surface contamination in or on low-moisture foods affects Salmonella thermal resistance, which is critically important for process validation applications. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inoculation protocol on the thermal resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in fabricated low-moisture foods. Almond meal, almond butter, wheat meal, wheat flour, and date paste were inoculated via prefabrication and postfabrication protocols...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, J-A LeQuang, R B Raffa
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Menthol has been used as a non-opioid pain reliever since ancient times. A modern understanding of its molecular mechanism of action could form the basis for generating targets for discovery of novel non-opioid analgesic drugs. METHODS: The PubMed database was queried using search words related to menthol, pain and analgesia. The results were limited to relevant preclinical studies and clinical trials and reviews published in English during the past 5 years, which yielded 31 reports...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Hongyan Wu, Qing Chang
Valvular diseases are common health problems that are strongly related to high morbidity and mortality; aortic valve allograft transplantation may be a promising way to improve survival and relieve symptoms. However, ideal tissue viability has not been observed with common valve cryopreservation methods, which could lead to apoptosis and necrosis in cryopreserved tissue. It has been observed that trehalose plays a positive role by acting to maintain cell structures and protect cells from stress responses. In this study, we studied the effects of trehalose in protecting rat valve tissue from the cooling process...
2018: PloS One
Encarni Montoya, Hayley F Keen, Carmen X Luzuriaga, William D Gosling
Tropical ecosystems play a key role in many aspects of Earth system dynamics currently of global concern, including carbon sequestration and biodiversity. To accurately understand complex tropical systems it is necessary to parameterise key ecological aspects, such as rates of change (RoC), species turnover, dynamism, resilience, or stability. To obtain a long-term (>50 years) perspective on these ecological aspects we must turn to the fossil record. However, compared to temperate zones, collecting continuous sedimentary archives in the lowland tropics is often difficult due to the active landscape processes, with potentially frequent volcanic, tectonic, and/or fluvial events confounding sediment deposition, preservation, and recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Kely Karina Belato, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
This study evaluated the in vitro antibiofilm effect of 5 different commercial mouthwashes (Cepacol Traditional, Colgate Plax Fresh Mint, Listerine Cool Mint, Oral-B Complete, and Sensodyne) on Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxic effect of the mouthwashes on gingival fibroblasts was also analyzed. A colorimetric assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to investigate the viability of biofilms after 48 hours and gingival fibroblasts after 24 hours...
March 2018: General Dentistry
B A Pereira, B R Chaves, M C Teles, T P Pontelo, C R Oliveira, R V de Souza, J E Rodríguez-Gil, M G Zangeronimo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid (ChA) in boar semen stored at 15°C. Twelve ejaculates were processed into insemination doses at different concentrations of ChA (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/ml) or vitamin E (200 μl/ml) as positive control. Semen was analysed after 0, 24 and 72 hr of storage. ChA improved (p < .05) sperm motility, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity in all periods of storage. Furthermore, after 24 hr of storage, ChA above 1.5 mg/ml supported the sperm viability until 120 min after reheating (p < ...
March 5, 2018: Andrologia
Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Zhibo Zhang, Chun Zhao, Kerry Meyer, Chamara Rajapakshe, Chenglai Wu, Zhifeng Yang, Joyce E Penner
Marine stratocumulus clouds cover nearly one-quarter of the ocean surface and thus play an extremely important role in determining the global radiative balance. The semipermanent marine stratocumulus deck over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest, because of its interactions with seasonal biomass burning aerosols that are emitted in southern Africa. Understanding the impacts of biomass burning aerosols on stratocumulus clouds and the implications for regional and global radiative balance is still very limited...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Y Jo, D M Benoist, D M Barbano, M A Drake
Typical high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization encompasses a lower heat treatment and shorter refrigerated shelf life compared with ultra-pasteurization (UP) achieved by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). A greater understanding of the effect of different heat treatments on flavor and flavor chemistry of milk is required to characterize, understand, and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the flavor and volatile compound profiles of milk subjected to HTST, DSI-UP, or IND-UP using sensory and instrumental techniques...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gary J Hodges, Matthew M Mallette, Stephen S Cheung
Whether sympathetic withdrawal or endothelial dilators such as nitric oxide (NO) contributes to cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) events is unclear. We measured blood flow and finger skin temperature (Tfinger ) of the index finger in nine participants during hand immersion in a water bath at 35 °C for 30 min, then at 8 °C for 30 min. Data were binned into 10 s averages for the entire 60 min protocol for laser-Doppler flux (LDF) and Tfinger . At baseline, Tfinger was 35.3 ± 0.2 °C and LDF was 227 ± 28 PU...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Joo Yeon Kim, Nam Sung Cho, Seungmin Cho, Kisoo Kim, Sanghoon Cheon, Kyuwon Kim, Seung-Youl Kang, Seong M Cho, Jeong-Ik Lee, Ji-Young Oh, Yong-Hae Kim, Hojun Ryu, Chi-Sun Hwang, Sujung Kim, Chil Seong Ah, Tae-Youb Kim
For environmental reason, buildings increasingly install smart windows, which can dim incoming daylight based on active electrochromic devices (ECDs). In this work, multi-layered graphene (MLG) was investigated as an ECD window electrode, to minimize carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions by decreasing the electricity consumption for building space cooling and heating and as an alternative to the transparent conductor tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) in order to decrease dependence on it. Various MLG electrodes with different numbers of graphene layers were prepared with environmentally friendly poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to produce ECD cells...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pieter Cools, Carlos Mota, Ivan Lorenzo-Moldero, Rouba Ghobeira, Nathalie De Geyter, Lorenzo Moroni, Rino Morent
The current generation of tissue engineered additive manufactured scaffolds for cartilage repair shows high potential for growing adult cartilage tissue. This study proposes two surface modification strategies based on non-thermal plasma technology for the modification of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate/poly(butylene terephthalate) additive manufactured scaffolds to enhance their cell-material interactions. The first, plasma activation in a helium discharge, introduced non-specific polar functionalities. In the second approach, a carboxylic acid plasma polymer coating, using acrylic acid as precursor, was deposited throughout the scaffolds...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charles E de Bock, Sofie Demeyer, Sandrine Degryse, Delphine Verbeke, Bram Sweron, Olga Gielen, Roel Vandepoel, Carmen Vicente, Marlies Vanden Bempt, Antonis Dagklis, Ellen Geerdens, Simon Bornschein, Rik Gijsbers, Jean Soulier, Jules P Meijerink, Merja Heinäniemi, Susanna Teppo, Maria Bouvy-Liivrand, Olli Lohi, Enrico Radaelli, Jan Cools
Leukemia is caused by the accumulation of multiple genomic lesions in hematopoietic precursor cells. However, how these events cooperate during oncogenic transformation remains poorly understood. We studied the cooperation between activated JAK3/STAT5 signaling and HOXA9 overexpression, two events identified as significantly co-occurring in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Expression of mutant JAK3 and HOXA9 led to a rapid development of leukemia originating from multipotent or lymphoid-committed progenitors, with a significant decrease in disease latency compared to JAK3 or HOXA9 alone...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Mariam Itani, Nesreen Ghaddar, Djamel Ouahrani, Kamel Ghali, Beatrice Khater
Cooling vests incorporating phase change material (PCM) packets are used to improve comfort of workers in hot environments. This work aims to investigate by modeling and experimentation the effect of dividing the working duration into two bouts, where different PCM melting temperatures are used in each bout. An integrated bio-heat and fabric-PCM model predictions of physiological and subjective votes are validated via active human subject testing at hot conditions. A parametric study is performed to select, at two conditions (40°C and 45°C), the optimal PCM melting temperatures of the two bouts that would result with similar thermal comfort and sensation to the optimal single-bout case...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xiangyun Zang, Meiting Liu, Yihong Fan, Jie Xu, Xiuhong Xu, Hongtao Li
Background: Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes that engender the degradation of cellulose, which is an important part of global carbon cycle. β-Glucosidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of degradation of cellulose. Thus, analysis of regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression in composting is beneficial to a better understanding of cellulose degradation mechanism. Genetic diversity and expression of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities, and relationships of cellulose degradation, metabolic products and the relative enzyme activity during natural composting and inoculated composting were evaluated...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Claudia Cristiano, Antonio Calignano, Andrea Aramini, Gianluca Bianchini, Marcello Allegretti, Laura Brandolini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of non-selective cation permeable channels involved in peripheral sensory signalling. Animal studies have shown that several TRPs are relevant players in pain modulation. Among them, the TRP Melastatin8 (TRPM8) has elicited more interest for its controversial role in nociception. This channel, expressed by a subpopulation of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), is activated by cold temperatures and cooling agents...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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