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Jessica V Strong, Benjamin T Mast
This study examined similarities and differences in the cognitive profiles of older adult instrumental musicians and non-musicians. We compared neuropsychological test scores among older adult non-musicians, low-activity musicians (<10 years of lessons), and high-activity musicians (≥10 years of lessons), controlling for self-reported physical and social activity, years of education, and overall health. Significant differences among groups were found on tasks of visual spatial ability, naming, and executive functioning...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Kongmeng Liew, PerMagnus Lindborg, Ruth Rodrigues, Suzy J Styles
Noise has become integral to electroacoustic music aesthetics. In this paper, we define noise as sound that is high in auditory roughness, and examine its effect on cross-modal mapping between sound and visual shape in participants. In order to preserve the ecological validity of contemporary music aesthetics, we developed Rama , a novel interface, for presenting experimentally controlled blocks of electronically generated sounds that varied systematically in roughness, and actively collected data from audience interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Beatriz Ilari, Matthew Elliott Sachs, Hanna Damasio
Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development...
March 6, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Vincent K M Cheung, Lars Meyer, Angela D Friederici, Stefan Koelsch
Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vitória Piai, Sandra H Vos, Reinhard Idelberger, Pauline Gans, Jonne Doorduin, Mark Ter Laan
Objective: We report the case of a professional violin player who underwent an awake craniotomy to resect a tumor in the left supplementary motor area, an area involved in motor planning. Method: A careful pre- and intraoperative monitoring plan for music performance and complex motor function was established that could be used in combination with cortical stimulation. Results: The patient suffered an epileptic seizure during cortical stimulation...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Darko Breitenfeld, Davor Kust, Tomislav Breitenfeld, Marin Prpić, Marko Lucijanić, Davor Zibar, Vedran Hostić, Maja Franceschi, Ante Bolanča
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Paula Thomson, S V Jaque
Childhood adversity is identified as any exposure to abuse, neglect or family dysfunction. Greater exposure to childhood adversity has been strongly identified with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine differences in creative experiences, fantasy proneness, dispositional flow, exposure to adult traumatic events, and psychopathology (internalized shame, trait anxiety), amongst professional performing artists who experienced no childhood adversity, some adversity, or substantial adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Cecilie Møller, Andreas Højlund, Klaus B Bærentsen, Niels Chr Hansen, Joshua C Skewes, Peter Vuust
Perception is fundamentally a multisensory experience. The principle of inverse effectiveness (PoIE) states how the multisensory gain is maximal when responses to the unisensory constituents of the stimuli are weak. It is one of the basic principles underlying multisensory processing of spatiotemporally corresponding crossmodal stimuli that are well established at behavioral as well as neural levels. It is not yet clear, however, how modality-specific stimulus features influence discrimination of subtle changes in a crossmodally corresponding feature belonging to another modality...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alini Daniéli Viana Sabino, Cristielli M Camargo, Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Flávia L Osório
Introduction: Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anita D'Anselmo, Felice Giuliani, Federica Campopiano, Emanuele Carta, Alfredo Brancucci
Musical setticlavio (literally, seven clefs) reading refers to the ability to read (i.e., to say aloud, without to sing) the musical note labels in the 7 musical clefs. The present research report aims to investigate hemispheric asymmetries in such a basic musical ability, very poorly investigated in the domain of cognitive neurosciences. Sixty-three musicians underwent lateralized tachistoscopic presentation of musical notes on staves, 50% in the left and 50% in the right visual field, associated with each of the 7 musical clefs...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
Anastasia G Sares, Nicholas E V Foster, Kachina Allen, Krista L Hyde
Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in speech and tone sequences, taking musical training and attention into account. Method: Musicians (16) and nonmusicians (16) were asked to detect pitch or timing changes in speech and tone sequences and make a binary response...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Alice Mado Proverbio, Francesco De Benedetto, Maria Vittoria Ferrari, Giorgia Ferrarini
Studies in the literature have provided conflicting evidence about the effects of background noise or music on concurrent cognitive tasks. Some studies have shown a detrimental effect, while others have shown a beneficial effect of background auditory stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agitating, happy or touching music, as opposed to environmental sounds or silence, on the ability of non-musician subjects to perform arithmetic operations. Fifty university students (25 women and 25 men, 25 introverts and 25 extroverts) volunteered for the study...
2018: PloS One
Aimee E Morris, Scott A Norris, Joel S Perlmutter, Jonathan W Mink
BACKGROUND: Focal embouchure dystonia impairs orofacial motor control in wind musicians and causes professional disability. A paucity of quantitative measures or rating scales impedes the objective assessment of treatment efficacy. OBJECTIVES: We quantified specific features of focal embouchure dystonia using acoustic measures and developed a metric to assess severity across multiple domains of symptomatic impairment. METHODS: We recruited 9 brass musicians with and 6 without embouchure dystonia...
March 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Laura M Kok, Karlijn A Groenewegen, Bionka M A Huisstede, Rob G H H Nelissen, A Boni M Rietveld, Saskia Haitjema
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high number of amateur musicians in the general population, little is known about the musculoskeletal health of amateur musicians. Playing a musical instrument is supposed to be a risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to evaluate playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) among amateur musicians playing in student orchestras. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 357 members of eleven Dutch student orchestras across the Netherlands were included in this study...
2018: PloS One
M P Roncaglia-Denissen, Fleur L Bouwer, Henkjan Honing
Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Massimo Grassi, Chiara Meneghetti, Enrico Toffalini, Erika Borella
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187881.].
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Stadler, Hayley MacGregor, Eirik Saethre, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
During a five-day workshop, former clinical trial participants and local musicians wrote the lyrics and recorded a song about an HIV prevention trial. Born of concerns about misconceptions regarding experimental drug trials, the aim was to engender engagement with medical researchers and open dialogue about the risks and benefits of trial participation. Composing lyrics that highlighted their credibility as communicators of medical scientific knowledge and their selfless sacrifice to stem the transmission of HIV, women performed their social positioning and cultural authority in contrast to men as well as other women not part of the trial...
February 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Tommaso Schirinzi, Simona Scalise, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Rocco Cerroni, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Pamela Lavorenti Figueras, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Antonio Pisani, Alessandro Stefani
Musician's Dystonia (MD) represents an intriguing disorder with rich phenomenology and unclear pathophysiology. We observed a MD affecting left upper limb in a professional drummer. DaT-Scan revealed slight reduced uptake in the right putamen; no extrapyramidal or other neurological signs emerged in 2.5 years of follow up. The case offers insight on dopaminergic involvement in MD.
January 29, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Manuel Islan, Fernando Blaya, Pilar San Pedro, Roberto D'Amato, Emilio Lechosa Urquijo, Juan Antonio Juanes
The majority of musculoskeletal injuries located in the shoulder are often due to repetitive or sustained movements that occur in work routines in different areas. In the case of musicians, such as violinists, who have long and daily training routines, the repetitive movements they perform are forced and sometimes the postures are not natural. Therefore, this article aims to study and simulate the dynamic behavior of the glenohumeral joint under repetitive conditions that represent the different postures assumed by a violinist during his daily training...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Montserrat García Gómez
BACKGROUND: Musicians suffer from a wide range of health problems related to their profession. The aim of this paper was to assess whether work-related musician diseases are included into the Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases and, if so, to describe and quantify those recognized in recent years. METHODS: The Official Spanish List of Occupational Diseases was searched to identify occupational diseases affecting musicians. We then conducted an incidence study of those occupational diseases recognized under code 29...
January 2018: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
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