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AMPKα

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423719/ampk%C3%AE-phosphatase-ppm1e-upregulation-in-human-gastric-cancer-is-required-for-cell-proliferation
#1
Min-Bin Chen, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Li-Bo Cheng, Jian-Wei Lu, Ping Zeng, Pei-Hua Lu
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a valuable anti-cancer strategy. In the current study, we tested expression and potential function of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (Ppm1E), an AMPKα phosphatase, in human gastric cancers. Ppm1E expression was elevated in human gastric cancer tissues (vs. normal tissues), which was correlated with AMPK (p-AMPKα, Thr-172) dephosphorylation and mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Ppm1E upregulation, AMPK inhibition and mTORC1 activation were also observed in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, HGC-27, and SNU601)...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413519/amp-activated-protein-kinase-mediates-the-effects-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-on-endothelial-dysfunction-in-atherosclerosis
#2
Li Yang, Hong-Liang Cong, Shu-Feng Wang, Ting Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) on endothelial dysfunction in an in vitro cell model of atherosclerosis, and to determine whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates the effects of Lp-PLA2 on endothelial dysfunction. A total of 392 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including various sub-conditions, were recruited, and the plasma concentrations of Lp-PLA2 were evaluated. In addition, an in vitro model of atherosclerosis was established by exposing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410530/metformin-attenuated-endotoxin-induced-acute-myocarditis-via-activating-ampk
#3
Gang Liu, Kejia Wu, Li Zhang, Jie Dai, Wei Huang, Ling Lin, Pu Ge, Fuling Luo, Han Lei
Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug and increasing evidence suggests that metformin have profound cardioprotective effects under both diabetic and non-diabetic situations. The protective benefits of metformin have been proved in diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications and in experimental animals with myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we found that treatment with metformin inhibited the cardiac expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in endotoxin-challenged mice...
April 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398674/melatonin-protects-cardiac-microvasculature-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-suppression-of-mitochondrial-fission-vdac1-hk2-mptp-mitophagy-axis
#4
Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Shunying Hu, Chen Shi, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Qinhua Jin, Feng Cao, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
The cardiac microvascular system, which is primarily composed of monolayer endothelial cells, is the site of blood supply and nutrient exchange to cardiomyocytes. However, microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following percutaneous coronary intervention is a woefully neglected topic and few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects of melatonin on microcirculation IRI and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Melatonin markedly reduced infarcted area, improved cardiac function, restored blood flow and lower microcirculation perfusion defects...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395173/particular-phosphorylation-of-pi3k-akt-on-thr308-via-pdk-1-and-pten-mediates-melatonin-s-neuroprotective-activity-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#5
Ulkan Kilic, Ahmet Burak Caglayan, Mustafa Caglar Beker, Mehmet Yalcin Gunal, Berrak Caglayan, Esra Yalcin, Taha Kelestemur, Reyhan Zeynep Gundogdu, Burak Yulug, Bayram Yılmaz, Bilal Ersen Kerman, Ertugrul Kilic
Apart from its potent antioxidant property, recent studies have revealed that melatonin promotes PI3K/Akt phosphorylation following focal cerebral ischemia (FCI) in mice. However, it is not clear (i) whether increased PI3K/Akt phosphorylation is a concomitant event or it directly contributes to melatonin's neuroprotective effect, and (ii) how melatonin regulates PI3K/Akt signaling pathway after FCI. In this study, we showed that Akt was intensively phosphorylated at the Thr308 activation loop as compared with Ser473 by melatonin after FCI...
April 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383996/nfe2l2-nrf2-activity-is-linked-to-mitochondria-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-cancers-through-mir-181c-mitochondria-encoded-cytochrome-c-oxidase-regulation
#6
Kyeong-Ah Jung, Sujin Lee, Mi-Kyoung Kwak
AIMS: The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2; NFE2L2/NRF2) pathway contributes to the environmental resistance of cancers by enhancing the antioxidant capacity. Here, we explored the potential connection between NFE2L2/NRF2 and mitochondrial function in cancers. RESULTS: Global miRNA expression analysis of HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells identified that NFE2L2/NRF2 silencing upregulated miR-181c through nuclear factor-κB signaling, and this increase was associated with the reduction in mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1 (MT-CO1), a catalytic core subunit of the complex IV of the electron transport chain (ETC)...
April 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379184/the-effect-of-phloroglucinol-a-component-of-ecklonia-cava-extract-on-hepatic-glucose-production
#7
Ji-Young Yoon, Hojung Choi, Hee-Sook Jun
Phloroglucinol is a phenolic compound that is one of the major compounds in Ecklonia cava (brown alga). It has many pharmacological activities, but its anti-diabetic effect is not yet fully explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of phloroglucinol on the control of blood glucose levels and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Phloroglucinol significantly improved glucose tolerance in male C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and inhibited glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes...
April 5, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367103/novel-approaches-to-vitiligo-treatment-via-modulation-of-mtor-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-human-skin-melanocytes
#8
Jerry Wan, Fuquan Lin, Wei Zhang, Aie Xu, Joseph DeGiorgis, Hongguang Lu, Yinsheng Wan
Vitiligo is a skin depigmentation disorder with an increasing prevalence. Among recognized mechanisms is the oxidative stress that affects melanocytes which are responsible for skin pigmentation. Studies have shown that high concentration of hydrogen peroxide, or H2O2, induces apoptotic activities. Few studies have been done with lower doses of H2O2. Using human skin melanocytes, we investigated the effect of moderate concentration of H2O2 on melanocyte dendrites. Confocal data show that H2O2 at 250 µM induces loss of dendrites, as indicated by cytoskeletal proteins...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357323/the-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ubc1-indirectly-regulates-snf1-kinase-activity-via-forkhead-dependent-transcription
#9
Rubin Jiao, Liubov Lobanova, Amanda Waldner, Anthony Fu, Linda Xiao, Troy A Harkness, Terra G Arnason
The SNF1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study the regulation and function of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) family of serine-threonine protein kinases. Yeast discoveries regarding the regulation of this non-hormonal sensor of metabolic/environmental stress are conserved in higher eukaryotes, including poly-ubiquitination of the α-subunit of yeast (Snf1) and human (AMPKα) that ultimately effects subunit stability and enzyme activity. The ubiquitin-cascade enzymes responsible for targeting Snf1 remain unknown, leading us to screen for those that impact SNF1 kinase function...
November 4, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343145/effects-of-tiletamine-on-the-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system
#10
Li-Xue Su, Xing-Xing Shi, Peng Yang, Hao Chen, Xin Li, Hong-Gang Fan, Hong-Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The dissociative anesthetic tiletamine, which acts on the central nervous system (CNS), is widely used in veterinary medicine and animal experiments. Recent studies indicate that adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in the analgesic action of tiletamine. In the present study, the effects of tiletamine on the AMPK signaling pathway in rats were investigated. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with tiletamine and executed at 10, 20, 40 and 60min post injection...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330809/piperine-attenuates-pathological-cardiac-fibrosis-via-ppar-%C3%AE-akt-pathways
#11
Zhen-Guo Ma, Yu-Pei Yuan, Xin Zhang, Si-Chi Xu, Sha-Sha Wang, Qi-Zhu Tang
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) play critical roles in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that piperine activates AMPKα and reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, the effect of piperine on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Here, we show that piperine-treated mice had similar hypertrophic responses as mice treated with vehicle but exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis after pressure overload or isoprenaline (ISO) injection...
March 14, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319810/inhibitors-of-glut-slc2a-enhance-the-action-of-bcnu-and-temozolomide-against-high-grade-gliomas
#12
Alberto Azzalin, Giulia Nato, Elena Parmigiani, Francesca Garello, Annalisa Buffo, Lorenzo Magrassi
Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (RTV), and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2) superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ), in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma...
April 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290601/ict1-knockdown-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-growth-via-induction-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#13
Chen Wang, Chenlu Liang, Weiliang Feng, Xianghou Xia, Feng Chen, Enqi Qiao, Xiping Zhang, Daobao Chen, Zhiqiang Ling, Hongjian Yang
The protein encoded by immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 (ICT1) is a component of the human mitochondrial ribosome, and is reported to be implicated in cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells. This study was conducted to investigate the role of ICT1 in human breast cancer. Oncomine database was used to investigate ICT1 expression in human breast cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. The results showed that ICT1 was highly overexpressed in various human breast cancer subtypes. Then short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of ICT1 was performed in human breast cancer ZR-75-30 and T-47D cells...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290152/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-isoform-b-stimulates-neurovascular-repair-after-ischemic-stroke-by-promoting-the-function-of-pericytes-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1
#14
Noëmie Jean LeBlanc, Revathy Guruswamy, Ayman ElAli
Ischemic stroke triggers endogenous angiogenic mechanisms, which correlates with longer survival in patients. As such, promoting angiogenesis appears to be a promising approach. Experimental studies investigated mostly the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor isoform-A (VEGF-A). However, VEGF-A increases the risk of destabilizing the brain microvasculature, thus hindering the translation of its usage in clinics. An attractive alternative VEGF isoform-B (VEGF-B) was recently reported to act as a survival factor rather than a potent angiogenic factor...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287130/a-high-concentrate-diet-induced-milk-fat-decline-via-glucagon-mediated-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-dairy-cows
#15
Lin Li, Yang Cao, Zhenglu Xie, Yuanshu Zhang
Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and decreases milk fat. Therefore, we investigated the effects of liver lipid metabolism on milk fat synthesis. Ten lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly into HC and LC (low-concentrate) diet groups. After 20 weeks of feeding, milk fat declined, and lipopolysaccharide levels in the jugular, portal, and hepatic veins increased in the HC group. Liver consumption and release of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) into the bloodstream also decreased...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276453/igf-1-potentiates-sensory-innervation-signalling-by-modulating-the-mitochondrial-fission-fusion-balance
#16
Yuan Ding, Jianmin Li, Zhen Liu, Huaxiang Liu, Hao Li, Zhenzhong Li
Restoring the contractile function of long-term denervated skeletal muscle (SKM) cells is difficult due to the long period of denervation, which causes a loss of contractility. Although sensory innervation is considered a promising protective approach, its effect is still restricted. In this study, we introduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as an efficient protective agent and observed that IGF-1 potentiated the effects of sensory protection by preventing denervated muscle atrophy and improving the condition of denervated muscle cells in vivo and in vitro...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263818/glucocorticoids-induced-high-fat-diet-preference-via-activating-hypothalamic-ampk-signaling-in-chicks
#17
Lei Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Hai Lin
Glucocorticoids (GCs) stimulate appetite, contributing to enhanced fat deposition. Our present study was conducted to determine whether GCs could evoke an appetite specifically for fat-rich diets in chicks. Chicks were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of corticosterone (CORT, 2 mg/kg body weight/day) or corn oil (control), and food preference was tested. The results showed that CORT-chicks consumed more high-fat diet (HFD) compared with controls. In HFD-fed chicks, hypothalamic phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased by CORT treatment...
March 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258411/ctrp3-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-rats
#18
Zhen-Guo Ma, Yu-Pei Yuan, Si-Chi Xu, Wen-Ying Wei, Chun-Ru Xu, Xin Zhang, Qing-Qing Wu, Hai-Han Liao, Jian Ni, Qi-Zhu Tang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death are closely involved in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). C1q/tumour necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) has anti-inflammatory properties but its role in DCM remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether CTRP3 could attenuate DCM and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253220/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-protein-attenuates-lipid-accumulation-in-macrophage-foam-cells-and-alleviates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#19
Chunfen Mo, Ming Yang, Xiaojuan Han, Junhong Li, Guangping Gao, Haoran Tai, Ning Huang, Hengyi Xiao
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have linked variants of fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) to obesity. However, the molecular function of FTO remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential effects of FTO in modulating cholesterol deposition in macrophage foam cells, as well as whether FTO exerts antiatherosclerotic properties in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. METHOD AND RESULTS: We transfected RAW264.7 cells with plasmids encoding a wild-type or mutant FTO gene (I367F)...
April 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225087/ampk-deficiency-in-chondrocytes-accelerated-the-progression-of-instability-induced-and-ageing-associated-osteoarthritis-in-adult-mice
#20
Sheng Zhou, Wanli Lu, Liang Chen, Qiting Ge, Dongyang Chen, Zhihong Xu, Dongquan Shi, Jin Dai, Jianxin Li, Huangxian Ju, Yi Cao, Jinzhong Qin, Shuai Chen, Huajian Teng, Qing Jiang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints that is associated with both joint injury and ageing. Here, we investigated the role of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in maintaining a healthy state of articular cartilage and in OA development. Using cartilage-specific, tamoxifen-inducible AMPKα1 conditional knockout (AMPKα1 cKO), AMPKα2 conditional knockout (AMPKα2 cKO) and AMPKα1α2 conditional double knockout (AMPKα cDKO) mice, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, mutant mice displayed accelerated severity of surgically induced OA, especially AMPKα cDKO mice...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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