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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639512/the-relationship-between-nairobi-adolescents-media-use-and-their-sexual-beliefs-and-attitudes
#1
Ann Neville Miller, William Kinnally, Hellen Maleche, Nancy Achieng' Booker
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport...
June 22, 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635495/analysis-of-audiometric-notch-as-a-noise-induced-hearing-loss-phenotype-in-us-youth-data-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2005-2010
#2
Ishan S Bhatt, O'neil Guthrie
OBJECTIVE: Bilateral audiometric notch (BN) at 4000-6000 Hz was identified as a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) phenotype for genetic association analysis in college-aged musicians. This study analysed BN in a sample of US youth. DESIGN: Prevalence of the BN within the study sample was determined and logistic-regression analyses were performed to identify audiologic and other demographic factors associated with BN. Computer-simulated "flat" audiograms were used to estimate potential influence of false-positive rates in estimating the prevalence of the BN...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599994/vocal-tract-discomfort-and-voice-related-quality-of-life-in-wind-instrumentalists
#3
Juliane Cappellaro, Bárbara Costa Beber
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate vocal tract discomfort and quality of life in the voice of wind instrumentalists. METHOD: It is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 37 musicians of the orchestra of Caxias do Sul city, RS, Brazil. The participants answered a nonstandard questionnaire about demographic and professional information, the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL), the Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale, and additional items about fatigue after playing the instrument and pain in the cervical muscles...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599019/musculoskeletal-problems-in-pianists-and-their-influence-on-professional-activity
#4
María R Ciurana Moñino, Jaume Rosset-Llobet, Luis Cibanal Juan, María D García Manzanares, Juan D Ramos-Pichardo
BACKGROUND: Professional musical performance requires static postures and repetitive movements that may cause musculoskeletal problems in performers. Elite pianists are especially at risk for these disorders, which may cause discomfort but also affect their work. The objective of this study was to describe the most frequent musculoskeletal problems observed in pianists, and to explore the influence of these disorders on their professional activities from the perspective of the pianists themselves...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599017/in-their-own-words-interviews-with-musicians-reveal-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-wearing-earplugs
#5
Elizabeth F Beach, Ian O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Musicians are at risk of hearing loss from sound exposure, and earplugs form part of many musicians' hearing conservation practices. Although musicians typically report a range of difficulties when wearing earplugs, there are many who have managed to successfully incorporate earplugs into their practice of music. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to provide a detailed account of earplug usage from the perspective of the musician, including motivating factors, practical strategies, and attitudes...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599016/comparing-the-impact-of-specific-strength-training-vs-general-fitness-training-on-professional-symphony-orchestra-musicians-a-feasibility-study
#6
Lotte Nygaard Andersen, Stephanie Mann, Birgit Juul-Kristensen, Karen Søgaard
Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599014/effect-of-the-alexander-technique-on-muscle-activation-movement-kinematics-and-performance-quality-in-collegiate-violinists-and-violists-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#7
Rachelle C Wolf, Harvey P Thurmer, William P Berg, Henry E Cook, L James Smart
Musicians are trained to attend to aural and visual senses, to the detriment of kinesthetic awareness, which often results in unnecessary muscle tension and narrowed attentional focus. The Alexander technique (AT) addresses these concerns by approaching action using a process of whole-body consciousness. Incorporation of AT concepts into skill practice may reduce static tension in playing and result in both prevention of injury and improved quality of performance, but objective evidence of these effects is lacking...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599013/thumb-rest-position-and-its-role-in-neuromuscular-control-of-the-clarinet-task
#8
Kathryn E Young, Sara A Winges
Musicians spend long hours of practice and performance to master their instrument. Clarinet players support their roughly 2-lb instrument on the right-hand thumb, which results in cumulative static loading of the arm. This posture in turn can cause discomfort and, in some cases, evolve into debilitating overuse injuries and pain throughout the right upper limb. Altering the thumb-rest position has been proposed as a way to alleviate this discomfort, although no quantitative research has been conducted on this issue...
June 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555556/playing-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-of-professional-orchestra-musicians-from-the-north-of-portugal-comparing-string-and-wind-musicians
#9
Cláudia Maria Sousa, Jorge Pereira Machado, Henry Johannes Greten, Daniela Coimbra
INTRODUCTION: It is well known that musicians are a group prone to suffer from playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. Professional orchestra musicians play for several hours a week and have to fight against pain caused by their profession. The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-reported complaints among professional orchestra musicians and to compare its intensity and the prevalence between string and wind instruments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hundred and twelve professional orchestra musicians from the three main professional orchestras from the North of Portugal were individually interviewed about the prevalence and the intensity (measured by verbal numerical scale for pain) of their playing-related musculoskeletal disorders...
April 28, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546784/doing-laboratory-ethnography-reflections-on-method-in-scientific-workplaces
#10
Neil Stephens, Jamie Lewis
Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat...
April 2017: Qualitative Research: QR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536514/coupling-of-action-perception-brain-networks-during-musical-pulse-processing-evidence-from-region-of-interest-based-independent-component-analysis
#11
Iballa Burunat, Valeri Tsatsishvili, Elvira Brattico, Petri Toiviainen
Our sense of rhythm relies on orchestrated activity of several cerebral and cerebellar structures. Although functional connectivity studies have advanced our understanding of rhythm perception, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently studied as a function of musical training and beyond the General Linear Model (GLM) approach. Here, we studied pulse clarity processing during naturalistic music listening using a data-driven approach (independent component analysis; ICA). Participants' (18 musicians and 18 controls) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses were acquired while listening to music...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523983/ear-advantage-for-musical-location-and-relative-pitch-effects-of-musical-training-and-attention
#12
Joanna L Hutchison, Timothy L Hubbard, Nicholas A Hubbard, Bart Rypma
Trained musicians have been found to exhibit a right-ear advantage for high tones and a left-ear advantage for low tones. We investigated whether this right/high, left/low pattern of musical processing advantage exists in listeners who had varying levels of musical experience, and whether such a pattern might be modulated by attentional strategy. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which different melodic sequences were presented to each ear, and listeners attended to (a) the left ear or the right ear or (b) the higher pitched tones or the lower pitched tones...
June 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521542/the-association-between-singing-and-or-playing-a-musical-instrument-and-cognitive-functions-in-older-adults
#13
D Mansens, D J H Deeg, H C Comijs
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline happens to everyone when aging, but to some more than others. Studies with children, adults, and professional musicians suggest that making music could be associated with better cognitive functioning. In older adults however, this association is less well investigated, which is therefore the aim of this study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data from 1101 participants aged 64 and older from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used...
May 19, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#14
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510682/musician-s-focal-dystonia
#15
Joanna White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487662/eye-of-the-beholder-stage-entrance-behavior-and-facial-expression-affect-continuous-quality-ratings-in-music-performance
#16
George Waddell, Aaron Williamon
Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other "non-musical" features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484007/body-sway-reflects-leadership-in-joint-music-performance
#17
Andrew Chang, Steven R Livingstone, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex, naturalistic nonverbal behavior, as a model system. Using motion capture, we recorded body sway simultaneously in four musicians, which reflected real-time interpersonal information sharing...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483170/-did-mozart-suffer-from-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#18
Leonardo Palacios-Sánchez, Juan Sebastián Botero-Meneses, Laura Daniela Vergara-Méndez, Natalia Pachón, Arianna Martínez, Santiago Ramírez
The personal and private lives of great men and women in history, like writers, painters and musicians, have been the subject of great interest for many years. A clear example of this is the vast scrutiny is cast over the famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. What may have started as curiosity, rapidly evolved into extensive research, as the answers about the musician's legendary talent may lie in the details of his life (his childhood, his relationships, his quirks and his mannerisms). It is usually up to historians, anthropologists or philosophers to delve into the pages of old books, trying to grasp answers and clues...
April 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481006/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-auditory-pathway-in-musicians-with-absolute-pitch
#19
Seung-Goo Kim, Thomas R Knösche
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to recognize pitch chroma of tonal sound without external references, providing a unique model of the human auditory system (Zatorre: Nat Neurosci 6 () 692-695). In a previous study (Kim and Knösche: Hum Brain Mapp () 3486-3501), we identified enhanced intracortical myelination in the right planum polare (PP) in musicians with AP, which could be a potential site for perceptional processing of pitch chroma information. We speculated that this area, which initiates the ventral auditory pathway, might be crucially involved in the perceptual stage of the AP process in the context of the "dual pathway hypothesis" that suggests the role of the ventral pathway in processing nonspatial information related to the identity of an auditory object (Rauschecker: Eur J Neurosci 41 () 579-585)...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472414/evidence-based-review-on-temporomandibular-disorders-among-musicians
#20
M K A van Selms, J Ahlberg, F Lobbezoo, C M Visscher
Background: Playing a musical instrument that loads the masticatory system has frequently been linked to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Previous literature reviews on this topic do not conform to the current standards of evidence-based medicine. Aims: To investigate the effects of playing a musical instrument (i.e. violin/viola and wind instruments) or singing on the presence of TMDs, based on evidence derived from observational studies. Methods: Databases of Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH and other relevant terms...
May 3, 2017: Occupational Medicine
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