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adolescent abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342008/alterations-of-the-oxidative-status-in-rat-hippocampus-and-prodepressant-effect-of-chronic-testosterone-enanthate-administration
#1
Jovana Joksimović, Dragica Selaković, Vladimir Jakovljević, Vladimir Mihailović, Jelena Katanić, Tatjana Boroja, Gvozden Rosić
In a last few decades, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s.c.), exercise (E, swimming for 1 h/day), and combined group-testosterone enanthate plus exercise (T + E)...
March 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340189/the-relationship-between-pain-severity-and-alcohol-use-among-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-the-moderating-role-of-drinking-motives
#2
Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Zina Trost, Anne Hublet, Sylvie Mrug, Joris Van Damme, Tine Vervoort
Objective. : Evidence from adult samples suggests a co-occurrence between pain and alcohol abuse. However, studies in adolescents are scarce and results are inconsistent, with some studies observing heightened and others observing reduced alcohol consumption in adolescents suffering from pain. We hypothesized that in adolescents the association between pain and alcohol use will be moderated by drinking motives. Methods. : Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N = 10,650, 50...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338724/sex-differences-in-the-development-of-emotion-circuitry-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-substance-abuse-a-longitudinal-fmri-study
#3
Jillian E Hardee, Lora M Cope, Emily C Munier, Robert C Welsh, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
There is substantial evidence for behavioral sex differences in risk trajectories for alcohol and substance use disorders (SUDs), with internalizing factors such as negative affectivity contributing more to female risk. Because the neural development of emotion circuitry varies between males and females across adolescence, it represents a potential mechanism by which underlying neurobiology contributes to SUD risk. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted in males and females (n = 18 each) with a family history of alcohol use disorders starting at ages 8-13yrs...
February 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335876/child-abuse-neural-structure-and-adolescent-psychopathology-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Daniel S Busso, Katie A McLaughlin, Stephanie Brueck, Matthew Peverill, Andrea L Gold, Margaret A Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: Child abuse exerts a deleterious impact on a broad array of mental health outcomes. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate this association remain poorly characterized. Here, we use a longitudinal design to prospectively identify neural mediators of the association between child abuse and psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents. METHOD: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and assessments of mental health were acquired for 51 adolescents (aged 13-20; M=16...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330465/the-impact-of-non-response-bias-due-to-sampling-in-public-health-studies-a-comparison-of-voluntary-versus-mandatory-recruitment-in-a-dutch-national-survey-on-adolescent-health
#5
Kei Long Cheung, Peter M Ten Klooster, Cees Smit, Hein de Vries, Marcel E Pieterse
BACKGROUND: In public health monitoring of young people it is critical to understand the effects of selective non-response, in particular when a controversial topic is involved like substance abuse or sexual behaviour. Research that is dependent upon voluntary subject participation is particularly vulnerable to sampling bias. As respondents whose participation is hardest to elicit on a voluntary basis are also more likely to report risk behaviour, this potentially leads to underestimation of risk factor prevalence...
March 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329626/associations-between-indoor-tanning-and-risky-health-related-behaviors-among-high-school-students-in-the-united-states
#6
Stephanie Chapman, Kurt Ashack, Eric Bell, Myra Ann Sendelweck, Robert Dellavalle
Understanding of the associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among adolescents across the United States is incomplete. The purpose of this study is to identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning according to region. We analyzed the results from surveys of adolescents in 14 different states administered as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013. Data were collected and analyzed over a 4-month period from January 2016 to April 2016...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327416/associations-between-adolescent-experiences-of-violence-in-malawi-and-gender-based-attitudes-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors
#7
Vira Ameli, Franziska Meinck, Alistair Munthali, Boniface Ushie, Lisa Langhaug
Little is known about adolescent exposure to and factors associated with violence in Malawi. The aim of this research was to describe the prevalence of exposure to violence among adolescents in Malawi, and test the hypotheses that such exposures are associated with gender-based violent attitudes, and with internalizing and externalizing problems. In 2014, 561 primary school pupils were interviewed (50% girls), and logistic regression analysis was performed on gender-stratified data, adjusting for sociodemographic differences...
March 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326160/the-neural-correlates-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-the-ability-to-understand-mental-states-of-others
#8
Charlotte C van Schie, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Kirsten Hauber, Albert Boon, Eveline A Crone, Bernet M Elzinga
Background: Emotional abuse and emotional neglect are related to impaired interpersonal functioning. One underlying mechanism could be a developmental delay in mentalizing, the ability to understand other people's thoughts and emotions. Objective: This study investigates the neural correlates of mentalizing and the specific relationship with emotional abuse and neglect whilst taking into account the level of sexual abuse, physical abuse and physical neglect. Method: The RMET was performed in an fMRI scanner by 46 adolescents (Age: M = 18...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323517/differences-in-adolescent-emotion-regulation-and-impulsivity-a-group-comparison-study-of-school-based-recovery-students
#9
Beth S Russell, Anne Thompson Heller, Morica Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) vary in organization and operating philosophy, but are designed to support the unique needs of students struggling with substance use disorders (SUD). Previous research on youth risk taking behaviors suggests emotion regulation is a key predictor of outcomes. Specifically, the ability to respond in adaptive rather than maladaptive ways is often associated with challenges of impulsivity, poor distress tolerance, and adolescent substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study considers data from RHS students in order to answer research questions concerning impulsivity and emotion regulation of youth working to change their risk trajectories in comparison to group of typically developing youth...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320870/clinical-considerations-related-to-the-behavioral-manifestations-of-child-maltreatment
#10
Robert D Sege, Lisa Amaya-Jackson
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant health and behavior problems that may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has been remediated. Neurobiological research suggests that early maltreatment may result in an altered psychological and physiologic response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent development. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's emotional and behavioral responses associated with child maltreatment and guide them in the use of positive parenting strategies, referring the children and families to evidence-based therapeutic treatment and mobilizing available community resources...
March 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319814/time-specific-and-cumulative-effects-of-exposure-to-parental-externalizing-behavior-on-risk-for-young-adult-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Alexis C Edwards, Sara L Lönn, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. METHODS: We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries...
March 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316098/therapeutic-options-for-dysfunctional-breathing-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
Bodo Niggemann, Christine Lehmann, Dorothea Pfeiffer-Kascha, Christa Weiss
Dysfunctional breathing is common and represents important differential diagnoses for respiratory discomfort. Typical examples include habit cough, sighing dyspnoea, hyperventilation syndrome, dysfunctional breathing patterns or vocal cord dysfunction (1,2). Comorbidities are frequent, especially with bronchial asthma. In some cases dysfunctional breathing may be a sequelae of child neglect or abuse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314553/is-alexithymia-related-to-cannabis-use-disorder-results-from-a-case-control-study-in-outpatient-adolescent-cannabis-abusers
#13
Géraldine Dorard, Catherine Bungener, Olivier Phan, Yves Edel, Maurice Corcos, Sylvie Berthoz
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, alexithymia has been considered a risk factor for multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions. Yet, whereas alexithymia has been extensively studied in adults with a substance misuse, only one study has reported data on cannabis abusers from the general population. Hence, our main objective was to explore alexithymia in a clinical sample of treatment-seeking young outpatients with a DSM-IV cannabis dependence or abuse diagnosis compared to controls. METHODS: 120 young patients (95 males - mean age 17...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306390/study-of-cases-of-child-sexual-abuse-referred-for-medico-legal-examination-in-cairo-and-giza-egypt-2007-2011
#14
Amany E Abd El Rahman, Sonya M S Azab, Mohamed Ramadan
Child sexual abuse is a complex problem that results in detrimental effects on its victims. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of child sexual abuse in cases referred for medico-legal examination in Cairo and Giza governorates in the period between 2007-2011. The study included 813 cases of child sexual abuse. Female gender was more predominant than male gender (52.8%, 4.29 cases), and adolescents were the most frequent age group identified as victims of sexual abuse (43.8%, 356 cases). All perpetrators were male and most of them were persons outside the victims' families (89...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303109/the-effect-of-abuse-history-on-adolescent-patients-with-feeding-and-eating-disorders-treated-through-psychodynamic-therapy-comorbidities-and-outcome
#15
Annamaria M Strangio, Lucio Rinaldi, Gianluigi Monniello, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Chiara de Waure, Luigi Janiri
OBJECTIVES: The first aim of our study was to compare the characteristics and comorbidities of patients with eating disorders between those who suffered from a childhood abuse and those who did not. Our second aim was to analyze the differences in the outcome of the psychodynamic therapy between abused and not abused patients. METHODS: Twenty-six adolescent patients with eating disorders were assessed. Adolescent were evaluated by a single expert psychiatrist by checklists and questionnaires: EDI 3, SCL 90, BIS11, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, SCID II, and CTQ-Self control (SF)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302306/further-victimization-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-latent-class-typology-of-re-victimization-trajectories
#16
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen, Emily Mann
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways...
March 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296627/predictors-of-early-relapse-among-adolescent-crack-users
#17
Ronaldo Lopes-Rosa, Félix P Kessler, Thiago G Pianca, Luciano Guimarães, Pedro Ferronato, Esequiel Pagnussat, Helena Moura, Flavio Pechansky, Lisia von Diemen
Relapse is associated with a poor prognosis among drug users. Crack cocaine users are more prone to severe dependence because of the intensity of use. Additionally, initiating drug use during adolescence worsens users' prognosis due to the increased rates of impulsivity and other risk behaviors. This study aimed to identify the predictors of early relapse among adolescent crack users discharged from inpatient treatment. A cohort study was conducted with 89 psychiatric inpatients aged 12-17 years from two different hospitals in southern Brazil who met the criteria for crack abuse or dependence...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296372/-adolescent-pregnancy-its-causes-and-repercussions-in-the-dyad
#18
Arturo Loredo-Abdalá, Edgar Vargas-Campuzano, Abigail Casas-Muñoz, Jessica González-Corona, César Jesús Gutiérrez-Leyva
Teen pregnancy (TP) is a global public health problem that affects the physical and emotional health, educational and economic status of prospective parents and often also affects the product of gestation. In most cases, the TP is an unplanned event, and often difficult to accept by the couple. But it is more complicated for the future mother who suddenly finds herself without the protection of the couple, her family and her school companions. The risks to which the young mothers are exposed are diverse, but include: submitting to a clandestine abortion, falling into drug addiction, prostitution and crime; Also, it should be noted that with so many adversities, she can develop child maltreatment and frequently, she may be attacked at home, at school or in society giving rise to the twin phenomena of child abuse...
March 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295339/annual-research-review-childhood-maltreatment-latent-vulnerability-and-the-shift-to-preventative-psychiatry-the-contribution-of-functional-brain-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Eamon J McCrory, Mattia I Gerin, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is a potent predictor of poor mental health across the life span. We argue that there is a need to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that confer psychiatric vulnerability following maltreatment, if we are to progress from simply treating those with a manifest disorder, to developing effective preventative approaches that can help offset the likelihood that such disorders will emerge in the first place. METHODS: We review extant functional neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents exposed to early neglect and/or maltreatment, including physical, sexual and emotional abuse across four neurocognitive domains: threat processing, reward processing, emotion regulation and executive control...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293286/who-seeks-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-care-in-kenya-a-descriptive-clinic-profile-at-a-tertiary-referral-facility
#20
Judy Wanjiru Kamau, Olayinka O Omigbodun, Tolulope Bella-Awusah, Babatunde Adedokun
BACKGROUND: The presence of psychiatric morbidity in the child and adolescent age group is demonstrable in various studies conducted in various settings in Kenya. This study set out to determine the psychiatric morbidity and socio-demographic profile of patients who eventually present for care at a tertiary specialist child and adolescent mental health clinic in Kenya. Knowledge of the patterns of presentation of disorders is crucial for planning of service scale up as well as serving as a useful training guide...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
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