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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743079/impact-of-lyophilized-lactobacillus-salivarius-dspv-001p-administration-on-growth-performance-microbial-translocation-and-gastrointestinal-microbiota-of-broilers-reared-under-low-ambient-temperature
#1
J E Blajman, C A Olivero, M L Fusari, J A Zimmermann, E Rossler, A P Berisvil, A Romero Scharpen, D M Astesana, L P Soto, M L Signorini, M V Zbrun, L S Frizzo
This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed into two treatment groups, a probiotic group and a control group, with four replicates per treatment and 30 broilers per replicate. The temperature of the broiler house was maintained at 18-22°C during the first three weeks, after which the temperature was at range of 8°C to 12°C...
July 19, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742020/symmetry-broken-and-rebroken-during-the-atp-hydrolysis-cycle-of-the-mitochondrial-hsp90-trap1
#2
Daniel Elnatan, Miguel Betegon, Yanxin Liu, Theresa Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, David A Agard
Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate "client" proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly-strained asymmetric conformation...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741858/a-computational-approach-for-inferring-the-cell-wall-properties-that-govern-guard-cell-dynamics
#3
Hugh C Woolfenden, Gildas Bourdais, Michaela Kopischke, Eva Miedes, Antonio Molina, Silke Robatzek, Richard J Morris
Guard cells dynamically adjust their shape to regulate photosynthetic gas exchange, respiration rates and defend against pathogen entry. Cell shape changes are determined by the interplay of cell wall material properties and turgor pressure. To investigate this relationship between turgor pressure, cell wall properties and cell shape, we focused on kidney-shaped stomata and developed a biomechanical model of a guard cell pair. Treating the cell wall as a composite of the pectin-rich cell wall matrix embedded with cellulose microfibrils, we show that strong, circumferentially-oriented fibres are critical for opening...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741418/focal-adhesion-kinase-activation-is-necessary-for-stretch-induced-alignment-and-enhanced-differentiation-of-myogenic-precursor-cells
#4
Jens Isak Andersen, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Trine Fink, Vladimir Zachar
Myogenic precursors sense and dynamically respond to mechanical stimulation through complex integrin-mediated mechanotransduction, in which focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a fundamental intracellular signaling mediator. When skeletal myoblasts are exposed to uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (UCTS) they display uniform alignment and an enhanced rate of differentiation. In this work, we explored the role of FAK activation using C2C12 myoblasts that were grown on flexible culture plates and exposed to UCTS during the early differentiation phase...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741211/influence-of-ph-edta-fe-ii-ratio-and-microbial-culture-on-fe-ii-mediated-autotrophic-denitrification
#5
Kyriaki Kiskira, Stefano Papirio, Eric Didier van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito
Fe(II)-mediated autotrophic denitrification with four different microbial cultures under different pH and EDTA/Fe(II) conditions was investigated in batch bioassays. Initially, the highest nitrate removal (72%) was achieved with an activated sludge inoculum. The use of pure cultures of Pseudogulbenkiania strain 2002 and Thiobacillus denitrificans resulted in a 55 and 52% nitrate removal, respectively. No denitrification was observed for a mixed culture dominated by Thiobacillus thioparus and T. denitrificans...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741105/transmission-fitness-in-co-colonization-and-the-persistence-of-bacterial-pathogens
#6
Maria Gaivão, Francisco Dionisio, Erida Gjini
Humans are often colonized by polymorphic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. Two co-colonizing pathogen clones may interact with each other upon host entry and during within-host dynamics, ranging from competition to facilitation. Here we examine the significance of these exploitation strategies for bacterial spread and persistence in host populations. We model SIS epidemiological dynamics to capture the global behavior of such multi-strain systems, focusing on different parameters of single and dual colonization...
July 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740630/safety-and-effect-of-high-dose-allopurinol-in-patients-with-severe-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction
#7
Mohammad Mostafa Ansari-Ramandi, Majid Maleki, Azin Alizadehasl, Ahmad Amin, Sepideh Taghavi, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari, Ali Kazem Moussavi, Nasim Naderi
Introduction: Allopurinol used in the treatment of gout has been shown to improve the vascular endothelial dysfunction and reduce the dysfunction of the failing heart. This study was done to evaluate the effect and safety of allopurinol in non-hyperuricemic patients with chronic severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Methods: In this study, 35 consecutive cases of non-hyperuricemic patients with chronic heart failure who had severe LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of less than 35%) and were on optimal guideline directed medical therapies for at least 3 months were included...
2017: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740491/nod-like-receptor-p3-inflammasome-controls-protective-th1-th17-immunity-against-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#8
Claudia Feriotti, Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Flavio Vieira Loures, Tania Alves da Costa, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Dario Simões Zamboni, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich
The NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular multimeric complex that triggers the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, important cytokines for the innate immune response against pathogens. The functional NLRP3 inflammasome complex consists of NLRP3, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1. Various molecular mechanisms were associated with NLRP3 activation including the presence of extracellular ATP, recognized by the cell surface P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739784/assessment-of-bactericidal-drug-activity-and-treatment-outcome-in-a-mouse-tuberculosis-model-using-a-clinical-beijing-strain
#9
Bas C Mourik, Gerjo J de Knegt, Annelies Verbon, Johan W Mouton, Hannelore I Bax, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel
Objectives:Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains are associated with lower treatment success rates in tuberculosis patients. In contrast, laboratory strains such as H37Rv are often used in preclinical tuberculosis models. Therefore, we explored the impact of using a clinical Beijing strain on treatment outcome in our mouse tuberculosis model. Additionally, the predictive value of bactericidal activity on treatment outcome was assessed.Methods: BALB/c mice were infected with a Beijing strain and treated with one of ten different combinations of conventional anti-TB drugs...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739528/chronic-hyper-leptinemia-induces-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-adipocytes-implications-of-nos2
#10
Abhishek Gupta, Muheeb Beg, Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Kalpana Singh, Satyendra Sonkar, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Leptin, following its discovery, has developed a formidable interest in the scientific community to delineate its contribution towards overall metabolic homeostasis. Contradictory reports have been published on leptin administration effects on whole body insulin sensitivity. Following late reports, we surveyed human serum leptin levels along with other metabolic parameters including BMI and HOMA-IR. We found a positive correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance parameters. Considering the presence of the long form of leptin receptor on adipocytes, we explored the effects of chronic physiological hyper-leptinemic exposure on adipocyte insulin sensitivity...
July 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739443/sauna-exposure-immediately-prior-to-short-term-heat-acclimation-accelerates-phenotypic-adaptation-in-females
#11
Jessica A Mee, Sophie Peters, Jonathan H Doust, Neil S Maxwell
OBJECTIVES: Investigate whether a sauna exposure prior to short-term heat acclimation (HA) accelerates phenotypic adaptation in females. DESIGN: Randomised, repeated measures, cross-over trial. METHODS: Nine females performed two 5-d HA interventions (controlled hyperthermia Tre≥38.5°C), separated by 7-wk, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle confirmed by plasma concentrations of 17-β estradiol and progesterone. Prior to each 90-min HA session participants sat for 20-min in either a temperate environment (20°C, 40% RH; HAtemp) wearing shorts and sports bra or a hot environment (50°C, 30% RH) wearing a sauna suit to replicate sauna conditions (HAsauna)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739084/the-repeatability-and-characteristics-of-right-ventricular-longitudinal-strain-imaging-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-healthy-dogs
#12
T Morita, K Nakamura, T Osuga, N Yokoyama, N Khoirun, K Morishita, N Sasaki, H Ohta, M Takiguchi
INTRODUCTION: To assess the repeatability and characteristics of echocardiographic indices of the right ventricular (RV) function derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography. ANIMALS: Fourteen laboratory Beagles and 103 privately owned dogs without cardiac disease were involved in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Right ventricular longitudinal strain, strain rate, and a strain-related index for assessing RV dyssynchrony derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography were obtained by two different observers using five Beagles...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738847/longitudinal-genomic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-carriage-in-a-long-term-care-facility-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Hayley J Brodrick, Kathy E Raven, Teemu Kallonen, Dorota Jamrozy, Beth Blane, Nicholas M Brown, Veronique Martin, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) may have high carriage rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens, but are not currently included in surveillance programmes for antimicrobial resistance or healthcare-associated infections. Here, we describe the value derived from a longitudinal epidemiological and genomic surveillance study of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in a LTCF in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Forty-five of 90 (50%) residents were recruited and followed for six months in 2014...
July 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738689/spermatozoa-dna-and-plasma-membrane-integrity-after-pellet-optimised-processing-for-cryopreservation-in-meat-type-chicken-breeders
#14
T M Gliozzi, L Zaniboni, N Iaffaldano, S Cerolini
1. Aim of this study was the development of an optimised cryopreservation pellet procedure for chicken semen and the assessment of DNA and membrane integrity in frozen/thawed spermatozoa in a Hubbard F15 meat type selected strain. 2. The following semen processing conditions were studied: spermatozoa working concentration (SWC), 1.5 vs 2x10(9) cells/ml in pre-freezing extender; equilibration of diluted semen at 5°C, 20 vs 40 min; dimethylacetamide concentration, 6% vs 9%; dimethylacetamide equilibration time at 5°C, 1 vs 30 min; thawing at 60°C for 10 vs 50°C for 30 sec...
July 25, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737931/semi-ordered-hierarchical-metallic-network-for-fast-and-large-charge-induced-strain
#15
Chuan Cheng, Lukas Lührs, Tobias Krekeler, Martin Ritter, Jörg Weissmüller
Nanoporous metallic actuators for artificial muscle applications are distinguished by combining the low operating voltage which is otherwise reserved for polymer-based actuators with interesting values of strain amplitude, strength and stiffness that are comparable of those of piezoceramics. We report a nanoporous metal actuator with enhanced strain amplitude and accelerated switching. Our 3D macroscopic metallic muscle has semi-ordered and hierarchical nanoporous structure, in which µm-sized tubes align perpendicular with the sample surface, while nm-sized ligaments consist of the tube walls...
July 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737929/enhanced-degradation-of-tce-on-a-superfund-site-using-endophyte-assisted-poplar-tree-phytoremediation
#16
Sharon Lafferty Doty, John Leonard Freeman, Christopher M Cohu, Joel Gerard Burken, Andrea Firrincieli, Andrew Simon, Zareen Khan, Jud G Isebrands, Joseph Lukas, Michael J Blaylock
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread environmental pollutant common in groundwater plumes associated with industrial manufacturing areas. We had previously isolated and characterized a natural bacterial endophyte, Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, of poplar trees, that rapidly metabolizes TCE, releasing chloride ion. We now report findings from a successful three-year field trial of endophyte-assisted phytoremediation on the Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman Superfund Study Area TCE plume in the Silicon Valley of California...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737752/mechanical-strain-sensing-implicated-in-cell-shape-recovery-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Felix Wong, Lars D Renner, Gizem Özbaykal, Jayson Paulose, Douglas B Weibel, Sven van Teeffelen, Ariel Amir
The shapes of most bacteria are imparted by the structures of their peptidoglycan cell walls, which are determined by many dynamic processes that can be described on various length scales ranging from short-range glycan insertions to cellular-scale elasticity(1-11). Understanding the mechanisms that maintain stable, rod-like morphologies in certain bacteria has proved to be challenging due to an incomplete understanding of the feedback between growth and the elastic and geometric properties of the cell wall(3,4,12-14)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737107/characterization-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-by-chicken-embryo-lethality-assay-and-eric-pcr
#18
Ana E Blanco, Martin Barz, David Cavero, Wiebke Icken, A Reza Sharifi, Matthias Voss, Carlos Buxadé, Rudolf Preisinger
Enterococcus faecalis is the major causative agent of amyloid arthropathy in chickens. Given the difficulty of estimating the risk from field strains, the Embryo Lethality Assay (ELA) is proposed in this study as model to predict the virulence of 68 avian E. faecalis strains. Additionally, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) was used to characterize the genetic diversity of the E. faecalis strains. The ELA was performed ten times with subsets of seven-eight E...
July 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736966/molecular-characterization-of-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-workers-of-an-automaker-company-in-southeast-iran
#19
Mohammad Hossein Sobhanipoor, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736269/iodine-lithium-alpha-dextrin-il%C3%AE-d-against-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-infections-a-comparative-study-of-in-vitro-bactericidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-between-il%C3%AE-d-and-povidone-iodine
#20
A P Zisi, M K Exindari, E K Siska, G G Koliakos
BACKGROUND: As antimicrobial resistance continuously increases, revisiting old antimicrobial agents, modified to enhance efficacy and safety, becomes important. Iodine has been widely used for more than 150 years as a wound and skin disinfectant; it is an effective broad range bactericide, and to date, it lacks reports of resistance development. The most important iodine-based agent is Povidone-Iodine (PVP-I) which provides excellent antibacterial activity. However, its safety profile has been questioned...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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