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Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102935/ectopic-cushing-syndrome-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Hang-Yu Zhang, Jun Zhao
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumor with the potential to secrete various peptides or hormones that can lead to paraneoplastic syndromes, such as Ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). Because of the aggressive nature of the syndrome and its atypical features, ECS in small-cell lung cancer is difficult to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 74-year-old male patient who presented with severe hypokalemia, proximal muscle weakness, peripheral edema, metabolic alkalosis, and worsening hyperglycemia...
November 8, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101034/a-case-of-poorly-differentiated-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-cecum-a-rare-malignancy-with-review-of-the-literature
#2
Andrew T Mertz, Michelle A Ojemuyiwa
Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumors that can arise anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. They often present in advanced stage and portend a poor prognosis when compared to adenocarcinomas of the same stage. Characterization of these tumors is best accomplished with tissue biopsy, as peripheral tumor markers commonly used in NECs are of little utility. Therapeutic strategies often involve chemotherapeutic regimens that have been used to treat small-cell lung cancer. Recent studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression within poorly differentiated NECs is a poor prognostic indicator...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098761/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-basic-biology-current-treatment-strategies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#3
REVIEW
Akihiro Ohmoto, Hirofumi Rokutan, Shinichi Yachida
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) are rare tumors accounting for only 1%-2% of all pancreatic tumors. pNENs are pathologically heterogeneous and are categorized into three groups (neuroendocrine tumor: NET G1, NET G2; and neuroendocrine carcinoma: NEC) on the basis of the Ki-67 proliferation index and the mitotic count according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of gastroenteropancreatic NENs. NEC in this classification includes both histologically well-differentiated and poorly differentiated subtypes, and modification of the WHO 2010 classification is under discussion based on genetic and clinical data...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089889/myc-drives-progression-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-to-a-variant-neuroendocrine-subtype-with-vulnerability-to-aurora-kinase-inhibition
#4
Gurkan Mollaoglu, Matthew R Guthrie, Stefanie Böhm, Johannes Brägelmann, Ismail Can, Paul M Ballieu, Annika Marx, Julie George, Christine Heinen, Milind D Chalishazar, Haixia Cheng, Abbie S Ireland, Kendall E Denning, Anandaroop Mukhopadhyay, Jeffery M Vahrenkamp, Kristofer C Berrett, Timothy L Mosbruger, Jun Wang, Jessica L Kohan, Mohamed E Salama, Benjamin L Witt, Martin Peifer, Roman K Thomas, Jason Gertz, Jane E Johnson, Adi F Gazdar, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, Martin L Sos, Trudy G Oliver
Loss of the tumor suppressors RB1 and TP53 and MYC amplification are frequent oncogenic events in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We show that Myc expression cooperates with Rb1 and Trp53 loss in the mouse lung to promote aggressive, highly metastatic tumors, that are initially sensitive to chemotherapy followed by relapse, similar to human SCLC. Importantly, MYC drives a neuroendocrine-low "variant" subset of SCLC with high NEUROD1 expression corresponding to transcriptional profiles of human SCLC. Targeted drug screening reveals that SCLC with high MYC expression is vulnerable to Aurora kinase inhibition, which, combined with chemotherapy, strongly suppresses tumor progression and increases survival...
December 31, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088513/an-immunogram-for-the-cancer-immunity-cycle-towards-personalized-immunotherapy-of-lung-cancer
#5
Takahiro Karasaki, Kazuhiro Nagayama, Hideki Kuwano, Jun-Ichi Nitadori, Masaaki Sato, Masaki Anraku, Akihiro Hosoi, Hirokazu Matsushita, Yasuyuki Morishita, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Masaki Takazawa, Osamu Ohara, Kazuhiro Kakimi, Jun Nakajima
INTRODUCTION: The interaction of immune cells and cancer cells shapes the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. For successful cancer immunotherapy, comprehensive knowledge of anti-tumor immunity as a dynamic spacio-temporal process is required for each individual patient. To this end, we developed an immunogram for the cancer-immunity cycle using next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing and RNA-Seq was performed in 20 non-small cell lung cancer patients (12 adenocarcinoma, 7 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081332/surgical-management-of-large-cell-neuroendocrinelung-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-25-cases
#6
Funda İncekara, Koray Aydoğdu, Ebru Sayılır, Selim Şakir Erkmen Gülhan, Funda Demirağ, Sadi Kaya, Göktürk Fındık
BACKGROUND/AIM: Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is a relatively uncommon and aggressive subset of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, which include typical and atypical carcinoid, and small-cell lung cancer. LCNEC of the lung accounts for no more than 1% of all lung cancers. LCNECs show features of high-grade neuroendocrine tumors and patients with LCNEC have a very poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (22 males and 3 females; mean years 60...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079231/primary-neuroendocrine-neoplasm-of-the-esophagus-report-of-14-cases-from-a-single-institute-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Francisco Tustumi, Flavio Roberto Takeda, Rodrigo Hideki Uema, Guilherme Luiz Stelko Pereira, Rubens Antonio Aissar Sallum, Ivan Cecconello
BACKGROUND: Most prevalent esophageal neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Other tumors are uncommon and poorly studied. Primary neuroendocrine esophageal neoplasm is a rare carcinoma and most of its therapy management is based on lung neuroendocrine studies. Neuroendocrine tumors can be clustered in the following subtypes: high grade (small cell carcinoma or large cell carcinoma) and low grade (carcinoids). OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to assess clinical and pathological neuroendocrine esophageal tumors in a single oncologic center...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075042/protein-induced-by-vitamin-k-absence-or-antagonist-ii-pivka-ii-producing-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-lcnec-of-lung-with-multiple-liver-metastases-a-case-report
#8
Hirokazu Kurohama, Yumi Mihara, Yasumori Izumi, Masatsugu Kamata, Seiji Nagashima, Atsumasa Komori, Yojiro Matsuoka, Nozomi Ueki, Masahiro Nakashima, Masahiro Ito
A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for multiple lung and liver tumors. Initial clinical diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with lung metastases because of a high value of serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) (6,705 mAU/mL). However, a review of a prior CT showed the lung tumor had existed 6 months before liver tumors were detected. The tumors progressed rapidly and the patient died 37 days after admission. Autopsy revealed that both lung and liver tumors exhibited the histology of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC)...
January 11, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068959/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-metastasis-to-the-spleen-a-case-report
#9
Yasunaru Sakuma, Yoshikazu Yasuda, Naohiro Sata, Yoshinori Hosoya, Atsushi Shimizu, Hirofumi Fujii, Daisuke Matsubara, Noriyuki Fukushima, Atsushi Miki, Misato Maeno, Alan Kawarai Lefor
BACKGROUND: Long-term term survival in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has been reported, even in patients with metastatic disease. Metastases to the spleen are extremely rare, but have been reported from a number of primary malignancies, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and ovarian cancer. This is the first report of a splenic metastasis from a primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented as a 53 years old white male with anemia and fatigue...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057354/neuroendrocrine-tumors-of-the-uterine-cervix-a-therapeutic-challenge-for-gynecologic-oncologists
#10
REVIEW
Gadducci Angiolo, Carinelli Silvestro, Aletti Giovanni
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are aggressive diseases developing from neuroendocrine cells that most frequently involve the gastro-entero-pancreatic tract and the lung, but more rarely are found in almost all body tissues. Limited biological and clinical data are currently available for NETs in uncommon sites, such as female genital tract. NETs represent 0.9% to 1.5% of the tumors of the uterine cervix. They are more likely to have lymph-vascular space invasion and lymph node involvement, and to develop local and distant relapses when compared with the mostly common cervical squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas...
January 2, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054150/ki-67-labeling-index-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-lung-has-a-high-level-of-correspondence-between-biopsy-samples-and-surgical-specimens-when-strict-counting-guidelines-are-applied
#11
Alessandra Fabbri, Mara Cossa, Angelica Sonzogni, Mauro Papotti, Luisella Righi, Gaia Gatti, Patrick Maisonneuve, Barbara Valeri, Ugo Pastorino, Giuseppe Pelosi
Optimal histopathological analysis of biopsies from metastases of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the lung requires more than morphology only. Additional parameters such as Ki-67 labeling index are required for adequate diagnosis, but few studies have compared reproducibility of different counting protocols and modalities of reporting on biopsies of lung NET. We compared the results of four different manual counting techniques to establish Ki-67 LI. On 47 paired biopsies and surgical specimens from 22 typical carcinoids (TCs), 14 atypical carcinoids (ACs), six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and five small cell carcinomas (SCCs) immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 antigen was performed...
January 4, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042953/cervical-small-cell-neuroendocrine-tumor-mutation-profiles-via-whole-exome-sequencing
#12
Soo Young Cho, Minhye Choi, Hyo-Jeong Ban, Chang Hyeon Lee, Soojun Park, HanKyeom Kim, Young-Sik Kim, Young Seek Lee, Ji-Yun Lee
Cervical small cell neuroendocrine tumors (CSCNETs) are rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Reliable diagnostic and prognostic CSCNET markers are lacking, making diagnosis and prognosis prediction difficult, and treatment strategies limited. Here we provide mutation profiles for five tumor-normal paired CSCNETs using whole exome sequencing (WES). We expanded our assessment of frequently mutated genes to include publicly available data from 55 small intestine neuroendocrine tumors, 10 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, 42 small cell lung cancers, six NET cell lines, and 188 cervical cancers, along with our five CSCNETs...
December 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035432/chemoembolization-of-neuroendocrine-liver-metastases-using-streptozocin-and-tris-acryl-microspheres-embozar-embosphere%C3%A2-%C3%A2-zanosar-study
#13
Jean-Pierre Pelage, Audrey Fohlen, Emmanuel Mitry, Christine Lagrange, Alain Beauchet, Philippe Rougier
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for neuroendocrine liver metastases using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 16 men and 9 women aged 59.6 ± 11.3 years, all with predominant liver disease, underwent 54 courses of TACE using an emulsion of 1.5 g of streptozocin and 10 ml of Lipiodol...
December 29, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007623/small-cell-lung-cancer-exhibits-frequent-inactivating-mutations-in-the-histone-methyltransferase-kmt2d-mll2-calgb-151111-alliance
#14
Arnaud Augert, Qing Zhang, Breanna Bates, Min Cui, Xiaofei Wang, Gary Wildey, Afshin Dowlati, David MacPherson
INTRODUCTION: Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a lethal neuroendocrine tumor type, highly prone to metastasis. There is an urgency to understand the mutated genes that promote SCLC, as there are no approved targeted therapies yet available. SCLC is rarely resected, limiting the number of samples available for genomic analyses of somatic mutations. METHODS: To identify potential driver mutations in human SCLC we sequenced the whole exomes of 18 primary SCLCs and 7 cell lines along with matched normal controls...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006860/paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-and-lambert-eaton-myasthenia-in-a-patient-with-merkel-cell-carcinoma-and-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-antibodies
#15
Lucia Pavolucci, Giulia Giannini, Maria Pia Giannoccaro, Maria Pia Foschini, Bethan Lang, Patrizia Avoni, Paolo Tinuper, Angela Vincent, Rocco Liguori
INTRODUCTION: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous, aggressive tumor. Although it shares many neuroendocrine features with small cell lung carcinoma, it has only occasionally been reported with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. METHODS: A healthy 67 year-old man developed acute ataxia, vertigo, and nausea. Subsequently he also developed dysarthria, diplopia, xerostomia, fatigability and progressive anorexia. He underwent a full diagnostic workup and was found to have a high titer of voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, neurophysiological findings compatible with Lambert-Eaton myasthenia and neurological signs compatible with cerebellar degeneration...
December 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998793/the-use-of-immunohistochemistry-improves-the-diagnosis-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-differential-diagnosis-an-international-reproducibility-study-in-a-demanding-set-of-cases
#16
Erik Thunnissen, Alain C Borczuk, Douglas B Flieder, Birgit Witte, Mary Beth B Beasley, Jin-Haeng Chung, Sanja Dacic, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Prudence A Russell, Michael den Bakker, Johan Botling, Elisabeth Brambilla, Erienne de Cuba, Kim Geisinger, Kenzo Hiroshima, Alberto Marchevsky, Yuko Minami, Andre Moreira, Andrew G Nicholson, Akihiko Yoshida, Ming-Sound Tsao, Arne Warth, Edwina Duhig, Gang Chen, Yoshihiro Matsuno, William D Travis, Kelly Butnor, Wendy Cooper, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Noriko Motoi, Claudia Poleri, Giuseppe Pelosi, Keith Kerr, Seena C Aisner, Yuichi Ishikawa, Reinhard H Buettner, Naoto Keino, Yasushi Yatabe, Masayuki Noguchi
INTRODUCTION: The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung cancer states that a diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can be reliably made on routine histological and cytological grounds, but immunohistochemistry may be required, particularly i) in cases where histologic features are equivocal and ii) in cases where the pathologist wants to increase confidence in diagnosis.. However, reproducibility studies on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides (H&E) alone for SCLC versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) have shown pairwise kappa scores ranging from 0...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997421/incidental-detection-of-retiform-hemangioendothelioma-by-68ga-dotatoc-pet-ct
#17
Manuela Vadrucci, Andrea Vandoni, Laura Gilardi
A 52-year-old man underwent Ga DOTATOC PET/CT scan for postsurgical staging of a neuroendocrine tumor of the lung. The PET images showed a single focus of increased activity in a soft tissue nodule located posteriorly to a cervical vertebra. Surgical removal of the lesion led to the histological diagnosis of retiform hemangioendothelioma.
December 16, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995675/glut1-a-novel-tool-reflecting-proliferative-activity-of-lung-neuroendocrine-tumors
#18
Nazim Benzerdjeb, Pascal Berna, Henri Sevestre
Lung neuroendocrine tumors (LNT) represents approximately 20% of all lung cancers. The classification of LNT relies upon morphology. Recently, in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, Ki-67 rate has been proposed for classification. It is, however, known that Ki-67 count has a poor interlaboratory reproducibly. For that reason, our team has looked for a new biomarker. GLUT1 protein a facilitative glucose transporter protein which has ubiquitous expression in mammalian. GLUT1 is overexpressed in many human cancers...
January 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994651/massive-parallel-sequencing-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-potential-mechanisms-to-overcome-therapy-resistance-in-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#19
Robert Fred Henry Walter, Claudia Vollbrecht, Daniel Christoph, Robert Werner, Jan Schmeller, Elena Flom, Georgia Trakada, Aggeliki Rapti, Vasilis Adamidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Jens Kollmeier, Thomas Mairinger, Jeremias Wohlschlaeger, Paul Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Kurt Werner Schmidt, Fabian Dominik Mairinger
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. 25% show neuroendocrine differentiation (typical/atypical carcinoids, large-/small-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas). Carcinoids present with long survival rates, but metastatic carcinoids correlate with decreased survival and are commonly insensitive to standard chemotherapy or radiation. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Material and methods: 70 representative tumor specimens were used for next-generation sequencing analysis of 14 genes related to therapy response...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989046/valve-replacement-in-patients-with-carcinoid-heart-disease-choosing-the-right-valve-at-the-right-time
#20
Amit Korach, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Joseph Atlan, Abeer Dabah, Karine Atlan, Ehud Rudis, Amir Elami, David J Gross, Michael J Reardon, Oz M Shapira
BACKGROUND: The prosthetic valve of choice in patients with carcinoid valve disease (CVD) remains controversial due to the limited life expectancy of patients with advanced-stage neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) on the one hand, and concerns regarding structural valve deterioration (SVD) on the other hand. METHODS: The records of 17 patients (11 females, seven males; mean age 65 ± 11 years; undergoing 18 operations) with primarily right heart failure due to CVD were reviewed...
May 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
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