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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342216/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-glycopolymer-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott A Giatpaiboon, John Uhrig, Paul Orwin, William Wiesmann, Shenda M Baker, Stacy M Townsend
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342187/induction-of-high-tolerance-to-artemisinin-by-sub-lethal-administration-a-new-in-vitro-model-of-p-falciparum
#2
Serena De Lucia, Ioannis Tsamesidis, Maria Carmina Pau, Kristina R Kesely, Antonella Pantaleo, Francesco Turrini
Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to malaria control efforts. Resistance is characterized by an increase in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance half-life following treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and an increase in the percentage of surviving parasites. The remarkably short blood half-life of artemisinin derivatives may contribute to drug-resistance, possibly through factors including sub-lethal plasma concentrations and inadequate exposure. Here we selected for a new strain of artemisinin resistant parasites, termed the artemisinin resistant strain 1 (ARS1), by treating P...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341921/computational-hydrodynamic-comparison-of-a-mini-vessel-and-a-usp-2-dissolution-testing-system-to-predict-the-dynamic-operating-conditions-for-similarity-of-dissolution-performance
#3
Bing Wang, Gerard Bredael, Piero M Armenante
The hydrodynamics characteristics of a mini vessel and a USP 2 dissolution testing system were obtained and compared to predict the tablet-liquid mass transfer coefficient from velocity distributions near the tablet and establish the dynamic operating conditions under which dissolution in mini vessels could be conducted to generate concentration profiles similar to those in the USP 2. Velocity profiles were obtained experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to predict the velocity distribution and strain rate around a model tablet...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341685/intermittent-granular-dynamics-at-a-seismogenic-plate-boundary
#4
Yasmine Meroz, Brendan J Meade
Earthquakes at seismogenic plate boundaries are a response to the differential motions of tectonic blocks embedded within a geometrically complex network of branching and coalescing faults. Elastic strain is accumulated at a slow strain rate on the order of 10^{-15}  s^{-1}, and released intermittently at intervals >100  yr, in the form of rapid (seconds to minutes) coseismic ruptures. The development of macroscopic models of quasistatic planar tectonic dynamics at these plate boundaries has remained challenging due to uncertainty with regard to the spatial and kinematic complexity of fault system behaviors...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340897/invasion-and-translocation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urosepsis-and-patients-with-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection
#5
B Owrangi, N Masters, A Kuballa, C O'Dea, T L Vollmerhausen, M Katouli
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are found in high numbers in the gut of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We hypothesised that in hospitalised patients, UPEC strains might translocate from the gut to the blood stream and that this could be due to the presence of virulence genes (VGs) that are not commonly found in UPEC strains that cause UTI only. To test this, E. coli strains representing 75 dominant clonal groups of UPEC isolated from the blood of hospitalised patients with UTI (urosepsis) (n = 22), hospital-acquired (HA) UTI without blood infection (n = 24) and strains isolated from patients with community-acquired (CA)-UTIs (n = 29) were tested for their adhesion to, invasion and translocation through Caco-2 cells, in addition to the presence of 34 VGs associated with UPEC...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339978/increase-of-somatic-cell-mutations-in-oxidative-damage-sensitive-drosophila
#6
Ryota Koike, Tomoyo Uchiyama, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Tomoe Negishi
Background: Oxidative damage is an important genotoxic source for almost all organisms. To efficiently detect mutations induced by oxidative damage, we previously developed a urate-null Drosophila strain. Using this Drosophila strain, we showed the mutagenic activity of environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and the herbicide paraquat, which are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we examined the mutagenic activities of carcinogenic mutagens that are considered to cause mutations by adduct formation, alkylation, or crosslinking of cellular DNA in the oxidative damage-sensitive Drosophila to evaluate how the oxidative damage induced by these mutagens is involved in causing mutations...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339687/subclinical-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-a-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#7
Betül Cengiz, Şükrü Taylan Şahin, Selen Yurdakul, Serkan Kahraman, Ayşen Bozkurt, Saide Aytekin
OBJECTIVE: In patients with aortic stenosis (AS), the left ventricular (LV) geometry changes due to the increased LV afterload. However, subclinical myocardial dysfunction can develop despite a normal LV ejection fraction (EF). This study was an investigation of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in patients with severe AS with a normal LV EF using a strain imaging method, speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), and an evaluation of its correlation with novel indices to assess the severity of AS...
January 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339460/dot-icm-translocated-proteins-important-for-biogenesis-of-the-coxiella-burnetii-containing-vacuole-identified-by-screening-of-an-effector-mutant-sub-library
#8
Emerson Crabill, Whitman B Schofield, Hayley J Newton, Andrew L Goodman, Craig R Roy
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a lysosome-derived vacuole. A determinant necessary for C. burnetii virulence is the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4SS). The Dot/Icm system delivers more than 100 proteins, called type IV effectors (T4E), across the vacuolar membrane into the host cell cytosol. Several T4Es have been shown to be important for vacuolar biogenesis. Here, transposon insertion sequencing technology (INSeq) was used to identify C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II mutants in an arrayed library, which facilitated the identification and clonal isolation of mutants deficient in 70 different T4E proteins...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339459/a-novel-two-component-system-of-streptococcus-sanguinis-affecting-functions-associated-with-viability-in-saliva-and-biofilm-formation
#9
Tarsila M Camargo, Rafael N Stipp, Lívia A Alves, Erika N Harth-Chu, José F Höfling, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Streptococcus sanguinis is a pioneer species of teeth and a common opportunistic pathogen of infective endocarditis. In this study, we identified a two-component system, SptRS Ss , affecting S. sanguinis survival in saliva and biofilm formation. Isogenic mutants of sptRSs (SKsptR) and sptSSs (SKsptS) showed reduced cell counts in ex vivo assays of viability in saliva, compared to parent strain SK36 and complemented mutants. Reduced counts of the mutants in saliva were associated with reduced growth rates in poor nutrient medium (RPMI) and increased susceptibility to deposition of C3b and MAC of the complement system, a defense component of saliva and serum...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#10
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339424/clostridium-sordellii-pathogenicity-locus-plasmid-pcs1-1-encodes-a-novel-clostridial-conjugation-locus
#11
Callum J Vidor, Thomas D Watts, Vicki Adams, Dieter Bulach, Edward Couchman, Julian I Rood, Neil F Fairweather, Milena Awad, Dena Lyras
A major virulence factor in Clostridium sordellii-mediated infection is the toxin TcsL, which is encoded within a region of the genome called the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc). C. sordellii isolates carry the PaLoc on the pCS1 family of plasmids, of which there are four characterized members. Here, we determined the potential mobility of pCS1 plasmids and characterized a fifth unique pCS1 member. Using a derivative of the pCS1-1 plasmid from strain ATCC 9714 which had been marked with the ermB erythromycin resistance gene, conjugative transfer into a recipient C...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339386/pterostilbene-a-potential-mcr-1-inhibitor-that-enhances-the-efficacy-of-polymyxin-b
#12
Yonglin Zhou, Shui Liu, Tingting Wang, Hui Li, Shusheng Tang, Jianfeng Wang, Yang Wang, Xuming Deng
We characterized pterostilbene produced a synergistic effect with polymyxin B (FIC index=0.156 or 0.188) against MCR-producing Escherichia coli strains of both human and animal origin. The time-killing assays showed that either pterostilbene or polymyxin B failed to eradicate a mcr-1- and NDM-positive E. coli strain ZJ487, but the combination eliminated by 1-hour post-inoculation. The survival rate of mouse following the intraperitoneal infection significantly promoted from 0% to 60% in the group of combination therapy applied...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338775/comparison-of-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-with-invasive-hemodynamics-for-the-detection-of-characteristic-cardiac-dysfunction-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetic-rat-models
#13
Csaba Mátyás, Attila Kovács, Balázs Tamás Németh, Attila Oláh, Szilveszter Braun, Márton Tokodi, Bálint András Barta, Kálmán Benke, Mihály Ruppert, Bálint Károly Lakatos, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
BACKGROUND: Measurement of systolic and diastolic function in animal models is challenging by conventional non-invasive methods. Therefore, we aimed at comparing speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE)-derived parameters to the indices of left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) analysis to detect cardiac dysfunction in rat models of type-1 (T1DM) and type-2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Rat models of T1DM (induced by 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, n = 8) and T2DM (32-week-old Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, n = 7) and corresponding control animals (n = 5 and n = 8, respectively) were compared...
January 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338017/comparative-genomics-identifies-distinct-lineages-of-s-enteritidis-from-queensland-australia
#14
Rikki M A Graham, Lester Hiley, Irani U Rathnayake, Amy V Jennison
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337652/poorly-neutralizing-polyclonal-antibody-in-vitro-against-coxsackievirus-a16-circulating-strains-can-prevent-a-lethal-challenge-in-vivo
#15
Xin Yao, QunYing Mao, Yajing Li, Chunsheng Hao, LianLian Bian, Pan Chen, Fan Gao, Xing Wu, WeiWei Lu, Qiang Gao, XiuLing Li, Zhenglun Liang
Neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) is a major criterion for evaluation the immunogenicity of many vaccines, for example, poliovirus and EV71 vaccine. Here, we firstly discovered that polyclonal antibodies induced by inactivated CVA16 vaccine and lived CVA16 virus have poor ability to neutralize circulating CVA16 strains in vitro. However, the passive transfer of poorly neutralizing polyclonal antibodies can protect suckling mice from lethally challenged with circulating strains in vivo. In addition, the obvious dose response was found between the titer of antibodies and the survival rate...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337072/valorization-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-to-prebiotic-oligosaccharide-production-xylanase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-in-vitro-evaluation-with-probiotic-strains-and-in-a-batch-human-fecal-fermentation-model
#16
Mursalin Sajib, Peter Falck, Roya R R Sardari, Sindhu Mathew, Carl Grey, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335641/benefit-from-decline-the-primary-transcriptome-of-alteromonas-macleodii-str-te101-during-trichodesmium-demise
#17
Shengwei Hou, Mario López-Pérez, Ulrike Pfreundt, Natalia Belkin, Kurt Stüber, Bruno Huettel, Richard Reinhardt, Ilana Berman-Frank, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera, Wolfgang R Hess
Interactions between co-existing microorganisms deeply affect the physiology of the involved organisms and, ultimately, the function of the ecosystem as a whole. Copiotrophic Alteromonas are marine gammaproteobacteria that thrive during the late stages of phytoplankton blooms in the marine environment and in laboratory co-cultures with cyanobacteria such as Trichodesmium. The response of this heterotroph to the sometimes rapid and transient changes in nutrient supply when the phototroph crashes is not well understood...
January 15, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335444/a-geodetic-strain-rate-model-for-the-east-african-rift-system
#18
D S Stamps, E Saria, C Kreemer
Here we describe the new Sub-Saharan Africa Geodetic Strain Rate Model v.1.0 (SSA-GSRM v.1.0), which provides fundamental constraints on long-term tectonic deformation in the region and an improved seismic hazards assessment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa encompasses the East African Rift System, the active divergent plate boundary between the Nubian and Somalian plates, where strain is largely accommodated along the boundaries of three subplates. We develop an improved geodetic strain rate field for sub-Saharan Africa that incorporates 1) an expanded geodetic velocity field, 2) redefined regions of deforming zones guided by seismicity distribution, and 3) updated constraints on block rotations...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335227/potential-of-yeasts-isolated-from-dry-cured-ham-to-control-ochratoxin-a-production-in-meat-models
#19
Belén Peromingo, Félix Núñez, Alicia Rodríguez, Alberto Alía, María J Andrade
The environmental conditions reached during the ripening of dry-cured meat products favour the proliferation of moulds on their surface. Some of these moulds are hazardous to consumers because of their ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Biocontrol using Debaryomyces hansenii could be a suitable strategy to prevent the growth of ochratoxigenic moulds and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of two strains of D. hansenii to control the growth and OTA production of Penicillium verrucosum in a meat model under water activities (aw) values commonly reached during the dry-cured meat product ripening...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334710/-a-study-on-genotype-of-271-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-6-prefectures-in-yunnan-province
#20
L Y Chen, X Yang, H H Ru, H J Yang, S Q Yan, L Ma, J O Chen, R Yang, L Xu
Objective: To understand the characteristics of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Yunnan province, and provide the molecular epidemiological evidence for prevention and control of tuberculosis in Yunnan Province. Methods: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis isolates were collected from 6 prefectures of Yunnan province in 2014 and their Genetypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained using spoligotyping and multiple locus variable numbers of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). The results of spoligotyping were entered into the SITVITWEB database to obtain the Spoligotyping International Type (SIT) patterns and the sublineages of MTB isolates...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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