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Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344664/current-understanding-and-approach-to-well-differentiated-lung-neuroendocrine-tumors-an-update-on-classification-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Talal Hilal
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms that can arise from any tissue. They are classified based on embryonic gut derivative (i.e. foregut, midgut and hindgut) with midgut tumors being the most common (e.g. gastrointestinal NET). The second most common category of NETs is that which arises from the lung. In fact, 25% of primary lung cancers are NETs, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which comprises 20% of all lung cancers. The remaining 5% are large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC, 3%), typical carcinoids (TCs, 1...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334324/understanding-the-genetic-landscape-of-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder-and-implications-for-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-a-review
#2
Erik J Kouba, Liang Cheng
Importance: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder. Although research has been performed since the first case was reported in 1981, most of our understanding of the disease treatments has been extrapolated from small cell carcinoma of the lung. However, current data on patient survival have been stagnant. Observations: With the advent of advanced molecular diagnostic methods, a new potential for understanding the origin and treatment of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has become evident...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319500/clinical-response-profile-of-metastatic-advanced-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors-to-peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy-with-177lu-dotatate
#3
Rahul V Parghane, Sanjay Talole, Kumar Prabhash, Sandip Basu
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to perform multiparametric response assessment of metastatic/advanced pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) to Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) (clinical, biochemical, molecular/structural imaging, and survival assessment) and to study the relationship between response, mortality, and overall survival with dual-tracer molecular imaging parameters. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (6 women, 16 men; median age, 44 years; range, 16-72 years) of histopathologically proven pulmonary NETs with metastatic/advanced disease were included and analyzed retrospectively...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316853/primary-hepatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-unusual-thyroid-follicular-like-morphologic-characteristics
#4
Mohd Elmugtaba Ibrahim, Kerolos Abadeer, Qihui Jim Zhai, Aziza Nassar
We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor-specifically, follicular-like characteristics-immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314525/intraoperative-electromagnetic-navigational-bronchoscopic-localization-of-small-deep-or-subsolid-pulmonary-nodules
#5
Abbas Abbas, Sagar Kadakia, Vishnu Ambur, Kimberly Muro, Larry Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Localizing small or deep pulmonary nodules or subsolid ground-glass opacities often is difficult during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS). This can result in larger resections or conversion to thoracotomy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopic localization (ENBL) as a safe and accurate intraoperative method to localize small, deep, or subsolid nodules. METHODS: This is a single-institution, single-surgeon retrospective study of all patients (51) who underwent combined ENBL and resection of 54 nodules between May 2013 and August 2015...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295876/a-vicious-partnership-between-akt-and-phlda3-to-facilitate-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
Masahiro Takikawa, Rieko Ohki
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare cancers that generally have a poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of these tumors requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of NETs. It has been shown that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can improve the progression-free survival of pancreatic NET (PanNET) patients, suggesting that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway may suppress the progression of PanNETs. PHLDA3 is a novel tumor suppressor protein that inhibits Akt activation by competition for binding to PIP3 ...
March 12, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275490/erroneous-diagnosis-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-based-on-small-biopsies-with-far-reaching-consequences-case-report-of-a-typical-carcinoid-tumor
#7
Ioannis Kyritsis, Bettina Krebs, Sandra Kampe, Dirk Theegarten, Clemens Aigner, Stefan Welter
Although neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung are frequently discussed together, carcinoids are very different from high-grade small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). SCLC is found in heavy-smoking, older patients, whereas smoking is not strongly associated with carcinoid tumors. We present the case of a 46-year-old never smoking woman who was misdiagnosed with SCLC. The patient was not responsive to radio-chemotherapy plus prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI); she had a typical carcinoid (TC) tumor according to the final pathology report...
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242984/dual-tracer-pet-imaging-68ga-dotatate-and-18f-fdg-features-in-pulmonary-carcinoid-correlation-with-tumor-proliferation-index
#8
Dhiraj Bhatkar, Ketaki Utpat, Sandip Basu, Jyotsna M Joshi
Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare group of lung neoplasms representing 1% of all the lung tumors. The typical bronchial carcinoids showed higher and more selective uptake of (68)Ga-DOTATATE than of (18)F-FDG on PET-CT. The Ki-67(MIB-1), a tumor proliferation index is a prognostic marker in neuroendocrine tumors for estimating tumor progression. Atypical carcinoids have higher Ki-67 index and have an increased propensity to metastasize as compared to typical ones. (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET imaging along with Ki-67 can be correlated for better management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240668/131-i-mibg-therapy-in-a-metastatic-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumor-patient-undergoing-hemodialysis
#9
Behruz Rahimi, William Makis, Terence A Riauka, Alexander J B McEwan, Don Morrish
Systemic radioisotope therapy with I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-MIBG) is an effective form of targeted therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. One of the absolute contraindications to administering I-MIBG therapy listed in the 2008 European Association of Nuclear Medicine guidelines is renal insufficiency requiring dialysis, although this contraindication is not evidence based. We describe a 68-year-old woman with a metastatic small bowel neuroendocrine tumor who developed renal insufficiency requiring hemodialysis...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220446/radionuclide-therapy-for-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Mauro Cives, Jonathan Strosberg
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared (177)Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy...
February 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218348/radioguided-surgery-with-radiolabeled-somatostatin-analogs-not-only-in-gep-nets
#11
REVIEW
Vincenzo Cuccurullo, Giuseppe Danilo Di Stasio, Luigi Mansi
Radioguided surgery (RGS) is a surgical technique that, using intra-operative probes, enables the surgeon to identify tissues preoperatively "marked" by a radiopharmaceutical. Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are present in the majority of neuroendocrine cells and may be over-expressed not only by tumor cells, but also by endothelial cells of peritumoral vessels, inflammatory cells and cells of the immune system, such as activated lymphocytes, monocytes and epithelioid cells. This extra neoplastic uptake is the rationale for the use of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs (SSAs) either in some tumors not expressing SSTRs or in various non-oncological diseases...
2017: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210937/imp3-expression-in-small-intestine-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-a-new-predictor-of-recurrence
#12
Sara Massironi, Alessandro Del Gobbo, Federica Cavalcoli, Stefano Fiori, Dario Conte, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Massimo Milione, Stefano Ferrero
PURPOSE: Small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms are heterogeneous neoplasms arising from endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa. Ki-67 is the main determinant of prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms. However, the search for new prognostic makers represents a key point with regard to small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms. The oncofetal protein IMP3 plays a role in cell growth and its expression has a prognostic value in lung neoplasms. METHODS: From January 1998 to August 2015, all the consecutive small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms patients suitable for surgery were included: 51 patients (32 males, median age 68 years) had small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms classified according to the WHO 2010 classification...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194370/peptide-agonists-of-vasopressin-v2-receptor-reduce-expression-of-neuroendocrine-markers-and-tumor-growth-in-human-lung-and-prostate-tumor-cells
#13
Marina Pifano, Juan Garona, Carla S Capobianco, Nazareno Gonzalez, Daniel F Alonso, Giselle V Ripoll
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that express neuropeptides as synaptophysin, chromogranin A (CgA), and specific neuronal enolase (NSE), among others. Vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with an endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effect in normal and pathological tissues. AVP receptors are present in human lung, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and gastrointestinal tumors. While AVP V1 receptors are associated with stimulation of cellular proliferation, AVP V2 receptor (V2r) is related to antiproliferative effects...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190820/pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumor-in-a-female-wolf-canis-lupus-lupus
#14
Ayako Shiraki, Toshinori Yoshida, Masahi Kawashima, Hirotada Murayama, Rei Nagahara, Nanao Ito, Makoto Shibutani
A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182792/somatostatin-receptor-staining-in-ffpe-sections-using-a-ligand-derivative-dye-as-an-alternative-to-immunostaining
#15
Koki Hasegawa, Shinji Kudoh, Takaaki Ito
The confirmation of target expression in tissues is a prerequisite for molecular-targeted therapy. However, difficulties are sometimes associated with the production of appropriate antibodies against receptors. We herein developed a ligand derivative dye for the staining of receptors. The somatostatin receptor (sstr) was selected as the target and FITC-octreotate as the detective agent. We performed a blot analysis to detect sstr in the transfer membrane. The sstr2 recombinant protein or cell lysate from a small cell lung carcinoma cell line (H69) was boiled and loaded onto SDS-PAGE, and the proteins were transferred to a membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182730/68ga-dotatate-pet-ct-imaging-of-indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules-and-lung-cancer
#16
Ronald Walker, Stephen Deppen, Gary Smith, Chanjuan Shi, Jonathan Lehman, Jeff Clanton, Brandon Moore, Rena Burns, Eric L Grogan, Pierre P Massion
PURPOSE: 18F-FDG PET/CT is widely used to evaluate indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs). False positive results occur, especially from active granulomatous nodules. A PET-based imaging agent with superior specificity to 18F-FDG for IPNs, is badly needed, especially in areas of endemic granulomatous nodules. Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in many malignant cells including small cell and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). 68Ga-DOTATATE, a positron emitter labeled somatostatin analog, combined with PET/CT imaging, may improve the diagnosis of IPNs over 18F-FDG by reducing false positives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174381/-effectiveness-of-nivolumab-in-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-lung-a-report-of-two-cases
#17
REVIEW
Wakako Daido, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Haruko Daga, Nobuyuki Ohashi
BACKGROUND: The anti-programmed death-1 antibody nivolumab is an important treatment option for non-small-cell lung carcinoma.However, its effectiveness for large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas(LCNEC)is still controversial.Here, we report 2 cases of LCNECs that responded to nivolumab.Case 1: A 62-year-old man received chemotherapy and radiotherapy for stage III A lung adenocarcinoma.One year later, another lung lesion was observed and diagnosed as LCNEC using surgical lung biopsy.Although he subsequently received some chemotherapy regimens, the patient developed new brain metastasis, expanded mediastinal lesion, and increased levels of the tumor marker pro-gastrin releasing peptide(ProGRP)...
January 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166143/an-111in-pentetreotide-positive-sclerosing-pneumocytoma
#18
Giordano Savelli, Claudio Bnà, Claudia Zambelli, Sonia Illuminati, Luke Bonello
A 43-year-old woman had an incidental lung mass identified on shoulder x-ray performed for pain. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a 38-mm mass in the medial segment of the right middle lobe, with features suggestive of carcinoid tumor. A In-pentetreotide scan showed intense uptake; furthermore, fine needle aspiration biopsy yielded neuroendocrine cells confirming the carcinoid hypothesis. However, definitive surgical histology showed a sclerosing pneumocytoma. This could potentially suggest that such rare tumors, with metastatic potential, could respond to somatostatin analogue treatment...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133209/-a-case-of-primary-poorly-differentiated-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-breast-in-a-patient-with-von-recklinghausen-s-disease
#19
Kazunoshin Tachibana, Noriko Abe, Sadahiko Abe, Keita Aoto, Maiko Okano, Fumi Murakami, Satoshi Kawana, Osamu Suzuki, Kazuhiro Tasaki, Tohru Ohtake, Seiichi Takenoshita
We report a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma and poorly differentiated/small cell carcinoma ofthe breast in a patient with von Recklinghausen's disease. The patient was a 46-year-old woman who was diagnosed with von Recklinghausen's disease when she was 22 years old. She presented with left breast pain, and physical examination revealed a firm mass in the left breast. A core needle biopsy of the tumor revealed triple negative breast cancer with neuroendocrine features. We performed a simple mastectomy with lymph node dissection...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133067/-recurrent-gastric-carcinoma-endocrine-cell-type-successfully-treated-with-multidisciplinary-therapy-a-case-report
#20
Yohei Hosoda, Izumi Komoto, Takashi Sugimoto, Asami Okabe, Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Yu Oshima, Nobuko Ogura, Hidenori Kiyochi, Shoji Tsunekawa, Yoshiro Taki, Masayuki Imamura, Jun Kawai
A 62-year-old woman was diagnosed with carcinoma of the stomach at another hospital. Distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection was performed and she was referred to our hospital. Histopathological and immunopathological examinations showed the tumor to be composed of adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was followed until 4 months after the operation when an abdominal computed tomographic(CT)scan showed a metastatic tumor at S2 and S5/6 of the liver. No other organ metastases were found, and a hepatectomy was performed...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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