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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333497/not-all-nonnormal-distributions-are-created-equal-improved-theoretical-and-measurement-precision
#1
Harry Joo, Herman Aguinis, Kyle J Bradley
We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332197/music-making-for-health-and-wellbeing-in-youth-justice-settings-mediated-affordances-and-the-impact-of-context-and-social-relations
#2
Norma Daykin, Nick de Viggiani, Yvonne Moriarty, Paul Pilkington
Young people in the criminal justice system experience significant health and wellbeing issues that often stem from poverty and disadvantage and, in turn, are linked with offending and reoffending behaviour. There is ongoing interest in interventions such as participatory music programmes that seek to foster social reintegration, support mental wellbeing and equip young offenders with life skills, competencies and emotional resilience. However, there is a need for a situated understanding of both positive and negative experiences that shape potential outcomes of music projects...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326992/thai-rate-varied-vowel-length-perception-and-the-impact-of-musical-experience
#3
Angela Cooper, Yue Wang, Richard Ashley
Musical experience has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the perception of non-native speech contrasts. The present study examined whether or not musical experience facilitated the normalization of speaking rate in the perception of non-native phonemic vowel length contrasts. Native English musicians and non-musicians (as well as native Thai control listeners) completed identification and AX (same-different) discrimination tasks with Thai vowels contrasting in phonemic length at three speaking rates...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323093/impact-of-major-and-minor-mode-on-eeg-frequency-range-activities-of-music-processing-as-a-function-of-expertise
#4
Raoul Jenni, Mathias S Oechslin, Clara E James
Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322906/creativity-as-a-distinct-trainable-mental-state-an-eeg-study-of-musical-improvisation
#5
Joel A Lopata, Elizabeth A Nowicki, Marc F Joanisse
Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i...
March 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321203/clinical-and-epidemiological-correlates-of-task-specific-dystonia-in-a-large-cohort-of-brazilian-music-players
#6
Rita C Moura, Patrícia Maria de Carvalho Aguiar, Graziela Bortz, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz
Musician's dystonia is a task-specific dystonia (TSD) worldwide disabling disorder, and most of the affected individuals may have severe difficulty to play their instrument. Many professional music players may have to quit working as a player. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and frequency of TSD in Brazilian music players and to promote awareness of this condition among musicians. We visited orchestras and music schools delivering lectures on TSD and about the scope of our survey...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298889/cortical-sensitivity-to-guitar-note-patterns-eeg-entrainment-to-repetition-and-key
#7
David A Bridwell, Emily Leslie, Dakarai Q McCoy, Sergey M Plis, Vince D Calhoun
Music is ubiquitous throughout recent human culture, and many individual's have an innate ability to appreciate and understand music. Our appreciation of music likely emerges from the brain's ability to process a series of repeated complex acoustic patterns. In order to understand these processes further, cortical responses were measured to a series of guitar notes presented with a musical pattern or without a pattern. ERP responses to individual notes were measured using a 24 electrode Bluetooth mobile EEG system (Smarting mBrainTrain) while 13 healthy non-musicians listened to structured (i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282476/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-playing-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-brazilian-violin-players
#8
Frederico B Kochem, Julio G Silva
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) and associated factors among violinists from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 106 violinists from eight cities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sociodemographic and musical characteristic data, pain symptoms, and upper-limb functionality were collected using the DASH and the Standardized Nordic Questionnaires. The associations between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors were analyzed by binary logistic regression...
March 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282475/a-cross-sectional-study-of-pain-among-u-s-college-music-students-and-faculty
#9
Jeremy L Stanek, Kevin D Komes, Fred A Murdock
OBJECTIVES: Studies over recent decades have demonstrated significant performance-related pain among professional musicians. However, there have been no largescale studies to evaluate pain among college musicians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and anatomical locations of performance-related pain among students and faculty at the college level and learn what musicians do when they have pain. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey distributed to colleges across the United States...
March 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282474/gender-differences-in-mortality-and-morbidity-patterns-in-popular-musicians-across-the-lifespan
#10
Dianna T Kenny, Anthony Asher
Recent studies have highlighted the disturbing morbidity and early mortality of popular musicians. Most of the studies have focused on male musicians because, until recently, there were relatively few female popular musicians on which to base a population study. With the sharp increase in female popular musicians from fewer than 2% in the 1950s to 32% in the current decade, researchers are better able to examine the health status and mortality profile of female popular musicians. To this end, this paper makes what we believe is the first detailed analysis of mortality and morbidity in female popular musicians...
March 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282473/association-of-arm-position-and-playing-time-with-prevalence-of-complaints-of-the-arm-neck-and-or-shoulder-cans-in-amateur-musicians-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-among-university-students
#11
Laura M Kok, Bionka Ma Huisstede, Taco J Douglas, Rob Ghh Nelissen
OBJECTIVE: In addition to known risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in the general population, playing a musical instrument is an additional risk factor. In this pilot study, the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in student amateur musicians and their relation with playing posture and playing time were evaluated. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey among amateur musicians studying at a Dutch university. RESULTS: 162 amateur musicians were included in this pilot study (response rate 17...
March 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278006/the-variation-of-posture-quality-across-musical-instruments-and-its-impact-during-performances-musicians-body-posture-and-musical-instrument
#12
Patricia Blanco-Piñeiro, M Pino-Díaz Pereira, Aurora Martínez
OBJECTIVE: It is known that bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. METHODS: Using an ad hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. RESULTS: The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by the Cohen κ value between ...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265296/fit-to-play-posture-and-seating-position-analysis-with-professional-musicians-a-study-protocol
#13
Daniela Ohlendorf, Eileen M Wanke, Natalie Filmann, David A Groneberg, Alexander Gerber
BACKGROUND: Musical performance-associated musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a common health problem among professional musicians. Considering the manifold consequences arising for the musicians, they can be seen as a threat for their professional activity. String players are the most affected group of musicians in this matter. Faults in upper body posture while playing the instrument, causing un-ergonomic static strain on the back and unergonomic limp-movements, are a main reason for musculoskeletal disorders and pain syndromes...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260157/skilful-force-control-in-expert-pianists
#14
Takanori Oku, Shinichi Furuya
Dexterous object manipulation in skilful behaviours such as surgery, craft making, and musical performance involves fast, precise, and efficient control of force with the fingers. A challenge in playing musical instruments is the requirement of independent control of the magnitude and rate of force production, which typically vary in relation to loudness and tempo. However, it is unknown how expert musicians skilfully control finger force to elicit tones with a wide range of loudness and tempi. Here, we addressed this issue by comparing the variation of spatiotemporal characteristics of force during repetitive and simultaneous piano keystrokes in relation to the loudness and tempo between pianists and musically untrained individuals...
March 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253682/vocal-imitation-of-synthesised-sounds-varying-in-pitch-loudness-and-spectral-centroid
#15
Adib Mehrabi, Simon Dixon, Mark B Sandler
Vocal imitations are often used to convey sonic ideas [Lemaitre, Dessein, Susini, and Aura. (2011). Ecol. Psych. 23(4), 267-307]. For computer based systems to interpret these vocalisations, it is advantageous to apply knowledge of what happens when people vocalise sounds where the acoustic features have different temporal envelopes. In the present study, 19 experienced musicians and music producers were asked to imitate 44 sounds with one or two feature envelopes applied. The study addresses two main questions: (1) How accurately can people imitate ramp and modulation envelopes for pitch, loudness, and spectral centroid?; (2) What happens to this accuracy when people are asked to imitate two feature envelopes simultaneously? The results show that experienced musicians can imitate pitch, loudness, and spectral centroid accurately, and that imitation accuracy is generally preserved when the imitated stimuli combine two, non-necessarily congruent features...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243611/volar-denervation-and-osteophyte-resection-to-relieve-volar-cmc-joint-pain
#16
A Lee Dellon
At mean 125.6 months, pain was reduced from mean of 8.7 to 0.67, p < .001. Each of three patients, two of whom were musicians, returned to full professional ability. It is concluded that volar CMC joint denervation is a useful procedure, preserving joint function and relieving pain long-term.
2017: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242489/neurosurgery-and-music-the-effect-of-wolfgang-amadeus-mozart
#17
Elena Romana Gasenzer, Ayhan Kanat, Edmund Neugebauer
BACKGROUND: The nervous system works like a great orchestra. Specially the music of Mozart with its´ "Mozart´s effect" is appropriate to use in neurosurgery. The paper investigates the relationship between music and neurosurgery, Mozart´s music in neurosurgical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used digital catalogues like "pubmed" as well as the libraries of universities. Key words were "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart", "neurosurgery and music". RESULTS: At the first half of 20 century, neurosurgical approach of some musicians have resulted with fatal outcome such as Maurice Ravel, Josef Hassid,George Gershwin...
February 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238889/on-the-relation-between-pitch-and-level
#18
Yi Zheng, Romain Brette
Pitch is the perceptual dimension along which musical notes are ordered from low to high. It is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound's waveform. Previous reports have shown that pitch can depend slightly on sound level. We wanted to verify that these observations reflect genuine changes in perceived pitch, and were not due to procedural factors or confusion between dimensions of pitch and level. We first conducted a systematic pitch matching task and confirmed that the pitch of low frequency pure tones, but not complex tones, decreases by an amount equivalent to a change in frequency of more than half a semitone when level increases...
February 23, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230397/weighted-integration-suggests-that-visual-and-tactile-signals-provide-independent-estimates-about-duration
#19
Danny M Ball, Derek H Arnold, Kielan Yarrow
Humans might possess either a single (amodal) internal clock or multiple clocks for different sensory modalities. Sensitivity could be improved by the provision of multiple signals. Such improvements can be predicted quantitatively, assuming estimates are combined by summation, a process described as optimal when summation is weighted in accordance with the variance associated with each of the initially independent estimates. This possibility was assessed for visual and tactile information regarding temporal intervals...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228741/perception-and-modeling-of-affective-qualities-of-musical-instrument-sounds-across-pitch-registers
#20
Stephen McAdams, Chelsea Douglas, Naresh N Vempala
Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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