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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443012/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-subserves-precise-motor-timing-in-professional-drummers
#1
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437638/motor-expertise-and-performance-in-spatial-tasks-a-meta-analysis
#2
Daniel Voyer, Petra Jansen
The present study aimed to provide a summary of findings relevant to the influence of motor expertise on performance in spatial tasks and to examine potential moderators of this effect. Studies of relevance were those in which individuals involved in activities presumed to require motor expertise were compared to non-experts in such activities. A final set of 62 effect sizes from 33 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed an overall advantage in favor of motor experts in spatial tasks (d=0...
April 21, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437466/stage-call-cardiovascular-reactivity-to-audition-stress-in-musicians
#3
Theerasak Chanwimalueang, Lisa Aufegger, Tricia Adjei, David Wasley, Cinzia Cruder, Danilo P Mandic, Aaron Williamon
Auditioning is at the very center of educational and professional life in music and is associated with significant psychophysical demands. Knowledge of how these demands affect cardiovascular responses to psychosocial pressure is essential for developing strategies to both manage stress and understand optimal performance states. To this end, we recorded the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 16 musicians (11 violinists and 5 flutists) before and during performances in both low- and high-stress conditions: with no audience and in front of an audition panel, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435044/expertise-dependent-motor-somatotopy-of-music-perception
#4
Yuta Furukawa, Kazumasa Uehara, Shinichi Furuya
Precise mapping between sound and motion underlies successful communication and information transmission in speech and musical performance. Formation of the map typically undergoes plastic changes in the neuronal network between auditory and motor regions through training. However, to what extent the map is somatotopically-tuned so that auditory information can specifically modulate the corticospinal system responsible for the relevant motor action has not been elucidated. Here we addressed this issue by assessing the excitability of corticospinal system including the primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand intrinsic muscles by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation while trained pianists and musically-untrained individuals (non-musicians) were listening to either piano tones or noise...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412439/musical-literacy-shifts-asymmetries-in-the-ventral-visual-cortex
#5
Florence Bouhali, Valeria Mongelli, Laurent Cohen
The acquisition of literacy has a profound impact on the functional specialization and lateralization of the visual cortex. Due to the overall lateralization of the language network, specialization for printed words develops in the left occipitotemporal cortex, allegedly inducing a secondary shift of visual face processing to the right, in literate as compared to illiterate subjects. Applying the same logic to the acquisition of high-level musical literacy, we predicted that, in musicians as compared to non-musicians, occipitotemporal activations should show a leftward shift for music reading, and an additional rightward push for face perception...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397108/prevalence-and-function-of-heschl-s-gyrus-morphotypes-in-musicians
#6
Jan Benner, Martina Wengenroth, Julia Reinhardt, Christoph Stippich, Peter Schneider, Maria Blatow
Morphological variations of the first transverse Heschl's gyrus (HG) in the human auditory cortex (AC) are common, yet little is known about their functional implication. We investigated individual morphology and function of HG variations in the AC of 41 musicians, using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG). Four main morphotypes of HG were (i) single HG, (ii) common stem duplication (CSD), (iii) complete posterior duplication (CPD), and (iv) multiple duplications (MD)...
April 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391981/-skin-and-mucosal-diseases-in-musicians
#7
N Kluger
Whether they are professional or amateur, musicians are exposed to a various number of complications in relation to their practice, including cutaneous ones. The latter are often a simple musical stigma and a reason for pride for the musician. If they are symptomatic and disturb the musician, they have to be treated and prevented. We reviewed here those occupational and peculiar lesions that are often not that well known to the dermatologist.
April 6, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383990/revisiting-the-enigma-of-musicians-with-dyslexia-auditory-sequencing-and-speech-abilities
#8
Jennifer Zuk, Paula Bishop-Liebler, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Emma Moore, Katie Overy, Graham Welch, Nadine Gaab
Previous research has suggested a link between musical training and auditory processing skills. Musicians have shown enhanced perception of auditory features critical to both music and speech, suggesting that this link extends beyond basic auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent musicians who also have dyslexia show these specialized abilities, considering often-observed persistent deficits that coincide with reading impairments. The present study evaluated auditory sequencing and speech discrimination in 52 adults comprised of musicians with dyslexia, nonmusicians with dyslexia, and typical musicians...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383346/electroconvulsive-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-the-blues-taking-a-page-from-the-playbook-of-blues-musicians
#9
W Vaughn McCall, Peter B Rosenquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380058/audio-visual-interactions-uniquely-contribute-to-resolution-of-visual-conflict-in-people-possessing-absolute-pitch
#10
Sujin Kim, Randolph Blake, Minyoung Lee, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP) are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377159/reorganization-of-the-thalamocortical-network-in-musicians
#11
Shoji Tanaka, Eiji Kirino
The cortico-thalamocortical network is relevant to music performance in that the network can regulate sensitivity to afferent input or sound, mediate the integration of multimodal information required for the performance, and play a role in skilled performance control. We, therefore, predicted that this network would be reorganized via musical training-induced neuroplasticity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity of the thalamocortical network in musicians (n = 35) and nonmusicians (n = 35)...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376689/a-nonmusician-with-severe-alzheimer-s-dementia-learns-a-new-song
#12
Amee Baird, Heidi Umbach, William Forde Thompson
The hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) is impaired memory, but memory for familiar music can be preserved. We explored whether a non-musician with severe AD could learn a new song. A 91 year old woman (NC) with severe AD was taught an unfamiliar song. We assessed her delayed song recall (24 hours and 2 weeks), music cognition, two word recall (presented within a familiar song lyric, a famous proverb, or as a word stem completion task), and lyrics and proverb completion. NC's music cognition (pitch and rhythm perception, recognition of familiar music, completion of lyrics) was relatively preserved...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372147/predicting-the-perception-of-performed-dynamics-in-music-audio-with-ensemble-learning
#13
Anders Elowsson, Anders Friberg
By varying the dynamics in a musical performance, the musician can convey structure and different expressions. Spectral properties of most musical instruments change in a complex way with the performed dynamics, but dedicated audio features for modeling the parameter are lacking. In this study, feature extraction methods were developed to capture relevant attributes related to spectral characteristics and spectral fluctuations, the latter through a sectional spectral flux. Previously, ground truths ratings of performed dynamics had been collected by asking listeners to rate how soft/loud the musicians played in a set of audio files...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372146/influence-of-plectrum-shape-and-jack-velocity-on-the-sound-of-the-harpsichord-an-experimental-study
#14
Arthur Paté, Jean-Loïc Le Carrou, Arthur Givois, Alexandre Roy
A controversial discussion in the musical community regards the ability of the harpsichord to produce sound level or timbre changes. The jack velocity (controlled in real time within a musical context) and the plectrum shape (modified by the musician or maker prior to the performance) appear to be the two control parameters at the disposal of the harpsichord makers and players for shaping the sound. This article initiates the acoustical study of the control parameters of the harpsichord, presenting a framework for the investigation of these two parameters with means of experimental mechanics measurement...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372142/exploring-the-perceived-harshness-of-cello-sounds-by-morphing-and-synthesis-techniques
#15
Jocelyn Rozé, Mitsuko Aramaki, Richard Kronland-Martinet, Sølvi Ystad
Cello bowing requires a very fine control of the musicians' gestures to ensure the quality of the perceived sound. When the interaction between the bow hair and the string is optimal, the sound is perceived as broad and round. On the other hand, when the gestural control becomes more approximate, the sound quality deteriorates and often becomes harsh, shrill, and quavering. In this study, such a timbre degradation, often described by French cellists as harshness (décharnement), is investigated from both signal and perceptual perspectives...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352223/musicians-online-performance-during-auditory-and-visual-statistical-learning-tasks
#16
Pragati R Mandikal Vasuki, Mridula Sharma, Ronny K Ibrahim, Joanne Arciuli
Musicians' brains are considered to be a functional model of neuroplasticity due to the structural and functional changes associated with long-term musical training. In this study, we examined implicit extraction of statistical regularities from a continuous stream of stimuli-statistical learning (SL). We investigated whether long-term musical training is associated with better extraction of statistical cues in an auditory SL (aSL) task and a visual SL (vSL) task-both using the embedded triplet paradigm. Online measures, characterized by event related potentials (ERPs), were recorded during a familiarization phase while participants were exposed to a continuous stream of individually presented pure tones in the aSL task or individually presented cartoon figures in the vSL task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349620/connectivity-patterns-during-music-listening-evidence-for-action-based-processing-in-musicians
#17
Vinoo Alluri, Petri Toiviainen, Iballa Burunat, Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Elvira Brattico
Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses...
March 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333497/not-all-nonnormal-distributions-are-created-equal-improved-theoretical-and-measurement-precision
#18
Harry Joo, Herman Aguinis, Kyle J Bradley
We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332197/music-making-for-health-and-wellbeing-in-youth-justice-settings-mediated-affordances-and-the-impact-of-context-and-social-relations
#19
Norma Daykin, Nick de Viggiani, Yvonne Moriarty, Paul Pilkington
Young people in the criminal justice system experience significant health and wellbeing issues that often stem from poverty and disadvantage and, in turn, are linked with offending and reoffending behaviour. There is ongoing interest in interventions such as participatory music programmes that seek to foster social reintegration, support mental wellbeing and equip young offenders with life skills, competencies and emotional resilience. However, there is a need for a situated understanding of both positive and negative experiences that shape potential outcomes of music projects...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326992/thai-rate-varied-vowel-length-perception-and-the-impact-of-musical-experience
#20
Angela Cooper, Yue Wang, Richard Ashley
Musical experience has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the perception of non-native speech contrasts. The present study examined whether or not musical experience facilitated the normalization of speaking rate in the perception of non-native phonemic vowel length contrasts. Native English musicians and non-musicians (as well as native Thai control listeners) completed identification and AX (same-different) discrimination tasks with Thai vowels contrasting in phonemic length at three speaking rates...
March 2017: Language and Speech
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