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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221370/blunted-ventral-striatal-responses-to-anticipated-rewards-foreshadow-problematic-drug-use-in-novelty-seeking-adolescents
#1
Christian Büchel, Jan Peters, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Dimitri Papadopoulos, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Bernd Ittermann, Karl Mann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Luise Poustka, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Juergen Gallinat, Gunter Schumann, Brian Knutson
Novelty-seeking tendencies in adolescents may promote innovation as well as problematic impulsive behaviour, including drug abuse. Previous research has not clarified whether neural hyper- or hypo-responsiveness to anticipated rewards promotes vulnerability in these individuals. Here we use a longitudinal design to track 144 novelty-seeking adolescents at age 14 and 16 to determine whether neural activity in response to anticipated rewards predicts problematic drug use. We find that diminished BOLD activity in mesolimbic (ventral striatal and midbrain) and prefrontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) regions during reward anticipation at age 14 predicts problematic drug use at age 16...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215219/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-children-what-the-pnp-should-know
#2
Gail Hornor
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. In their practice, pediatric nurse practitioners will likely encounter children who have experienced sexual abuse-both those who have and have not previously been identified as victims. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rare in sexually abused children and adolescents. However, when present, they can be crucial to making the diagnosis of sexual abuse and protecting children. This continuing education article will assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in interpreting the relationship between STIs and sexual abuse, correctly testing for STIs, and treating STIs in children and adolescents...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215023/hpa-axis-activation-as-a-key-moderator-of-childhood-trauma-exposure-and-adolescent-mental-health
#3
Kate R Kuhlman, Elisa G Geiss, Ivan Vargas, Nestor Lopez-Duran
Individual differences in a child's sensitivity to stress may influence whether youth exposed to trauma develop symptoms of psychopathology. We examined the interaction between HPA-axis reactivity to an acute stressor and exposure to different types of childhood trauma as predictors of mental health symptoms in a sample of youth. Youth (n = 121, ages 9-16; 47% female) completed a standardized stress task, including 5 post-stress salivary cortisol samples. Parents also completed the Child Behavior Checklist as a measure of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms in the past month, and completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) as a measure of their child's trauma exposure...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214963/investigating-the-potential-impact-of-social-talk-on-prevention-through-social-networks-the-relationships-between-social-talk-and-refusal-self-efficacy-and-norms
#4
Hye Jeong Choi, Michael Hecht, Rachel A Smith
Interpersonal communication among participants plays an important role in the impact and effectiveness of prevention programs (Southwell & Yzer, Communication Theory 19:1-8, 2009). This study focused on adolescents' informal conversations about a prevention program, referred to as social talk, from a social network perspective. We provide both a conceptualization of social talk in relation to prevention programs and an operationalization of it by examining adolescents' social networks. Participants (N = 185) were eighth-grade students attending a middle school substance-abuse prevention program called keepin' it REAL (kiR)...
February 18, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214667/effects-of-prior-testing-lasting-a-full-year-in-ncanda-adolescents-contributions-from-age-sex-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-site-family-history-of-alcohol-or-drug-abuse-and-baseline-performance
#5
Edith V Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K Thompson, Sandra A Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Duncan B Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Stephen R Hooper, Bonnie J Nagel, B Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects...
January 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#6
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#7
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205146/binge-drinking-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#8
Benjamin Rolland, Mickaël Naassila
The concept of binge drinking (BD) refers to patterns of heavy episodic alcohol consumption, with BD primarily occurring among adolescents and young adults. Several official definitions of BD have been proposed, in particular by the World Health Organization, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nevertheless, none of these definitions address the psychosocial and medical consequences of the type of alcohol use seen in BD. In practice, BD can thus correspond to either hazardous or harmful use of alcohol (HUA), while the episodic nature of heavy drinking in BD means that it does not meet the criteria for 'alcohol dependence'...
February 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204841/a-single-cocaine-exposure-disrupts-actin-dynamics-in-the-cortico-accumbal-pathway-of-adolescent-rats-modulation-by-a-second-cocaine-injection
#9
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Among the changes caused by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, structural rearrangements play a critical role, setting the stage for maladaptive responses to environmental challenges and sustaining drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Given that adolescents are more vulnerable to drug abuse than adults and based on our recent data showing that a single exposure to cocaine during adolescence is sufficient to change the adolescent brain, we decided to investigate whether acute cocaine exposure may alter actin remodeling in reward-related brain regions...
February 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203149/gene-gene-environment-interactions-of-serotonin-transporter-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-childhood-maltreatment-predict-aggressive-behavior-in-chinese-adolescents
#10
Yun Zhang, Qing-Sen Ming, Jin-Yao Yi, Xiang Wang, Qiao-Lian Chai, Shu-Qiao Yao
Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified independently in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). The aim of the present study was to investigate epistasis interactions between MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), 5-HTTlinked polymorphism (LPR) and child abuse and the effects of these on aggressive tendencies in a group of otherwise healthy adolescents. A group of 546 Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire and Youth self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202303/association-between-substance-use-diagnoses-and-psychiatric-disorders-in%C3%A2-an-adolescent-and-young-adult-clinic-based-population
#11
Justine Wittenauer Welsh, John R Knight, Sherry Shu-Yeu Hou, Monica Malowney, Patricia Schram, Lon Sherritt, J Wesley Boyd
PURPOSE: Adolescents with substance use disorders are more likely to have a current psychiatric disorder. However, when compared with the adult literature, there is relatively limited information regarding the specific co-occurrence of certain mental health diagnoses and substance use disorders in adolescents. The objectives of this study were to build on the previous literature regarding mental health diagnoses and different types of substance use disorders in adolescents, as well as explore the differences, if any, between groupings of mental health diagnosis and type of substance used...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#12
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190570/rethinking-research-on-sexual-exploitation-of-boys-methodological-challenges-and-recommendations-to-optimize-future-knowledge-generation
#13
Katherine Mitchell, Melissa Moynihan, Claire Pitcher, Annabel Francis, Abigail English, Elizabeth Saewyc
Research and policies on child and adolescent sexual exploitation frequently focus on the sexual exploitation of girls and fail to recognize the experiences of sexually exploited boys, including their potentially unique health care and social support needs. This oversight limits the ability of health care and social service providers to offer both targeted and evidence informed care to sexually exploited boys. As a first step in a larger grant to understand the experiences of sexually exploited boys and to develop interventions for this specific population, we conducted a systematic review to address the question, "What is the state of the research on sexually exploited boys internationally?" As we undertook this review, we faced a number of significant challenges that made the process more difficult than anticipated...
February 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190538/acute-intoxication-caused-by-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-and-mmb-2201-a-case-series
#14
Bernardino Barceló, Simona Pichini, Victoria López-Corominas, Isabel Gomila, Christopher Yates, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini
Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present...
February 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182882/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-child-maltreatment-among-migrant-families-in-china
#15
Yunjiao Gao, Sally Atkinson-Sheppard, Xing Liu
Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design...
February 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182139/assessing-behavioral-patterns-of-internet-addiction-and-drug-abuse-among-high-school-students
#16
Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi
BACKGROUND: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents' addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. METHODS: A sectional and descriptive-analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173635/an-assessment-of-the-experiences-and-needs-of-adolescents-with-chronic-conditions-in-transitional-care-a-qualitative-study-to-develop-a-patient-education-programme
#17
Franziska Bomba, Carsten Herrmann-Garitz, Julia Schmidt, Silke Schmidt, Ute Thyen
The transition of adolescents with chronic conditions is a challenging task. This study aimed to explore the experiences and needs of adolescents with chronic conditions in the transition period and to apply these findings to the design of a generic patient education programme. Data were collected from a sample of 29 adolescents with chronic conditions from Northern Germany and Switzerland including a broad range of views due to variation in disease management and organisation of care both in paediatric and adult populations...
March 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170053/substance-use-or-abuse-internet-use-psychopathology-and-suicidal-ideation-in-adolescents
#18
Matilde Bousoño Serrano, Susana Al-Halabí, Patricia Burón, Marlen Garrido, Eva María Díaz-Mesa, Gonzalo Galván, Leticia García-Álvarez, Vladimir Carli, Christina Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Danuta Wasserman, Manuel Bousoño, María Paz García-Portilla, Celso Iglesias, Pilar Alejandra Sáiz, Julio Bobes
Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women)...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167004/e-cigarettes-an-update-on-considerations-for-the-otolaryngologist
#19
REVIEW
Sneh Biyani, Craig S Derkay
PURPOSE: We provide an update in the literature and national regulations regarding electronic cigarettes with special attention to the pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are handheld battery operated devices that vaporize nicotine-containing liquids for inhalation. Use of these products has dramatically increased over the last several years, particularly among the youth. ENDS are being marketed with advertising techniques and flavors which appeal to the adolescent and young adult population...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162792/synthetic-pot-not-your-grandfather-s-marijuana
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin M Ford, Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi, Paul L Prather
In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ(9)-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes...
March 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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