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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524042/-preparation-and-application-of-cooling-bag-for-heat-stroke-in-wild-field
#1
Hailing Li, Qing Lu, Hongping Wang, Lujia Li
Cooling bag for heat stroke in wild field was invented in order to fulfill rapid cooling for heat stroke in field environment. The cooling bag is composed of the hood, the body cover (which is made up of the anterior portion, the linking, and the posterior portion), the fixed straps, the handles. The length is 200 cm, the regulative width is 60-70 cm, the folding volume is 26 cm × 20 cm × 9 cm, and the weight is 1.4 kg. There are a number of pockets for the cold sources in the hood and the body cover. Fixed straps are set in the upper, middle and lower of the bag...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518006/cooling-effects-of-wearer-controlled-vaporization-for-extravehicular-activity
#2
Kunihiko Tanaka, Daiki Nagao, Kosuke Okada, Koji Nakamura
INTRODUCTION: The extravehicular activity suit currently used by the United States in space includes a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that controls thermal conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that self-perspiration for evaporative cooling (SPEC) garment effectively lowers skin temperature without raising humidity in the garment. However, the cooling effect is delayed until a sufficient dose of water permeates and evaporates. In the present study, we hypothesized that wearer-controlled vaporization improves the cooling effect...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515431/early-onset-of-nucleate-boiling-on-gas-covered-biphilic-surfaces
#3
Biao Shen, Masayuki Yamada, Sumitomo Hidaka, Jiewei Liu, Junichiro Shiomi, Gustav Amberg, Minh Do-Quang, Masamichi Kohno, Koji Takahashi, Yasuyuki Takata
For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513855/technical-note-system-for-evaluating-local-hypothermia-as-a-radioprotector-of-the-rectum-in-a-small-animal-model
#4
Brian A Hrycushko, Chenchen Bing, Cecil Futch, Michelle Wodzak, Strahinja Stojadinovic, Paul M Medin, Rajiv Chopra
PURPOSE: The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. This work describes the development of a system to evaluate local hypothermia for a radioprotive effect of the rat rectum during a large dose of radiation relevant to prostate SBRT...
May 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510456/thermo-responsive-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-silica-nanoparticles-in-combination-with-alkyl-polyoxyethylene-ether-nonionic-surfactant
#5
Yue Zhu, Ting Fu, Kaihong Liu, Qi Lin, Xiaomei Pei, Jianzhong Jiang, Zhenggang Cui, Bernard P Binks
We put forward a simple protocol to prepare thermo-responsive Pickering emulsions. Using hydrophilic silica nanoparticles in combination with a low concentration of alkyl polyoxyethylene monododecyl ether (C12En) nonionic surfactant as emulsifier, oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be obtained which are stable at room temperature but demulsified at elevated temperature. The stabilization can be restored once the separated mixture is cooled and re-homogenized, and this stabilization-destabilization behavior can be cycled many times...
May 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508339/induction-of-hibernation-like-hypothermia-by-central-activation-of-the-a1-adenosine-receptor-in-a-non-hibernator-the-rat
#6
Hiroki Shimaoka, Takayuki Kawaguchi, Kahori Morikawa, Yuuki Sano, Kiyotada Naitou, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Central adenosine A1-receptor (A1AR)-mediated signals play a role in the induction of hibernation. We determined whether activation of the central A1AR enables rats to maintain normal sinus rhythm even after their body temperature has decreased to less than 20 °C. Intracerebroventricular injection of an adenosine A1 agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), followed by cooling decreased the body temperature of rats to less than 20 °C. Normal sinus rhythm was fundamentally maintained during the extreme hypothermia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506514/a-novel-cooling-method-and-comparison-of-active-rewarming-of-mildly-hypothermic-subjects
#7
Mark L Christensen, Grant S Lipman, Dennis A Grahn, Kate M Shea, Joseph Einhorn, H Craig Heller
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA) vs heated intravenous fluid (IVF) rewarming in hypothermic subjects. Additionally, we sought to develop a novel method of hypothermia induction. METHODS: Eight subjects underwent 3 cooling trials each to a mean core temperature of 34.8±0.6 (32.7 to 36.3°C) by 14°C water immersion for 30 minutes, followed by walking on a treadmill for 5 minutes. Core temperatures (Δtes) and rates of cooling (°C/h) were measured...
May 11, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505140/self-management-group-exercise-extends-healthy-life-expectancy-in-frail-community-dwelling-older-adults
#8
Minoru Yamada, Hidenori Arai
Preventing frailty and its adverse health outcomes is crucial in countries with a large elderly population, such as Japan. Since the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system was launched, the number of certified older adults with LTCI service requirement has continued to increase. This is a serious problem, because the LTCI service requirement certification is equivalent to disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a self-management group intervention on new LTCI service requirement certifications in community-dwelling older adults in Japan...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504638/catecholaminergic-challenge-uncovers-distinct-pavlovian-and-instrumental-mechanisms-of-motivated-in-action
#9
Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk Em Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke Em den Ouden
Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494280/iron-mineralogy-as-a-fingerprint-of-former-steelmaking-activities-in-river-sediments
#10
Hussein Jaafar Kanbar, Emmanuelle Montargès-Pelletier, Benoit Losson, Isabelle Bihannic, Renaud Gley, Allan Bauer, Frederic Villieras, Luc Manceau, Antoine G El Samrani, Veronique Kazpard, Laurence Mansuy-Huault
Submerged sediment cores were collected upstream of a dam in the Orne River, northeastern France. This dam was built in the context of steelmaking to constitute a water reservoir for blast furnace cooling and wet cleaning of furnace smokes. The dam also enhanced sediment deposition in the upstream zone. This study was performed to unravel the contamination status of sediments and to evidence possible contribution sources. The sediment layers were analyzed for water content, grain size, chemical composition, crystalline phases at a bulk scale and poorly crystalline and amorphous phases at a sub-micrometer scale...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493915/an-african-grassland-responds-similarly-to-long-term-fertilization-to-the-park-grass-experiment
#11
David Ward, Kevin Kirkman, Zivanai Tsvuura
We compared the results of a long-term (65 years) experiment in a South African grassland with the world's longest-running ecological experiment, the Park Grass study at Rothamsted, U.K. The climate is warm and humid in South Africa and cool and temperate in England. The African grassland has been fertilized with two forms of nitrogen applied at four levels, phosphorus and lime in a crossed design in 96 plots. In 1951, about 84% of plant cover consisted of Themeda triandra, Tristachya leucothrix and Setaria nigrirostris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492251/multi-phase-volcanic-resurfacing-at-loki-patera-on-io
#12
K de Kleer, M Skrutskie, J Leisenring, A G Davies, A Conrad, I de Pater, A Resnick, V Bailey, D Defrère, P Hinz, A Skemer, E Spalding, A Vaz, C Veillet, C E Woodward
The Jovian moon Io hosts the most powerful persistently active volcano in the Solar System, Loki Patera. The interior of this volcanic, caldera-like feature is composed of a warm, dark floor covering 21,500 square kilometres surrounding a much cooler central 'island'. The temperature gradient seen across areas of the patera indicates a systematic resurfacing process, which has been seen to occur typically every one to three years since the 1980s. Analysis of past data has indicated that the resurfacing progressed around the patera in an anti-clockwise direction at a rate of one to two kilometres per day, and that it is caused either by episodic eruptions that emplace voluminous lava flows or by a cyclically overturning lava lake contained within the patera...
May 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490655/practice-guideline-summary-reducing-brain-injury-following-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#13
Romergryko G Geocadin, Eelco Wijdicks, Melissa J Armstrong, Maxwell Damian, Stephan A Mayer, Joseph P Ornato, Alejandro Rabinstein, José I Suarez, Michel T Torbey, Richard M Dubinsky, Jason Lazarou
OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence and make evidence-based recommendations for acute interventions to reduce brain injury in adult patients who are comatose after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS: Published literature from 1966 to August 29, 2016, was reviewed with evidence-based classification of relevant articles. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: For patients who are comatose in whom the initial cardiac rhythm is either pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), therapeutic hypothermia (TH; 32-34°C for 24 hours) is highly likely to be effective in improving functional neurologic outcome and survival compared with non-TH and should be offered (Level A)...
May 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486804/ultrafast-dynamics-in-light-driven-molecular-rotary-motors-probed-by-femtosecond-stimulated-raman-scattering
#14
Christopher R Hall, Jamie Conyard, Ismael A Heisler, Garth A Jones, James Frost, Wesley R Browne, Ben L Feringa, Stephen R Meech
Photochemical isomerization in sterically crowded chiral alkenes is the driving force for molecular rotary motors in nanoscale machines. Here the excited state dynamics and structural evolution of the prototypical light driven rotary motor are followed on the ultrafast timescale by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) and transient absorption (TA). TA reveals a sub 100 fs blue shift and decay of the Franck-Condon bright state arising from relaxation along the reactive potential energy surface. The decay is accompanied by coherently excited vibrational dynamics which survive the excited state structural evolution...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485954/camera-method-for-monitoring-a-mechanochromic-luminescent-%C3%AE-diketone-dye-with-rapid-recovery
#15
Tristan Butler, Alexander S Mathew, Michal Sabat, Cassandra L Fraser
Mechanochromic luminescent (ML) materials, which show a change in emission due to an applied mechanical stimulus, are useful components in a variety of applications, including organic light-emitting diodes, force sensors, optical memory storage, and next-generation lighting materials. While there are many different ML active derivatives, few show room temperature self-erasing. Thin films of the methoxy substituted β-diketone, gbmOMe, initially exhibited blue (428 nm) emission; however, green (478 nm) emission was observed after smearing...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482601/functionalized-biocompatible-and-impermeable-nanoscale-coatings-for-peek
#16
Firas Awaja, Pieter Cools, Birgit Lohberger, Anton Yu Nikiforov, Giorgio Speranza, Rino Morent
Biologically compatible coatings that provide hermetic seal could resolve a major technological hurdle in the attempt to replace metals with polymers for biochips and active medical implants. The use of amorphous carbon/diamond like carbon (a-C:H) coatings to hermetically seal and biologically enhance polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) for biomedical device integration in the human body was investigated. The PEEK coating functionality (sp3/sp2 ratio), hardness and thickness (70-200nm) were controlled, by varying H2 and N2 concentration during the plasma operation with CH4...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481747/pharmacological-preconditioning-with-diazoxide-in-the-experimental-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-model
#17
Henri Johannes Haapanen, Oiva Arvola, Johanna Herajärvi, Tuomas Anttila, Hannu Tuominen, Ulla Puistola, Peeter Karihtala, Kai Kiviluoma, Tatu Juvonen, Vesa Anttila
Hypothermic circulatory arrest includes a remarkable risk for neurological injury. Diazoxide, a mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium ion (K+ATP) channel opener, is known to have cardioprotective effects. We assessed its efficacy in preventing ischemic injury in a clinically relevant animal model. Methods: Eighteen piglets were randomized into a diazoxide group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). Animals underwent 60 minutes of hypothermic circulatory arrest at 18°C. Diazoxide (5 mg/kg + 10 mL NaOH + 40 mL NaCl) was infused during the cooling phase...
April 30, 2017: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480030/drug-enhanced-carbon-monoxide-production-from-heme-by-cytochrome-p450-reductase
#18
Dragic Vukomanovic, Mona N Rahman, Zongchao Jia, Kanji Nakatsu
Carbon monoxide (CO) formed endogenously is considered to be cytoprotective, and the vast majority of CO formation is attributed to the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases-1 and -2 (HO-1, HO-2). Previously, we observed that brain microsomes containing HO-2 produced many-fold more CO in the presence of menadione and its congeners; herein we explored these observations further. We determined the effects of various drugs on CO production of rat brain microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR); CO was measured by gas chromatography with reductive detection...
January 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477375/oral-l-tyrosine-supplementation-augments-the-vasoconstriction-response-to-whole-body-cooling-in-older-adults
#19
James A Lang, Kevin A Smaller
L-tyrosine is the primary substrate for noradrenaline biosynthesis within sympathetic axon terminals. Under stressful conditions requiring increased catecholamine production, axonal L-tyrosine concentration may limit the full expression of the sympathetic effector response and this may be particularly evident in older adults. We hypothesize that oral L-tyrosine supplementation will increase the sympathetic response to whole-body cooling and muscle metaboreflex activation. In a randomized, double-blind design, eleven young (Y = 24 ± 1 years) and eleven older (O = 68 ± 4 years) participants ingested either 150 mg kg(-1) of L-tyrosine or placebo prior to commencing 30 minutes of whole-body cooling to induce a gradual decline in skin temperature from 34 to 30...
May 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475985/long-alkyl-chain-imidazolium-ionic-liquids-antibiofilm-activity-against-phototrophic-biofilms
#20
G Kiran Kumar Reddy, Y V Nancharaiah, V P Venugopalan
Biofilm formation is problematic and hence undesirable in medical and industrial settings. In addition to bacteria, phototrophic organisms are an integral component of biofilms that develop on surfaces immersed in natural waters. 1-Alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquids (IL) with varying alkyl chain length were evaluated for their influence on the formation of monospecies (Navicula sp.) and multispecies biofilms under phototrophic conditions. An IL with a long alkyl side chain, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidaazolium chloride ([C16(MIM)][Cl]) retarded growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of Navicula sp...
April 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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