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Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643736/the-pitfalls-in-cytology-diagnosis-of-poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-lung-and-their-treatment-response
#1
Debarshi Saha, Ankit Kumar, Sourjya Banerjee, M Nirupama, H B Sridevi, Priya Garg, Flora D Lobo
CONTEXT: Lung is the most common site of small cell carcinoma (SCLC) - a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC). SCLC comprises 15-20% of the invasive cancers of the lung. AIM: This study was conducted to appraise the accuracy and pitfalls of the diagnosis of PDNEC on cytology along with treatment responses if available. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study for 2 years yielded 21 cases on cytology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Slides of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes, the tumor, bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were used...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643173/immunotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-there-is-hope
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan M Lehman, Mary E Gwin, Pierre P Massion
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. It accounts for ~15% of lung cancer mortality and has had no improvement in standard treatment options for nearly 30 years. However, there is now hope for change with new therapies and modalities of therapy. Immunotherapies and checkpoint inhibitors are entering clinical practice, selected targeted therapies show promise, and "smart bomb"-based drug/radioconjugates have led to good response in early clinical trials...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639924/cushing-syndrome-diagnostic-workup-and-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-pathologic-correlation
#3
Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Ali Baiomy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Shalini V Mukhi, Ajaykumar C Morani, Brinda R Korivi, Steven G Waguespack, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631533/u-can-a-prospective-longitudinal-collection-of-biomaterials-and-clinical-information-from-adult-cancer-patients-in-sweden
#4
Bengt Glimelius, Beatrice Melin, Gunilla Enblad, Irina Alafuzoff, Anna Beskow, Håkan Ahlström, Anna Bill-Axelson, Helgi Birgisson, Ove Björ, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Tony Hansson, Thomas Helleday, Per Hellman, Kerstin Henriksson, Göran Hesselager, Magnus Hultdin, Michael Häggman, Martin Höglund, Håkan Jonsson, Chatarina Larsson, Henrik Lindman, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Stephanie Mindus, Peter Nygren, Fredrik Pontén, Katrine Riklund, Richard Rosenquist, Fredrik Sandin, Jochen M Schwenk, Roger Stenling, Karin Stålberg, Peter Stålberg, Christer Sundström, Camilla Thellenberg Karlsson, Bengt Westermark, Anders Bergh, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Richard Palmqvist, Tobias Sjöblom
BACKGROUND: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umeå Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population...
June 20, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626182/small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-20-year-old-non-smoking-man-with-systemic-sclerosis
#5
Go Saito, Torahiko Jinta, Hiroshi Nakaoka, Atsushi Kitamura, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Naoki Nishimura
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumor, and the median age of onset is about 70 years old. A 20-year-old non-smoking man with known systemic sclerosis presented with discomfort in his left chest. Chest X-ray showed a mass shadow in the left upper zone. A transbronchial lung biopsy revealed small cell carcinoma, and imaging studies reached the diagnosis of extensive disease small cell lung cancer. He had concurrent interstitial lung disease with a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern and anti-Scl-70 antibodies...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625622/pd-l1-expression-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-lung
#6
Kenjiro Tsuruoka, Hidehito Horinouchi, Yasushi Goto, Shintaro Kanda, Yutaka Fujiwara, Hiroshi Nokihara, Noboru Yamamoto, Keisuke Asakura, Kazuo Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Sakurai, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Koji Tsuta, Yuichiro Ohe
BACKGROUND: Various tumors express programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an immune checkpoint ligand, the expression of which correlates with certain effects of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of PD-L1 expression in each of the types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. METHODS: The subjects enrolled in this study were patients who had been diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumors of the lung and had been treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between 1982 and 2010...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621224/hypermethylation-of-adjacent-cpg-sites-is-negatively-correlated-with-the-expression-of-lineage-oncogene-ascl1-in-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#7
Nhung Truong, Sung Min Chun, Tae Im Kim, Young Ah Suh, Se Jin Jang
Achaete-scute homolog 1 is a lineage oncogene of high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Due to the relatively few studies investigating the epigenetic regulation of achaete-scute homolog 1 expression, we wanted to address whether DNA methylation of the achaete-scute homolog 1 CpG island is associated with clinicopathological features in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and to investigate its effect on the expression of this gene. Here, We performed multiplex immunohistochemistry (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA) to check for achaete-scute homolog 1 and Notch homolog 1 expression in 139 pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor samples...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614007/ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome-a-ten-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-southern-india
#8
Samantha Sathyakumar, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Hesargatta Shyamsunder Asha, Birla Roy Gnanamuthu, M J Paul, Deepak Thomas Abraham, Simon Rajaratnam, Nihal Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Ectopic ACTH secretion is a less common cause of Cushing's syndrome, and is seen in 5 to 10% of cases with endogenous hypercortisolemia. We hereby describe our experience of patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, who have been managed over the past 10 years at a tertiary care centre in Southern India. METHODS: The inpatient and outpatient records of patients from 2006 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features, clinical history, biochemical values, imaging features which included radiological findings and PET scans, management, details of follow-up and outcomes were documented...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609356/the-north-american-neuroendocrine-tumor-society-consensus-guidelines-for-surveillance-and-medical-management-of-midgut-neuroendocrine-tumors
#9
Jonathan R Strosberg, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Andrew M Bellizzi, Jennifer A Chan, Joseph S Dillon, Anthony P Heaney, Pamela L Kunz, Thomas M O'Dorisio, Riad Salem, Eva Segelov, James R Howe, Rodney F Pommier, Kari Brendtro, Mohammad A Bashir, Simron Singh, Michael C Soulen, Laura Tang, Jerome S Zacks, James C Yao, Emily K Bergsland
There have been significant developments in diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Key phase 3 studies include the CLARINET trial, which evaluated lanreotide in patients with nonfunctioning enteropancreatic NETs; the RADIANT-2 and RADIANT-4 studies, which evaluated everolimus in functioning and nonfunctioning NETs of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs; the TELESTAR study, which evaluated telotristat ethyl in patients with refractory carcinoid syndrome; and the NETTER-1 trial, which evaluated Lu-DOTATATE in NETs of the small intestine and proximal colon (midgut)...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602980/suppression-of-akt1-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-promotes-tgf%C3%AE-1-mediated-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis
#10
Fei Gao, Abdulrahman Alwhaibi, Harika Sabbineni, Arti Verma, Wael Eldahshan, Payaningal R Somanath
Akt1 is essential for the oncogenic transformation and tumor growth in various cancers. However, the precise role of Akt1 in advanced cancers is conflicting. Using a neuroendocrine TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model, we first show that the genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of Akt1 in mice blunts oncogenic transformation and prostate cancer (PCa) growth. Intriguingly, triciribine (TCBN)-mediated Akt inhibition in 25-week old, tumor-bearing TRAMP mice and Akt1 gene silencing in aggressive PCa cells enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoted metastasis to the lungs...
June 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602157/thymic-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-rare-and-aggressive-tumor-a-case-report
#11
Efared Boubacar, Gabrielle Atsame-Ebang, Sani Rabiou, Ammor Fatimazahra, Asmae Mazti, Ibrahim S Sidibé, Layla Tahiri, Nawal Hammas, Ouadnouni Yassine, Smahi Mohamed, Chbani Laila, El Fatemi Hinde
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors are a large group of tumors with a wide spectrum of behavior, affecting mainly the digestive system and the lung. The thymus is very rarely affected. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old Arab woman presented with chronic chest pain and dyspnea. A computed tomography scan showed a huge anterior mediastinal mass invading neighboring structures. A mediastinotomy was performed with biopsies of the mass. Pathological findings were consistent with a thymic large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599947/an-elderly-man-with-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-and-a-cavitary-right-upper-lobe-lung-mass
#12
Palla DeSilva, Adarsha Selvachandra, Jennifer Kanaan, Debapriya Datta
An elderly man presented to the ED from a nursing care facility after transient loss of consciousness. Three weeks previously, the patient had been diagnosed with a high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with metastases to the liver after being hospitalized for weakness. A chest radiograph at that time had revealed a right upper lobe mass that was presumed to represent a metastatic lesion (Fig 1); CT of the chest demonstrated similar findings (Fig 2). The patient had recovered consciousness on arrival to the ED and was diagnosed clinically as having had a syncopal episode from dehydration due to poor intake...
June 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597001/calcified-liver-metastases-from-a-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-lung-atypical-carcinoid-a-case-report
#13
Rolf Reiter, Jochen Maul, Jan Christian Preis, Hendrik Blaeker, Zarko Grozdanovic
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors with an incidence rate of 0.2-2/100 000 population/year in Western countries (M. E. Caplin et al. Ann Oncol 2015; 26:1604-20). They account for 1-2% of all neoplasms of the lung and constitute one-fourth to one-third of all NETs. Atypical carcinoids are far less common than typical carcinoids and predominantly occur in male smokers aged 50 -70 years. Most pulmonary NETs are asymptomatic due to their peripheral location. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice...
April 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580793/rationale-and-protocol-of-metnet-2-trial-lanreotide-autogel-plus-metformin-in-advanced-gastrointestinal-or-lung-neuroendocrine-tumors
#14
Sara Pusceddu, Natalie Prinzi, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Daniela Femia, Massimo Milione, Federica Perrone, Elena Tamborini, Laura Concas, Iolanda Pulice, Claudio Vernieri, Francesca Corti, Roberto Buzzoni, Filippo de Braud
Metformin (MET) has recently emerged as a potentially active agent in cancer prevention and treatment. MET is thought to exert its antitumor effects either via modification of systemic metabolism or through cell-autonomous effects (e.g., activation of AMPK and inhibition of the mTOR pathway). Preliminary findings of the PRIME-NET study suggest that the addition of MET to treatment with everolimus (EVE) and/or somatostatin analogs (SSAs) can provide clinical benefit in diabetic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients...
June 5, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577942/the-components-of-somatostatin-and-ghrelin-systems-are-altered-in-neuroendocrine-lung-carcinoids-and-associated-to-clinical-histological-features
#15
Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Manuel D Gahete, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Rosa Ortega Salas, Raquel Serrano-Blanch, Ángel Salvatierra, Leo J Hofland, Raúl M Luque, María A Gálvez-Moreno, Justo P Castaño
BACKGROUND: Lung carcinoids (LCs) are rare tumors that comprise 1-5% of lung malignancies but represent 20-30% of neuroendocrine tumors. Their incidence is progressively increasing and a better characterization of these tumors is required. Alterations in somatostatin (SST)/cortistatin (CORT) and ghrelin systems have been associated to development/progression of various endocrine-related cancers, wherein they may become useful diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression levels of ghrelin and SST/CORT system components in LCs, as well as to explore their putative relationship with histological/clinical characteristics...
July 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555282/smarca4-deficient-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-clinicopathological-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-a-novel-aggressive-neoplasm-with-a-consistent-ttf1-neg-ck7-pos-heppar-1-pos-immunophenotype
#16
Abbas Agaimy, Florian Fuchs, Evgeny A Moskalev, Horia Sirbu, Arndt Hartmann, Florian Haller
Alterations in SMARCA4, a member of the chromatin remodeling Switch Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex, characterize a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but detailed morphological and immunophenotypic description of this tumor type is lacking. We describe 20 NSCLC cases found on routine screening not to express SMARCA4 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). These tumors were stained for CK7, TTF1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, and HepPar-1 and analyzed for molecular alterations, using a 160 cancer-related gene panel including the full coding sequence of SMARCA4...
May 30, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540062/frequency-and-locations-of-systemic-metastases-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma-by-imaging
#17
Maria Kouzmina, Virve Koljonen, Junnu Leikola, Tom Böhling, Eila Lantto
BACKGROUND: The primary neuroendocrine skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), has a well-known predilection to metastasize systemically. However, the experience of systemic metastases in MCC is mainly disseminated through case reports due to the rarity of MCC. PURPOSE: To elucidate the frequency and locations of systemic metastasis in MCC by reviewing the imaging of patients with metastatic MCC in a national cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with diagnosed metastatic MCC by imaging studies in Finland during 1999-2012 were included in this study...
March 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537194/an-investigation-into-the-potential-role-of-brain-angiogenesis-inhibitor-protein-3-bai3-in-the-tumorigenesis-of-small-cell-carcinoma-a-review-of-the-surrounding-literature
#18
Michael Thomas, David Snead, Daniel Mitchell
Brain angiogenesis inhibitor protein 3 (BAI3) is from the adhesion group of seven-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and has been identified via gene expression profiling as being upregulated in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors. It has subsequently been validated as a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for SCLC, helping to differentiate these tumors from morphologically similar large-cell neuroendocrine (LCNEC) malignancies. It is, however, still unclear as to the role BAI3 proteins might play in SCLC and indeed how they might contribute to tumorigenesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535939/gene-expression-profiling-of-large-cell-lung-cancer-links-transcriptional-phenotypes-to-the-new-histological-who2015-classification
#19
Anna Karlsson, Hans Brunnström, Patrick Micke, Srinivas Veerla, Johanna Mattsson, Linnea La Fleur, Johan Botling, Mats Jönsson, Christel Reuterswärd, Maria Planck, Johan Staaf
INTRODUCTION: Large cell carcinoma with or without neuroendocrine features (LCNEC and LC, respectively) constitutes a small proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The WHO2015 classification guidelines changed the definition of the debated histological subtype LC to be based on immunomarkers for adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer. We sought to determine if these new guidelines translate also to the transcriptional landscape of lung cancer, and LC specifically. METHODS: Gene expression profiling was performed using Illumina V4 HT12 microarrays on 159 cases (comprising all histological subtypes including 10 WHO2015 LC and 14 LCNEC tumors), with complimentary mutational and IHC data...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535181/everolimus-with-paclitaxel-and-carboplatin-as-first-line-treatment-for-metastatic-large-cell-neuroendocrine-lung-carcinoma-a-multicenter-phase-ii-trial
#20
P Christopoulos, W Engel-Riedel, C Grohé, C Kropf-Sanchen, J von Pawel, S Gütz, J Kollmeier, W Eberhardt, D Ukena, V Baum, I Nimmrich, C Sieder, P A Schnabel, M Serke, M Thomas
Background: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Neuroendocrine tumors frequently show overactivation of the mTOR pathway. Based on the good activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in different types of neuroendocrine tumors and the results of a previous phase I trial we evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as upfront treatment for patients with advanced LCNEC...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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