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Active cooling

E Saralidze, L Khuchua, I Kobaidze
The interaction between different brain structures could be crucial to predicting seizure occurrence, threshold and spread. Moreover, the sleep-wake cycle and electrical activity of brain structures in different phases of sleep could significantly affect the pattern and extent of seizure spread, and therefore the characteristics of epileptic activity. In this animal model using 15 Wistar rats, we show that the duration of hippocampal seizures, induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, is significantly increased during slow sleep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N C Knox, K A Weedmark, J Conly, A W Ensminger, F S Hosein, S J Drews
An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in an inner city district in Calgary, Canada. This outbreak spanned a 3-week period in November-December 2012, and a total of eight cases were identified. Four of these cases were critically ill requiring intensive care admission but there was no associated mortality. All cases tested positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) by urinary antigen testing. Five of the eight patients were culture positive for LP1 from respiratory specimens. These isolates were further identified as Knoxville monoclonal subtype and sequence subtype ST222...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Ivan Kozyryev, Louis Baum, Kyle Matsuda, John M Doyle
An experimentally feasible strategy for direct laser cooling of polyatomic molecules with six or more atoms is presented. Our approach relies on the attachment of a metal atom to a complex molecule, where it acts as an active photon cycling site. We describe a laser cooling scheme for alkaline earth monoalkoxide free radicals taking advantageof the phase space compression of a cryogenic buffer-gas beam. Possible applications are presented including laser cooling of chiral molecules and slowing of molecular beams using coherent photon processes...
October 19, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Vojtěch Ledvina, Eva Janečková, Eva Matalová, Karel Klepárník
Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Matthew A Norcia, Matthew N Winchester, Julia R K Cline, James K Thompson
Laser frequency noise contributes a significant limitation to today's best atomic clocks. A proposed solution to this problem is to create a superradiant laser using an optical clock transition as its gain medium. This laser would act as an active atomic clock and would be highly immune to the fluctuations in reference cavity length that limit today's best lasers. We demonstrate and characterize superradiant emission from the millihertz linewidth clock transition in an ensemble of laser-cooled (87)Sr atoms trapped within a high-finesse optical cavity...
October 2016: Science Advances
Birgit Castelein, Ann Cools, Thierry Parlevliet, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Altered recruitment of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles has been identified in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. To date, however, the cause-consequence relationship between pain and altered muscle recruitment has not been fully unraveled. METHODS: The effect of experimental shoulder pain induced by injection of hypertonic saline in the supraspinatus on the activity of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, trapezius, and serratus anterior activity was investigated during the performance of an elevation task by use of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy individuals...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Liqiang Xu, Xiaodong Liu, Libin Wu, Liguang Sun, Jinjun Zhao, Lin Chen
Based on three ornithogenic sediment profiles and seabird subfossils therein from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea, the relative population size of seabirds over the past 1000 years was reconstructed using reflectance spectrum. Here we present an apparent increase and subsequent decline of seabirds on these islands in the South China Sea. Seabird populations peaked during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400-1850 AD), implying that the cool climate during the LIA appears to have been more favorable to seabirds on the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andreas Beyer, Holger Grohganz, Korbinian Löbmann, Thomas Rades, Claudia S Leopold
Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
L H Dünnweber, R Rödl, G Gosheger, F M Schiedel
Although clear advances have been made during the last 5 years, practical difficulties persist for patients and surgeons in procedures for intramedullary lengthening of long bones. In particular, precise adjustment of the desired amount of lengthening and technically reliable checking of the length actually achieved are problematic. An intramedullary nail with a new type of drive that exploits the shape memory effect has been constructed. The drive technology and the behavior of the intramedullary nail in situ were evaluated in a cadaver experiment...
October 10, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Hong Li, Melanie Elphick, Richard Shine
Viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved from oviparity (egg-laying) in more than 100 lineages of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). This transition generally has occurred in cool climates, where thermal differentials between eggs in the (cool) nest versus the (warm) maternal oviduct influence embryonic development, in ways that may enhance offspring fitness. To identify specific traits potentially under selection, we incubated eggs of a montane scincid lizard at conditions simulating natural nests, maternal body temperatures, and an intermediate stage (2-week uterine retention of eggs prior to laying)...
October 14, 2016: Oecologia
M F Bieniosek, J W Cates, C S Levin
Time of flight (TOF) and depth of interaction (DOI) capabilities can significantly enhance the quality and uniformity of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Many proposed TOF/DOI PET detectors require complex readout systems using additional photosensors, active cooling, or waveform sampling. This work describes a high performance, low complexity, room temperature TOF/DOI PET module. The module uses multiplexed timing channels to significantly reduce the electronic readout complexity of the PET detector while maintaining excellent timing, energy, and position resolution...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Xiaoqi Zhao, Tianxiang Gu, Zongyi Xiu, Enyi Shi, Lei Yu
Objective: To summarize the effect of mild hypothermia on function of the organs in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into two groups, northermia group (n=71) and hypothermia group (n=89). We immediately began cooling the hypothermia group when test results showed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, meanwhile all patients of two groups were drawn blood to test blood gas, liver and kidney function, blood coagulation function, and evaluated the cardiac function using echocardiography from 12 to 36 hours...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
V Chaudhary, R V Ramanujan
Low cost, earth abundant, rare earth free magnetocaloric nanoparticles have attracted an enormous amount of attention for green, energy efficient, active near room temperature thermal management. Hence, we investigated the magnetocaloric properties of transition metal based (Fe70Ni30)100-xCrx (x = 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7) nanoparticles. The influence of Cr additions on the Curie temperature (TC) was studied. Only 5% of Cr can reduce the TC from ~438 K to 258 K. These alloys exhibit broad entropy v/s temperature curves, which is useful to enhance relative cooling power (RCP)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
V Uhlíř, J A Arregi, E E Fullerton
Coupled order parameters in phase-transition materials can be controlled using various driving forces such as temperature, magnetic and electric field, strain, spin-polarized currents and optical pulses. Tuning the material properties to achieve efficient transitions would enable fast and low-power electronic devices. Here we show that the first-order metamagnetic phase transition in FeRh films becomes strongly asymmetric in mesoscale structures. In patterned FeRh stripes we observed pronounced supercooling and an avalanche-like abrupt transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic phase, while the reverse transition remains nearly continuous over a broad temperature range...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Tamara V Kozyreva, Galina M Khramova, Irina P Voronova, Anna A Evtushenko
The role of thermosensitive TRP ion channels in physiological processes in the whole organism is far from being clear. In present work we tried to understand the possible participation of the cold-sensitive ion channel TRPM8 in regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine level in blood, and to see if hypertension (widely spread disease) changes this relationship. Experiments were carried out on normotensive Wistar rats and rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. The effects of deep rapid and slow cooling with decrease in rectal temperature by 3°C, and activation of the skin TRPM8 ion channel by its agonist menthol (application of 1% L-menthol) on the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα) in blood have been studied...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
JoEllen M Sefton, J S McAdam, David D Pascoe, K R Lohse, Robert L Banda, Corbin B Henault, Andrew R Cherrington, N E Adams
CONTEXT:  Heat injury is a significant threat to military trainees. Different methods of heat mitigation are in use across military units. Mist fans are 1 of several methods used in the hot and humid climate of Fort Benning, Georgia. OBJECTIVES:  To determine if (1) the mist fan or the cooling towel effectively lowered participant core temperature in the humid environment found at Fort Benning and (2) the mist fan or the cooling towel presented additional physiologic or safety benefits or detriments when used in this environment...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Jeffrey E Keenan, Ehsan Benrashid, Emily Kale, Alina Nicoara, Aatif M Husain, G Chad Hughes
Circulatory management during replacement of the aortic arch is complex and involves a period of circulatory arrest to provide a bloodless field during arch vessel anastomosis. To guard against ischemic brain injury, tissue metabolic demand is reduced by systemically cooling the patient prior to circulatory arrest. Neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring (NIOM) is often used during the course of these procedures to provide contemporaneous assessment of brain status to help direct circulatory management decisions and detect brain ischemia...
October 4, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Sally A Power, Kirk L Barnett, Raul Ochoa-Hueso, Sarah L Facey, Eleanor V J Gibson-Forty, Susan E Hartley, Uffe N Nielsen, David T Tissue, Scott N Johnson
Climate models predict shifts in the amount, frequency and seasonality of rainfall. Given close links between grassland productivity and rainfall, such changes are likely to have profound effects on the functioning of grassland ecosystems and modify species interactions. Here, we introduce a unique, new experimental platform - DRI-Grass (Drought and Root Herbivore Interactions in a Grassland) - that exposes a south-eastern Australian grassland to five rainfall regimes [Ambient (AMB), increased amount (IA, +50%), reduced amount (RA, -50%), reduced frequency (RF, single rainfall event every 21 days, with total amount unchanged) and summer drought (SD, 12-14 weeks without water, December-March)], and contrasting levels of root herbivory...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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