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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103526/cognitive-representation-of-musical-fractals-processing-hierarchy-and-recursion-in-the-auditory-domain
#1
Mauricio Dias Martins, Bruno Gingras, Estela Puig-Waldmueller, W Tecumseh Fitch
The human ability to process hierarchical structures has been a longstanding research topic. However, the nature of the cognitive machinery underlying this faculty remains controversial. Recursion, the ability to embed structures within structures of the same kind, has been proposed as a key component of our ability to parse and generate complex hierarchies. Here, we investigated the cognitive representation of both recursive and iterative processes in the auditory domain. The experiment used a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm: participants were exposed to three-step processes in which pure-tone sequences were built either through recursive or iterative processes, and had to choose the correct completion...
January 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088577/analyze-the-beta-waves-of-electroencephalogram-signals-from-young-musicians-and-non-musicians-in-major-scale-working-memory-task
#2
Chien-Chang Hsu, Ching-Wen Cheng, Yi-Shiuan Chiu
Electroencephalograms can record wave variations in any brain activity. Beta waves are produced when an external stimulus induces logical thinking, computation, and reasoning during consciousness. This work uses the beta wave of major scale working memory N-back tasks to analyze the differences between young musicians and non-musicians. After the feature analysis uses signal filtering, Hilbert-Huang transformation, and feature extraction methods to identify differences, k-means clustering algorithm are used to group them into different clusters...
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#3
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065607/integer-ratio-priors-on-musical-rhythm-revealed-cross-culturally-by-iterated-reproduction
#4
Nori Jacoby, Josh H McDermott
Probability distributions over external states (priors) are essential to the interpretation of sensory signals. Priors for cultural artifacts such as music and language remain largely uncharacterized, but likely constrain cultural transmission, because only those signals with high probability under the prior can be reliably reproduced and communicated. We developed a method to estimate priors for simple rhythms via iterated reproduction of random temporal sequences. Listeners were asked to reproduce random "seed" rhythms; their reproductions were fed back as the stimulus and over time became dominated by internal biases, such that the prior could be estimated by applying the procedure multiple times...
January 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063895/improvement-of-table-tennis-dystonia-by-stereotactic-ventro-oral-thalamotomy-a-case-report
#5
Takashi Asahi, Takaomi Taira, Kiyonobu Ikeda, Jiro Yamamoto, Shuji Sato
BACKGROUND: Task-specific focal dystonia, such as writer's cramp and musician's cramp, is a type of dystonia that affects performance of particular tasks. Such movement disorders have been treated with stereotactic ventro-oral (Vo) thalamotomy, with excellent outcomes. However, there has been no previous report of treatment of sport-related/athlete's dystonia by means of stereotactic surgery. We treated a patient with table tennis-related dystonia with Vo thalamotomy, and evaluated the outcome...
January 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055906/haptics-in-music-the-effects-of-vibrotactile-stimulus-in-low-frequency-auditory-difference-detection-tasks
#6
Gareth W Young, Dave Murphy, Jeffrey Weeter
We present an experiment that investigated the effect of vibrotactile stimulation in auditory pitch discrimination tasks. Extra-auditory information was expected to have some influence upon the frequency discrimination of auditory Just Noticeable Difference (JND) detection levels at 160 Hz. To measure this, the potential to correctly identified positive and negative frequency changes for two randomly divided groups was measured and then compared. The first group was given an audio only JND test and the second group was given the same test, but with additional vibrotactile stimulus delivered via a vibrating glove device...
December 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044018/interindividual-variability-in-auditory-scene-analysis-revealed-by-confidence-judgements
#7
C Pelofi, V de Gardelle, P Egré, D Pressnitzer
Because musicians are trained to discern sounds within complex acoustic scenes, such as an orchestra playing, it has been hypothesized that musicianship improves general auditory scene analysis abilities. Here, we compared musicians and non-musicians in a behavioural paradigm using ambiguous stimuli, combining performance, reaction times and confidence measures. We used 'Shepard tones', for which listeners may report either an upward or a downward pitch shift for the same ambiguous tone pair. Musicians and non-musicians performed similarly on the pitch-shift direction task...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039999/how-orchestra-members-influence-stage-acoustic-parameters-on-five-different-concert-hall-stages-and-orchestra-pits
#8
R H C Wenmaekers, C C J M Hak, M C J Hornikx
Stage acoustic parameters aim to quantify the amount of sound energy reflected by the stage and hall boundaries and the energy decay over time. In this research, the effect of orchestra presence on parameter values is investigated. The orchestra is simulated by dressed mannequins, which have been compared with humans with respect to acoustic properties. Impulse response measurements were performed in a concert hall, a theatre, a rehearsal room, and in two orchestra pits. Conditions were empty stage floors, stage floors with music stands and chairs only, and floors occupied by the mannequin orchestra...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039522/focal-task-specific-dystonia-a-review-and-update
#9
Christine M Stahl, Steven J Frucht
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the etiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of focal task specific dystonia (FTSD), movement disorders characterized by abnormal motor activation during the performance of specific, repetitive actions. We focus on two common FTSD, musician's dystonia and writer's cramp. FTSD may pose a threat to the patient's livelihood, and improved therapeutic treatments are needed.
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009426/-christmas-balls-a-christmas-carol-by-the-adolescent-cancer-patients-of-the-milan-youth-project
#10
Andrea Ferrari, Stefano Signoroni, Matteo Silva, Paola Gaggiotti, Laura Veneroni, Chiara Magni, Michela Casanova, Stefano Chiaravalli, Mirko Capelletti, Pietro Lapidari, Carlo Alfredo Clerici, Maura Massimino
The Youth Project is a program developed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents and young adults with cancer. Among its various goals, the Youth Project organizes structured creative activities with the support of professionals, with the objective of offering young people a new way to express their hopes and fears. This article describes a project centered around music: patients created a Christmas carol with the help of musicians and authors. The adolescents explained with their own words the meaning of the lyrics, telling the story of a Christmas spent in a cancer hospital ward...
December 19, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991463/parametric-method-for-the-noise-risk-assessment-of-professional-orchestral-musicians
#11
Matteo Bo, Marina Clerico, Federica Pognant
BACKGROUND: The Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) literature shows that noise could represent a risk factor for professional orchestral musicians. The continuative exposition to elevated noise levels and the particular nature of the activity make necessary an "atypical" OH&S approach, which was identified to be necessarily organizational. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a parametric-based method for orchestral exposure assessment and management was developed...
November 2016: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988692/a-taxonomic-revision-of-the-musician-wren-i-cyphorhinus-i-i-arada-i-aves-troglodytidae-reveals-the-existence-of-six-valid-species-endemic-to-the-amazon-basin
#12
Fernanda Bocalini, Luís Fábio Silveira
Cyphorhinus arada, an Amazonian endemic, shows considerable geographic variation in plumage that has led to the recognition of eight subspecies. These include C. a. arada, C. a. salvini, C. a. modulator, C. a. transfluvialis, C. a. interpositus, C. a. griseolateralis, C. a. urbanoi and C. a. faroensis. However, a thorough taxonomic revision of the Cyphorhinus arada complex has never been undertaken, so we revise the taxonomy based on morphological and vocal characters. We analyzed a total of 515 museum specimens and 146 voice recordings representing and encompassing the distributions of all named taxa, including those currently considered not valid...
November 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984524/investigating-generalizability-of-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-management-of-chronic-widespread-pain-the-musician-study
#13
Gareth T Jones, Elizabeth A Jones, Marcus J Beasley, Gary J Macfarlane
The generalisability of randomised controlled trials will be compromised if markers of treatment outcome also affect trial recruitment. In a large trial of chronic widespread pain, we aimed to determine the extent to which randomised participants represented eligible patients, and whether factors predicting randomisation also influenced trial outcome. Adults from 8 UK general practices were surveyed to determine eligibility for a trial of 2 interventions (exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT]). Amongst those eligible, logistic regression identified factors associated with reaching the randomisation step in the recruitment process...
January 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978450/musicians-react-faster-and-are-better-multisensory-integrators
#14
Simon P Landry, François Champoux
The results from numerous investigations suggest that musical training might enhance how senses interact. Despite repeated confirmation of anatomical and structural changes in visual, tactile, and auditory regions, significant changes have only been reported in the audiovisual domain and for the detection of audio-tactile incongruencies. In the present study, we aim at testing whether long-term musical training might also enhance other multisensory processes at a behavioural level. An audio-tactile reaction time task was administrated to a group of musicians and non-musicians...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976662/respiratory-function-in-vocal-soloists-opera-singers-and-wind-instrument-musicians
#15
Helen Ksinopoulou, Chryssa Hatzoglou, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Helen Karetsi
INTRODUCTION: Current studies have not yet reached a definitive conclusion on the effects of singing and playing wind instruments professionally on an individual's respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the respiratory function of wind instrument players and opera singers in comparison with a group of healthy individuals. METHODS: The experimental group comprised 45 men and 35 women, 58 opera singers and vocal soloists in total and 22 wind instruments players...
December 13, 2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966415/-the-sick-songs
#16
Ole D Wolthers
Popular music is ubiquitous, and musicians and songwriters have similar experiences with disease as other people. The aim of this review was to analyze popular songs' content of descriptions of diseases. The most frequently occurring symptom was fever, mostly a metaphor for lovesickness or sexual orgasm. The most frequent and complete descriptions of diseases were in respiratory and psychiatric ailments. In conclusion, popular songs may provide valuable descriptions of symptoms and disease of educational importance to doctors...
December 12, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942702/imagery-based-interventions-for-music-performance-anxiety-an-integrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Katherine Finch, David A Moscovitch
Many musicians experience debilitating music performance anxiety (MPA). Outside music performance, imagery-based interventions have been incorporated into treatment protocols to help individuals, including athletes and those with social anxiety, manage heightened levels of anxiety in order to excel in performance-based domains. Despite the frequent use of mental imagery in MPA interventions and its importance as a mental rehearsal technique for musicians, no existing reviews have examined the literature on imagery-based interventions for MPA...
December 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942701/is-alcohol-consumption-associated-with-job-strain-among-professional-musicians
#18
Mikhail Saltychev, Heidi Vastamäki, Martti Vastamäki, Katri Laimi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the strength of the relationship between alcohol consumption and job strain experienced by professional musicians. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey among professional orchestra musicians (n=1,550, response rate 41%, data available for 590 respondents). The difference between groups with and without job strain was assessed by two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The median alcohol consumption was 48 g/wk (range 1-648, IQR 12-96)...
December 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942698/knowledge-of-playing-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-among-classical-piano-students-at-tertiary-institutions-in-malaysia
#19
Chia-Ying Ling, Fung-Chiat Loo, Titi Rahmawati Hamedon
Performance injuries among musicians have been widely discussed for decades. However, despite the growing number of classical pianists, this is still a new issue in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) among tertiary music students in Malaysia. A survey was conducted among classical piano students at tertiary institutions of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Out of 192 respondents, 76% knew that piano playing can cause PRMDs...
December 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942697/prevalence-and-associated-factors-for-musculoskeletal-pain-and-disability-among-spanish-music-conservatory-students
#20
Beatriz Rodríguez-Romero, Coral Pérez-Valiño, Beatriz Ageitos-Alonso, Sonia Pértega-Díaz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and neck and upper limb disability among music conservatory students. METHODS: An observational study in two Spanish conservatories, investigating a total of 206 students, administered the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, DASH, and SF-36. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics and musical performance variables were recorded...
December 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
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