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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231674/-a-preliminary-study-on-the-molecular-characteristics-of-d-cycloserine-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
C Li, G L Li, Q Luo, S J Li, R B Wang, Y L Lou, J X Lyu, K L Wan
Objective: To investigate the relationship between D-cycloserine resistance and the gene mutations of alrA, ddlA and cycA of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, as well as the association between D-cycloserine resistance and spoligotyping genotyping. Methods: A total of 145 M. tuberculosis strains were selected from the strain bank. D-cycloserine resistant phenotypes of the strains were determined by the proportion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by resazurin microtiter assay. PCR amplification and DNA direct sequencing methods were used for the analysis of gene mutations...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231430/combined-high-stretchability-and-gas-barrier-in-hydrogen-bonded-multilayer-nanobrick-wall-thin-films
#2
Shuang Qin, Yixuan Song, Michael Floto, Jaime C Grunlan
Hydrogen-bonded multilayer thin films are very stretchable, but their gas barrier properties are modest compared to more traditional ionically-bonded assemblies. In an effort to improve the gas barrier of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) - poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer films, without sacrificing stretchability, montmorillonite (MMT) clay platelets were combined with PAA and alternately deposited with PEO. A ten bilayer PEO/PAA+MMT film (432 nm thick), deposited on a 1 mm PU substrate, resulted in a 54X reduction in oxygen transmission rate after exposure to a 20% strain...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230723/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-exerts-strain-specific-effects-on-constipation-induced-by-loperamide-in-balb-c-mice
#3
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Boxing Yin, Dongsheng Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230286/identification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-using-multilocous-sequence-analysis-of-16s-rrna-hsp65-and-rpob
#4
Si Hyun Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin
BACKGROUND: The isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from clinical specimens has increased, and they now are considered significant opportunistic pathogens. The aims of this study were to develop a database and interpretive criteria for identifying individual species. In addition, using clinical isolates, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of 16S rRNA, hsp65, and rpoB as target genes for this method. METHODS: The sequences of NTM for 16S rRNA, hsp65, and rpoB were collected from GenBank and checked by manual inspection...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230096/a-novel-approach-to-improve-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-production-by-nadph-regeneration-in-bacillus-licheniformis-wx-02
#5
Dongbo Cai, Penghui He, Xingcheng Lu, Chengjun Zhu, Jiang Zhu, Yangyang Zhan, Qin Wang, Zhiyou Wen, Shouwen Chen
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an important biochemical product with a variety of applications. This work reports a novel approach to improve γ-PGA through over expression of key enzymes in cofactor NADPH generating process for NADPH pool. Six genes encoding the key enzymes in NADPH generation were over-expressed in the γ-PGA producing strain B. licheniformis WX-02. Among various recombinants, the strain over-expressing zwf gene (coding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), WX-zwf, produced the highest γ-PGA concentration (9...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230095/genetic-diversity-transmission-dynamics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-angola
#6
João Perdigão, Sofia Clemente, Jorge Ramos, Pedro Masakidi, Diana Machado, Carla Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Nuno Taveira, Isabel Portugal
Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious public health problem in Angola. No surveillance data on drug resistance is available and nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Here, we have genotyped and evaluated drug susceptibility of 89 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Luanda. Thirty-three different spoligotype profiles corresponding to 24 different Shared International Types (SIT) and 9 orphan profiles were detected...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229212/the-effect-of-a-cyclic-uniaxial-strain-on-urinary-bladder-cells
#7
Dorien Tiemessen, Paul de Jonge, Willeke Daamen, Wout Feitz, Paul Geutjes, Egbert Oosterwijk
PURPOSE: Pre-conditioning of a cell seeded construct may improve the functional outcome of a tissue engineered construct for augmentation cystoplasty. The precise effects of mechanical stimulation on urinary bladder cells in vitro are not clear. In this study we investigate the effect of a cyclic uniaxial strain culture on urinary bladder cells which were seeded on a type I collagen scaffold. METHODS: Isolated porcine smooth muscle cells or urothelial cells were seeded on a type I collagen scaffolds and cultured under static and dynamic conditions...
February 23, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#8
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228750/evolutionary-roots-and-diversification-of-the-genus-aeromonas
#9
Ariadna Sanglas, Vicenta Albarral, Maribel Farfán, J G Lorén, M C Fusté
Despite the importance of diversification rates in the study of prokaryote evolution, they have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of microorganism taxa. The investigation of evolutionary patterns in prokaryotes constitutes a challenge due to a very scarce fossil record, limited morphological differentiation and frequently complex taxonomic relationships, which make even species recognition difficult. Although the speciation models and speciation rates in eukaryotes have traditionally been established by analyzing the fossil record data, this is frequently incomplete, and not always available...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228166/methylene-blue-assay-for-estimation-of-regenerative-re-epithelialization-in-vivo
#10
Maresha Milyavsky, Renee Dickie
The rapidity with which epithelial cells cover a wound surface helps determine whether scarring or scar-less healing results. As methylene blue is a vital dye that is absorbed by damaged tissue but not undamaged epidermis, it can be used to assess wound closure. We sought to develop a quantitative methylene blue exclusion assay to estimate the timeframe for re-epithelialization in regenerating appendages in zebrafish and axolotls, two classic model systems of regeneration. Following application of methylene blue to the amputation plane and extensive washing, the regenerating tail was imaged in vivo until staining was no longer visible...
February 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228092/variation-in-rates-of-spontaneous-male-production-within-the-nematode-species-pristionchus-pacificus-supports-an-adaptive-role-for-males-and-outcrossing
#11
Katy Morgan, Angela McGaughran, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
BACKGROUND: The nematode species Pristionchus pacificus has an androdioecious mating system in which populations consist of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and relatively few males. The prevalence of males in such a system is likely to depend on the relative pros and cons of outcrossing. While outcrossing generates novel allelic combinations and can therefore increase adaptive potential, it may also disrupt the potentially beneficial consequences of repeated generations of selfing. These include purging of deleterious alleles, inheritance of co-adapted allele complexes, improved hermaphrodite fitness and increased population growth...
February 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227894/wearable-strain-sensors-fabricated-by-silver-nanowire-patterning-method-based-on-parylene-stencil-technique
#12
Namsun Chou, Sohee Kim, Namsun Chou, Sohee Kim, Namsun Chou, Sohee Kim
This paper describes a fabrication method of the silver nanowire (AgNW) patterns on PDMS substrate using a parylene stencil technique. The AgNW electrodes with the straight line and serpentine line traces were fabricated and characterized in terms of electromechanical properties. The sensitivity of the AgNW patterns was measured using a custom-designed stretch test module, resulting in gauge factors from 55.2 to 2.7 at 2% strain for two different 100 um-wide AgNW patterns. The wearable sensor based on AgNW patterns was designed and fabricated to epidermally detect the respiration and heart rate from the abdomen and neck...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227119/clinical-viability-of-carotid-plaque-strain-estimation-using-b-mode-ultrasound-image-sequences
#13
Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker, Brajesh K Lal, Siddhartha Sikdar, Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker, Brajesh K Lal, Siddhartha Sikdar, Siddhartha Sikdar, Brajesh K Lal, Amir A Khan, Joseph C Hecker
It is estimated that approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are caused by rupture of plaque in the carotid artery. Development of techniques focusing on identifying plaques that are vulnerable to rupture is thus indispensable for stroke prevention. Recent studies have demonstrated that motion analysis of plaques from B-mode and RF ultrasound (US) image sequences can be used to estimate plaque strain. However, viability of these methods in a clinical setting, with variable acquisition protocols, has not been demonstrated yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226918/gyrocardiography-a-new-non-invasive-approach-in-the-study-of-mechanical-motions-of-the-heart-concept-method-and-initial-observations
#14
Mojtaba Jafari Tadi, Eero Lehtonen, Mikko Pankaala, Antti Saraste, Tuija Vasankari, Mika Teras, Tero Koivisto, Mojtaba Jafari Tadi, Eero Lehtonen, Mikko Pankaala, Antti Saraste, Tuija Vasankari, Mika Teras, Tero Koivisto, Eero Lehtonen, Mojtaba Jafari Tadi, Mika Teras, Antti Saraste, Tuija Vasankari, Mikko Pankaala, Tero Koivisto
The pumping action of the heart is performed by contraction of the myocardium fibers. We present a non-invasive technique named gyrocardiography (GCG) that comprises a sensor of angular motion, gyroscope, configured to obtain three-dimensional angular velocity signals. A tri-axial micro electromechanical (MEMS) gyroscope sensor was attached to the surface of the chest to obtain gyrocardiogram. Color-coded Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) was recorded simultaneously and synchronized with the GCG in an off-line analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225904/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-the-vaccine-era-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#15
Mari Tuyama, Jessica Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica Schlackman, Jane W Marsh, Maria C Rebelo, Elaine O Cerqueira, Márcio Nehab, Fabíola Kegele, Getúlio F Carmo, Dominique Ca Thielmann, Paulo F Barroso, Lee H Harrison, David E Barroso
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225898/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-disease-in-the-vaccine-era-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#16
Mari Tuyama, Jessica Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica Schlackman, Jane W Marsh, Maria C Rebelo, Elaine O Cerqueira, Márcio Nehab, Fabíola Kegele, Getúlio F Carmo, Dominique Ca Thielmann, Paulo F Barroso, Lee H Harrison, David E Barroso
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule in Brazil in 1999, where Hib was one of the major etiologic sources of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the molecular epidemiology of invasive Hi disease in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: Surveillance data from 1986 to 2014 were analysed...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225601/rational-optimization-of-diphenyl-ether-binding-kinetics-to-the-enoyl-acp-reductase-fabi1-from-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#17
Carla Maya Neckles, Sandra Eltschkner, Jason Ellsworth Cummings, Maria Hirschbeck, Fereidoon Daryaee, Gopal R Bommineni, Zhuo Zhang, Lauren A Spagnuolo, Weixuan Yu, Shabnam Davoodi, Richard A Slayden, Caroline Kisker, Peter J Tonge
There is growing awareness of the link between drug-target residence time and in vivo drug activity, and there are increasing efforts to determine the molecular factors that control the lifetime of a drug-target complex. Rational alterations in drug-target residence time require knowledge of both the ground and transition states on the inhibition reaction coordinate, and we have determined the structure-kinetic relationship for 22 ethyl or hexyl substituted diphenyl ethers that are slow-binding inhibitors of bpFabI1, the enoyl-ACP reductase FabI1 from Burkholderia pseudomallei...
February 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225559/effects-of-an-alternative-oxidase-gene-on-conidia-viability-under-external-stresses-in-monascus-ruber-m7
#18
Yanchun Shao, Qi Li, Youxiang Zhou, Fusheng Chen
Monascus species can produce natural edible pigments and many other bioactive metabolites. In this study, mraox gene (Monascus ruber alternative oxidase) was isolated, sequenced, and replaced in order to investigate the function in resistance of conidia to stressful conditions. The derived protein of the mraox gene consisted of 350 amino acids with a conserved ferritin-like diiron-binding domain at the C-terminus, sharing a high homolog with alternative oxidase proteins in other filamentous fungi. Deletion of mraox gene repressed the conidia germination rate (CGR) when conidia were exposed to H2 O2 , high temperature (40 and 50 °C) and alkerline buffer (pH8...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224769/increasing-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-fluoroquinolone-and-carbapenem-in-gram-negative-bacilli-and-the-emergence-of-carbapenem-non-susceptibility-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-analysis-of-korean-antimicrobial-resistance-monitoring-system-karms
#19
Dokyun Kim, Ji Young Ahn, Chae Hoon Lee, Sook Jin Jang, Hyukmin Lee, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. We analyzed Korean Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (KARMS) data collected from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: Of the KARMS participants, 16 secondary or tertiary hospitals consecutively reported antimicrobial resistance rates from 2013 to 2015. Data from duplicate isolates and institutions with fewer than 20 isolates were excluded...
May 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224727/molecular-identification-and-distribution-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-by-pcr-sequencing-method-in-west-of-iran
#20
Mahsa Dastranj, Abbas Farahani, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Sara Atashi, Parviz Mohajeri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infections by Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) has rapidly increased in recent years, due to high infection rates related to the populations at risk like immunocompromised individuals, patients predisposed by prior pulmonary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of NTM in clinical samples and genetic diversity using 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 diverse isolates collected from sputum in two years 2014-2015 using standard decontamination procedure...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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