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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091551/reversible-martensitic-transformation-under-low-magnetic-fields-in-magnetic-shape-memory-alloys
#1
N M Bruno, S Wang, I Karaman, Y I Chumlyakov
Magnetic field-induced, reversible martensitic transformations in NiCoMnIn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys were studied under constant and varying mechanical loads to understand the role of coupled magneto-mechanical loading on the transformation characteristics and the magnetic field levels required for reversible phase transformations. The samples with two distinct microstructures were tested along the [001] austenite crystallographic direction using a custom designed magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization device while carefully controlling their thermodynamic states through isothermal constant stress and stress-varying magnetic field ramping...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090035/effect-of-ice-quenching-on-the-change-in-hardness-of-a-pd-au-zn-alloy-during-porcelain-firing-simulation
#2
Hye-Jeong Shin, Min-Jung Kim, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Hoon Kwon, Hyo-Joung Seol
This study examined the effect of ice-quenching after degassing on the change in hardness of a Pd-Au-Zn alloy during porcelain firing simulations. By ice-quenching after degassing, the specimens were softened due to homogenization without the need for an additional softening heat treatment. The lowered hardness by ice-quenching after degassing was recovered greatly from the first stage of porcelain firing process by controlling the cooling rate. The increase in hardness during cooling after porcelain firing was attributed to the precipitation of the f...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089920/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-mediated-non-genomic-facilitatory-effect-of-estrogen-on-cooling-induced-reduction-of-skin-blood-flow-in-mice
#3
Izumi Serizawa, Nozomi Iwasaki, Hirotake Ishida, Shin-Ya Saito, Tomohisa Ishikawa
An enhanced vasoconstrictor activity of cutaneous arteries participates in the reduction of skin blood flow induced by cooling stimulation. Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cooling-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women during the period from menarche to menopause. We thus investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on cooling-induced reduction of plantar skin blood flow (PSBF) in mouse in vivo. Ovariectomized female ddY mice, anaesthetized with pentobarbital, were treated with tetrodotoxin for eliminating the sympathetic nerve tone and artificially ventilated...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088857/methane-activation-by-tantalum-carbide-cluster-anions-ta2c4
#4
Hai-Fang Li, Yan-Xia Zhao, Zhen Yuan, Qing-Yu Liu, Zi-Yu Li, Xiao-Na Li, Chuan-Gang Ning, Shenggui He
Methane activation by transition metals is of fundamental interest and practical importance, as this process is extensively involved in the natural gas conversion to fuels and value-added chemicals. While single-metal centers have been well recognized as active sites for methane activation, the active center composed of two or more metal atoms is rarely addressed and the detailed reaction mechanism remains unclear. Here, by using state-of-the-art time-of-flight mass spectrometry, cryogenic anion photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the cooperation of the two Ta atoms in a dinuclear carbide cluster Ta2C4- for methane activation has been identified...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086875/learning-global-health-a-pilot-study-of-an-online-collaborative-intercultural-peer-group-activity-involving-medical-students-in-australia-and-indonesia
#5
Mark Ambrose, Linda Murray, Nicholas E Handoyo, Deif Tunggal, Nick Cooling
BACKGROUND: There is limited research to inform effective pedagogies for teaching global health to undergraduate medical students. Theoretically, using a combination of teaching pedagogies typically used in 'international classrooms' may prove to be an effective way of learning global health. This pilot study aimed to explore the experiences of medical students in Australia and Indonesia who participated in a reciprocal intercultural participatory peer e-learning activity (RIPPLE) in global health...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079160/tempo-of-magma-degassing-and-the-genesis-of-porphyry-copper-deposits
#6
Cyril Chelle-Michou, Bertrand Rottier, Luca Caricchi, Guy Simpson
Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth's crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072840/locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature-patterns-over-a-temperature-gradient-in-the-highveld-mole-rat-cryptomys-hottentotus-pretoriae
#7
Meghan Haupt, Nigel C Bennett, Maria K Oosthuizen
African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072433/effects-of-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-on-nucleation-and-crystal-growth-in-the-vitrified-vs55-during-warming
#8
Y Xu, H M Yu, Y Q Niu, S C Luo, X Cheng
:   BACKGROUND:Magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs), once excited by radiofrequency (RF) energy, could heat uniformly and rapidly the vitrified biospecimens. However, there are few studies about the impact of mNPs on crystallization kinetics of vitrified samples. OBJECTIVES: The present work aims to investigate the nucleation and crystal growth in the vitrification solution VS55 with mNPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ferrotec EMG308 superparamagnetic nanoparticles (10 ± 2...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072432/closed-vitrification-system-as-a-platform-for-cryopreservation-of-tissue-engineered-constructs
#9
N A Trufanova, V S Zaikov, A V Zinchenko, A Yu Petrenko, Y A Petrenko
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSCs-based tissue engineered constructs (TECs) is a promising strategy for regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVE: To examine vitrification system consisting of multicomponent vitreous solution, closed type container, human adult MSCs and two-step exposure procedure as a platform for cryopreservation of MSCs-based TECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vitrification properties of solutions were studied by visual analysis and calorimetry...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072425/direct-microscale-measurement-of-mouse-oocyte-membrane-permeability-to-water-and-ethylene-glycol-at-subzero-temperatures-using-cryomicroscopy
#10
X Han
:   BACKGROUND: Investigation of cell osmotic behavior at subzero temperatures is of critical importance to the optimization of cooling procedures for cryopreservation. Based on established thermodynamic models, plasma membrane permeability coefficients for water and cryoprotectant agent (CPA) (Lcpa, Pp) and their activation energies (Ea(Lp), Ea(Pcpa)) are essential to predict the change of cell volume and composition of intracellular solutions corresponding to different cooling procedures...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068165/physiological-and-perceived-effects-of-forearm-or-head-cooling-during-simulated-firefighting-activity-and-rehabilitation
#11
Susan Yeargin, Amy L McKenzie, Lindsey E Eberman, J Derek Kingsley, David J Dziedzicki, Patrick Yoder
CONTEXT:  Cooling devices aim to protect firefighters by attenuating a rise in body temperature. Devices for head cooling (HC) while firefighting and forearm cooling (FC) during rehabilitation (RHB) intervals are commonly marketed, but research regarding their efficacy is limited. OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC and FC during firefighting drills and RHB. DESIGN:  Randomized controlled clinical trial...
November 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065662/hot-heads-cool-bodies-the-conundrums-of-human-bat-activity-research
#12
REVIEW
Lonneke Bahler, Frits Holleman, Jan Booij, Joost B Hoekstra, Hein J Verberne
Brown adipose tissue is able to increase energy expenditure by converting glucose and fatty acids into heat. Therefore, BAT is able to increase energy expenditure and could thereby facilitate weight loss or at least weight maintenance. Since cold is a strong activator of BAT, most prospective research is performed during cold to activate BAT. In current research, there are roughly two methods of cooling. Cooling by lowering ambient air temperature, which uses a fixed temperature for all subjects and personalized cooling, which uses cooling blankets or vests with temperatures that can be adjusted to the individual set point of shivering...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060003/clinical-characteristics-of-mixed-arteriovenous-leg-ulcers-a-descriptive-study
#13
Joseph A Marin, Kevin Y Woo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers (MLU) that differentiated them from venous leg ulcers (VLU). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from larger electronic database. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 1007 persons with lower extremity ulcers. Two hundred sixty three individuals with MLU were compared to 744 individuals with VLU; their ankle brachial indices were 0...
January 2017: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059386/active-cooling-of-pulse-compression-diffraction-gratings-for-high-energy-high-average-power-ultrafast-lasers
#14
David A Alessi, Paul A Rosso, Hoang T Nguyen, Michael D Aasen, Jerald A Britten, Constantin Haefner
Laser energy absorption and subsequent heat removal from diffraction gratings in chirped pulse compressors poses a significant challenge in high repetition rate, high peak power laser development. In order to understand the average power limitations, we have modeled the time-resolved thermo-mechanical properties of current and advanced diffraction gratings. We have also developed and demonstrated a technique of actively cooling Petawatt scale, gold compressor gratings to operate at 600W of average power - a 15x increase over the highest average power petawatt laser currently in operation...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057077/ice-ingestion-with-a-long-rest-interval-increases-the-endurance-exercise-capacity-and-reduces-the-core-temperature-in-the-heat
#15
Takashi Naito, Yuka Iribe, Tetsuro Ogaki
BACKGROUND: The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. METHODS: Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass(-1) of ice (0...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051939/ecologically-relevant-cooling-early-in-life-alters-prefledging-adrenocortical-response-in-free-living-songbirds
#16
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043345/effect-of-different-semen-extenders-for-the-storage-of-chilled-sperm-in-tigrina-leopardus-tigrinus
#17
D S R Angrimani, P M H Barros, J D A Losano, C N M Cortada, R P Bertolla, M A B V Guimarães, S H R Correa, V H Barnabe, M Nichi
To enhance the conservation of endangered populations, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus) sperm could be conserved under refrigeration for short periods while maintaining sufficient quality for use in assisted-reproductive techniques (i.e., cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization). For this purpose, semen samples from 15 Tigrinas individuals were submitted to conventional and functional tests after different cooling periods (4 °C; 0, 12, and 24 hours postcooling), using TCM 199 (TCM), Ham's F10 (HAM), Ham's F10 with bovine serum albumin (HBSA), and Tris-citrate egg yolk (TEYC) extenders...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042937/trigeminal-receptor-study-of-high-intensity-cooling-agents
#18
Sonya Johnson, Minmin Tian, Gloria Sheldon, Eric Dowd
Compounds capable of providing trigeminal effects are important to the flavor industry. Cooling agents activate a class of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 18 cooling agents by high-throughput screening through TRPM-8 and TRPA-1 channels. These coolants were further evaluated by a sensory analysis panel in a sucrose solution testing for a perceived activity. The results reveal that WS-5 activates both TRPA-1 and TRPM-8 receptor channels; WS-3 actives primarily TRPM-8, whereas FEMA-4557 activates the TRPA-1 channel...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042051/l-carnitine-is-a-survival-factor-for-chilled-storage-of-rooster-semen-for-a-long-time
#19
A Fattah, M Sharafi, R Masoudi, A Shahverdi, V Esmaeili
Rooster sperm is sensitive to cooling, which restricts procedures to store sperms for extended periods of time for artificial insemination of commercial flocks. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of adding L-carnitine (LC) to chilled-storage of rooster sperm and its effects on sperm quality parameters and its fertility potential during storage at 5 °C. Pooled semen from roosters were divided into six equal aliquots and diluted with media supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0, 0...
December 29, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040156/potential-of-a-new-strain-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-buz-14-as-a-biocontrol-agent-of-postharvest-fruit-diseases
#20
H Calvo, P Marco, D Blanco, R Oria, M E Venturini
The biocontrol potential of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BUZ-14 was tested against the main postharvest diseases of orange, apple, grape and stone fruit. After characterizing the temperature and pH growth curves of strain BUZ-14, its in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and P. italicum. Subsequently, in vivo activity was tested against these pathogens by treating fruit with cells, endospores and cell-free supernatants...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
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