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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#1
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332494/an-evaluation-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-re-victimization-experiences-problematic-substance-use-and-negative-consequences
#2
D J Angelone, Tiffany Marcantonio, Jessica Melillo
We investigated substance use and negative consequences in women who experienced an initial sexual assault (SA) in high school and subsequently in college. More than 650 participants completed questionnaires assessing substance use/consequences, SA history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Revictimized women reported differential substance use/consequences relative to controls underscoring the need to conceptualize adolescence as a key developmental period with a unique pathway to a subsequent SA, especially in association with substance use...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331167/the-association-between-psychotic-experiences-and-traumatic-life-events-the-role-of-the-intention-to-harm
#3
Tais Silveira Moriyama, Marjan Drukker, Ary Gadelha, Pedro Mario Pan, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Gisele Gus Manfro, Jair de Jesus Mari, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk, Jim van Os, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan
BACKGROUND: Previous work showed traumatic life events (TLE) with intention to harm, like bullying and abuse, to be more strongly associated with psychotic experiences (PE) than other types of trauma, like accidents. However, this association is subject to reporting bias and can be confounded by demographic characteristics and by differences in dose of exposure across different trauma categories. We studied the association between TLE with and without intention to harm and PE, taking into account potential confounders and biases...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329436/development-of-the-place-based-adelante-social-marketing-campaign-for-prevention-of-substance-use-sexual-risk-and-violence-among-latino-immigrant-youth
#4
E L Andrade, W D Evans, N D Barrett, S D Cleary, M C Edberg, R D Alvayero, E C Kierstead, A Beltran
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence...
January 9, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#5
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325449/analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-young-people-limited-evidence-for-an-association-between-victimization-stress-and-epigenetic-variation-in-blood
#6
Sarah J Marzi, Karen Sugden, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Joe Burrage, David L Corcoran, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Eilis Hannon, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Carmine Pariante, Richie Poulton, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become "embedded" in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. The authors sought to investigate whether early-life victimization stress is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation. METHOD: The authors tested the hypothesis that victimization is associated with DNA methylation in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales and assessed at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18 years...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324773/the-impact-of-a-short-term-cohousing-initiative-among-schizophrenia-patients-high-school-students-and-their-social-context-a-qualitative-case-study
#7
Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Emilio Andrés Martín-Tejedor, Ana Elías-Elispuru, Amaia Garate-Samaniego, Jorge Pérez-Corrales, Elena García-García
BACKGROUND: A number of programs have been developed to promote the contact between adolescents and mentally-ill patients, in order to break the stigma, improve understanding, promote mental health and prevent substance abuse. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of patients with schizophrenia, high school students, and their social context, participating in a short-term cohousing initiative. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach was implemented...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324726/hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-behaviors-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-20-cities-united-states-2015
#8
Janet C Burnett, Dita Broz, Michael W Spiller, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324247/mglu5-dependent-modulation-of-anxiety-during-early-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adult-and-adolescent-male-mice
#9
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, MacKayla A Class, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge alcohol-drinking elicits symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety upon cessation, which is a source of negative reinforcement for perpetuating this pattern of alcohol abuse. Binge-induced anxiety during early (24 h) withdrawal is associated with increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) within the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of adult male mice, but was unchanged in anxiety-resilient adolescents. Herein, we determined the role of mGlu5 signaling in withdrawal-induced anxiety via pharmacological manipulation using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator MTEP and the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB...
January 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323926/investigating-effects-of-sex-differences-and-prior-concussions-on-symptom-reporting-and-cognition-among-adolescent-soccer-players
#10
Brian L Brooks, Noah Silverberg, Bruce Maxwell, Rebekah Mannix, Ross Zafonte, Paul D Berkner, Grant L Iverson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing concern regarding the possible effect of multiple concussions on the developing brain, especially for adolescent females. Hypothesis/Purpose: The objectives were to determine if there are differences in cognitive functioning, symptom reporting, and/or sex effects from prior concussions. In a very large sample of youth soccer players, it was hypothesized that (1) there would be no differences in cognitive test performance between those with and without prior concussions, (2) baseline preseason symptoms would be better predicted by noninjury factors than concussion history, and (3) males and females with prior concussions would not have differences in cognition or symptoms...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322813/opioid-drug-poisonings-in-ohio-adolescents-and-young-adults-2002-2014
#11
Sarah Caupp, Janine Steffan, Junxin Shi, Krista K Wheeler, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Henry Xiang
CONTEXT: Opioids represent a drug class that adolescents and young adults intentionally misuse and abuse. When taken on their own or with other substances in this manner, opioids pose an increased risk of overdose and potential death. OBJECTIVE: To determine trends of opioid drug poisonings among adolescents and young adults in Ohio from 2002 to 2014 using Poison Control Center (PCC) data. METHODS: Data were obtained from Ohio PCCs from 2002 to 2014 for opioid drug poisonings amongst 10-29 year olds...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#12
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310443/the-combination-of-sibling-victimization-and-parental-child-maltreatment-on-mental-health-problems-and-delinquency
#13
Sheila R van Berkel, Corinna Jenkins Tucker, David Finkelhor
This study examined how the combination of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment is related to mental health problems and delinquency in childhood and adolescence. Co-occurrence, additive associations, and interactive associations of sibling victimization and parental child maltreatment were investigated using a sample of 2,053 children aged 5-17 years from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. The results provide primarily evidence for additive associations and only suggest some co-occurrence and interactive associations of sibling victimization and child maltreatment...
January 1, 2018: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306689/genetic-variants-in-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-and-childhood-physical-abuse-collaborate-to-modify-the-risk-of-aggression-in-chinese-adolescents
#14
Yanmei Zhang, Chunxia Wu, Hongjuan Chang, Qiuge Yan, Linguo Wu, Shanshan Yuan, Jingjing Xiang, Wen Hao, Yizhen Yu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic and environmental factors may influence aggression susceptibility. However, the etiology of aggressive behavior remains unknown. Compared to some extensively studied candidate genes of aggression, very little is known about the OXTR gene. The objective of this study was to determine whether OXTR genetic variants were associated with aggression risk and whether these polymorphisms showed interactive effects with childhood maltreatment on aggression in Chinese adolescents...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306170/early-age-at-childhood-parental-incarceration-and-sti-hiv-related-drug-use-and-sex-risk-across-the-young-adult-lifecourse-in-the-us-heightened-vulnerability-of-black-and-hispanic-youth
#15
Maria R Khan, Joy D Scheidell, David L Rosen, Amanda Geller, Laurie M Brotman
BACKGROUND: We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. METHODS: We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; <8; 8-17; ≥18 years old) and marijuana and cocaine use, multiple partnerships, and STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use...
November 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303801/intravenous-valproic-acid-add-on-therapy-in-acute-agitation-adolescents-with-suspected-substance-abuse-a-report-of-six-cases
#16
Claudia Battaglia, Roberto Averna, Milena Labonia, Assia Riccioni, Stefano Vicari
The aim of this study was to test efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) valproate for aggression in children and adolescents with mood or conduct disorder and concomitant substance abuse. Six patients received a 20 mg/kg dose of IV valproic acid as an add-on therapy to their standard therapy with second-generation antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Agitation and general psychopathology were measured at baseline and after the first injection using the Modified Overt Aggression Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296104/addressing-the-dual-health-epidemics-of-hiv-and-sexual-abuse-among-children-and-adolescents-in-kenya-uptake-of-hiv-counseling-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#17
Carolyne Ajema, Charity Mbugua, Peter Memiah, Camille Wood, Courtney Cook, Ronald Kotut, Lina Digolo
Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294947/the-impact-of-sexual-abuse-family-violence-conflict-spirituality-and-religion-on-anger-and-depressed-mood-among-adolescents
#18
Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, Bryndis Bjork Asgeirsdottir, Sarah E Ullman, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
Stressful life experiences, such as sexual abuse and family violence/conflict, relate to an increased risk of mental health problems. Religion and spirituality may prevent this negative impact, but religion and spirituality are lower among survivors of stressful life experiences. To explore this effect, we examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and family violence/conflict on anger and depressed mood. Survey data were collected from a large population-based sample of Icelandic adolescents ( N = 7,365) on their stressful life experiences, religion, spirituality, and mental health...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294946/safe-from-harm-youth-self-report-of-physical-assault-in-child-welfare-placements
#19
Jesse J Helton, Tatiana Gochez-Kerr
Although most child welfare placements receive a rigorous assessment and ongoing safety monitoring, it is still unclear which is safest in terms of physical abuse. Our goals for this study were to assess the relative risk of physical assault for different child welfare placements in a national sample of youth and examine that risk within placement types for children with various levels of behavioral problems. Unlike previous studies of assault prevalence, we constrained our analysis to youth self-reports of assaults within a current placement to increase validity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294918/abuse-is-abuse-the-influence-of-type-of-abuse-victim-age-and-defendant-age-on-juror-decision-making
#20
Chelsea L Sheahan, Emily Pica, Joanna D Pozzulo
The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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