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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241104/the-relationship-between-self-compassion-and-the-risk-for-substance-use-disorder
#1
Cynthia L Phelps, Samantha M Paniagua, Irmgard U Willcockson, Jennifer S Potter
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relationship between substance use disorder risk and self-compassion and posits a model for how the two are related through the mitigation of suffering. METHOD: Study participants were recruited using social media to complete an online survey that included a basic socio-demographic survey and two validated instruments, the Self-Compassion Survey and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), which screens for substance use disorder (SUD) risk...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234280/blunted-diurnal-cortisol-activity-in-healthy-adults-with-childhood-adversity
#2
Yuliya I Kuras, Naomi Assaf, Myriam V Thoma, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Xuejie Chen, Alexander Fiksdal, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232969/ptsd-symptoms-mediate-the-relationship-between-sexual-abuse-and-substance-use-risk-in-juvenile-justice-involved-youth
#3
Jasmyn Sanders, Alexandra R Hershberger, Haley M Kolp, Miji Um, Matthew Aalsma, Melissa A Cyders
Juvenile justice-involved youth face disproportionate rates of sexual abuse, which increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), both of which are associated with poor long-term outcomes. The present study tested two mediation and moderation models, controlling for age, race, and history of physical abuse, with gender as a moderator, to determine whether PTSD symptoms serve as a risk factor and/or mechanism in the relationship between sexual abuse and substance use...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230930/respectful-maternity-care-needs-to-be-the-standard-for-all-women-worldwide
#4
Elaine Denny
The principles of care and respect during childbirth, and of women's rights during childbirth, are universal (McConville, Midwifery, 2014:30(2):154-7). The relationship between women and the doctors, midwives and other birth attendants who care for them is crucial in upholding these principles. However, a WHO statement in 2014 points out that across the world many women experience treatment that is neglectful, abusive and disrespectful, which violates their human rights and their rights to care. This article is protected by copyright...
December 12, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227444/the-association-between-local-economic-conditions-and-opioid-prescriptions-among-disabled-medicare-beneficiaries
#5
Chao Zhou, Ning Neil Yu, Jan L Losby
BACKGROUND: This paper concerns public health crises today-the problem of opioid prescription access and related abuse. Inspired by Case and Deaton's seminal work on increasing mortality among white Americans with lower education, this paper explores the relationship between opioid prescribing and local economic factors. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between county-level socioeconomic factors (median household income, unemployment rate, Gini index) and opioid prescribing...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226017/buprenorphine-for-medication-assisted-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy-relationship-to-neonatal-opioid-withdrawal-syndrome
#6
Niraj R Chavan, Kristin B Ashford, Amanda T Wiggins, Michelle R Lofwall, Agatha S Critchfield
Objective  To examine the relationship between antepartum buprenorphine dose for medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid use disorder (OUD) and incident neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Study Design  We performed a prospective cohort study of pregnant women with a singleton gestation diagnosed with OUD and receiving buprenorphine for MAT at a tertiary care academic institution from July 2015 to January 2017. We divided the study cohort into two groups-pregnancies with versus without NOWS...
October 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225443/perceived-stress-in-black-and-latino-male-firefighters-associations-with-risk-and-protective-factors
#7
Consuelo Arbona, Christine Pao, Amanda Long, Norma Olvera
Objective: To compare the prevalence of work-related protective and risk factors among Black and Latino male firefighters and to examine the association of these factors to perceived stress among both ethnic groups. Design Setting Participants: Participants included 1,036 male, career firefighters who self-identified as Black (n=477) or Latino (n=559) from a large fire department in a major metropolitan city in the southwestern United States. As part of a department-wide suicide prevention program conducted in 2008, participants completed an anonymous and voluntary mental health needs survey...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223913/prevalence-of-childhood-trauma-and-correlations-between-childhood-trauma-suicidal-ideation-and-social-support-in-patients-with-depression-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-in-southern-china
#8
Peng Xie, Kai Wu, Yingjun Zheng, Yangbo Guo, Yuling Yang, Jianfei He, Yi Ding, Hongjun Peng
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has long-term adverse effects on physical and psychological health. Previous studies demonstrated that suicide and mental disorders were related to childhood trauma. In China, there is insufficient research available on childhood trauma in patients with mental disorders. METHODS: Outpatients were recruited from a psychiatric hospital in southern China, and controls were recruited from local communities. The demographic questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were completed by all participants, and the Self-rating Idea of Suicide Scale (SIOSS) were completed only by patients...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223563/sexual-identity-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-suicidal-behaviors
#9
Kristen Clements-Nolle, Taylor Lensch, Amberlee Baxa, Christopher Gay, Sandra Larson, Wei Yang
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the influence of sexual identity and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on suicidal behaviors in a population-based sample of high school students. METHODS: A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used to recruit 5,108 students from 97 high schools. A total of 4,955 students (97%) provided information that allowed for classification of sexual identity into three groups: (1) lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) (10%); (2) not sure (4...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222134/workplace-violence-psychological-stress-sleep-quality-and-subjective-health-in-chinese-doctors-a-large-cross-sectional-study
#10
Tao Sun, Lei Gao, Fujun Li, Yu Shi, Fengzhe Xie, Jinghui Wang, Shuo Wang, Shue Zhang, Wenhui Liu, Xiaojian Duan, Xinyan Liu, Zhong Zhang, Li Li, Lihua Fan
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. OBJECTIVES: This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220746/testing-bidirectional-relationships-between-alcohol-use-and-depressive-symptoms-what-is-the-role-of-the-serotonin-transporter-gene
#11
Roy Otten, Carmen S van der Zwaluw, Rutger C Engels
Alcohol abuse often co-exists with a major depressive disorder. In order to understand the development of this comorbidity, it is important to concentrate on the preceding process. It has been suggested that the link between alcohol use and depressive symptoms is a result of an interaction with genetic factors. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the effect of the 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use in a Dutch community sample. Following a stepwise approach, bivariate correlations, longitudinal regression analyses, and latent growth curve analyses were separately conducted for 316 males and 321 females...
August 13, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220065/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-puerto-rico
#12
Joashlie M Méndez-Ruiz, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Yeira M Valdez-Pimentel, Miguel Torres-Narváez, Marianette Colón-Laboy, Gisela G Jiménez-Colón, José Rodríguez-Gómez, Christian J González-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Specialized epilepsy clinics receive many cases (20%-30% of total cases) in which the patients are diagnosed with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). In Puerto Rico, there has been a lack of research on and data about patients with PNES. This study examined the clinical profile of 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 34 clinical records of patients with PNES was conducted. The resulting profile was based on clinical interviews, the behavioral presentation of seizures, the history of traumatic experiences or abuse, and the relationship between PNES events and life stressors...
December 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218541/understanding-health-violence-and-acculturation-among-south-asian-women-in-the-us
#13
Nitasha Chaudhary Nagaraj, Amita N Vyas, Karen A McDonnell, Loretta DiPietro
The devastating effects of experiencing violence in childhood are seen well into adulthood. This has been particularly difficult to assess among South Asians living in the U.S., due to a lack of disaggregated data on this ethnic group. In a web-based survey administered to a convenience sample of South Asian women living in the U.S. (n = 535), information was gathered on experience/exposure to childhood violence; adult intimate partner violence; and adverse health outcomes, including ever suicide ideation/attempt, experiences of quality of life and body esteem in adulthood...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217352/relationship-between-individual-categories-of-adverse-childhood-experience-and-diabetes-in-adulthood-in-a-sample-of-us-adults-does-it-differ-by-gender
#14
Jennifer A Campbell, Gail C Farmer, Selena Nguyen-Rodriguez, Rebekah Walker, Leonard Egede
AIMS: ACEs are known to increase risk for diabetes in adulthood. However, little is known about the differential impact of individual ACE categories on diabetes risk, and whether this relationship is gender specific. METHODS: Data from the 2011 BRFSS was used in this study. Participants included 48,526 adults who completed the ACE module across 5 states. Using logistic regression, we examined the odds of diabetes in adulthood related to eight individual categories of ACEs: sexual abuse, physical abuse, verbal abuse, mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, separation/divorce, and violence...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#15
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216558/maternal-support-following-childhood-sexual-abuse-relationships-to-child-reported
#16
Rachel Wamser-Nanney
Maternal support has been conceptualized as a key factor in predicting children's functioning following sexual abuse; however, empirical evidence for this assumption is rather limited. Prior studies may have failed to find a relationship between maternal support and children's outcomes due to the methodological weaknesses of the prior literature such as the use of maternal support measures without adequately reported psychometric properties. Moreover, relatively few studies have investigated whether maternal support corresponds with children's own self-reported symptoms...
December 4, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210471/child-maltreatment-problem-behaviors-and-neighborhood-attainment
#17
Preeti Chauhan, Amie M Schuck, Cathy Spatz Widom
Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210144/adolescent-impulsivity-as-a-sex-dependent-and-subtype-dependent-predictor-of-impulsivity-alcohol-drinking-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-expression-in-adult-rats
#18
Lindsey R Hammerslag, Amogh P Belagodu, Olubankole A Aladesuyi Arogundade, Angela G Karountzos, Qingrou Guo, Roberto Galvez, Brent W Roberts, Joshua M Gulley
Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with a heightened risk for drug use and other psychiatric conditions. Because impulsivity-related disorders typically emerge during adolescence, there has been interest in exploring methods for identifying adolescents that will be at risk to develop substance use disorders in adulthood. Here, we used a rodent model to assess inhibitory control (impulsive action) and impulsive decision making (impulsive choice) during adolescence (43-50 days old) or adulthood (93-100 days old) and then examined the impact of development on these impulsivity traits by re-testing rats 50 days later...
December 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207561/cross-national-differences-in-psychosocial-factors-of-perinatal-depression-a-systematic-review-of-india-and-japan
#19
REVIEW
Mizuki Takegata, Yukiko Ohashi, Anisha Lazarus, Toshinori Kitamura
Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI)...
December 4, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207008/cannabis-use-and-hypomania-in-young-people-a-prospective-analysis
#20
Steven Marwaha, Catherine Winsper, Paul Bebbington, Daniel Smith
Background: Cannabis use in young people is common and associated with psychiatric disorders. However, the prospective link between cannabis use and bipolar disorder symptoms has rarely been investigated. The study hypothesis was that adolescent cannabis use is associated with hypomania in early adulthood via several potential etiological pathways. Methods: Data were used from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort study. The prospective link between cannabis use at age 17 and hypomania at age 22-23 years was tested using regression analysis, adjusted for gender, early environmental risk factors, alcohol and drug use, and depression and psychotic symptoms at age 18 years...
November 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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