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Grape juice

Christopher L Blackford, Eric G Dennis, Robert A Keyzers, Claudia Schueuermann, Robert D Trengove, Paul K Boss
A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Soma Halder, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Sananda Dey, Sujay Kumar Bhunia, Alok Ranjan Koley, Biplab Giri
Ability of red grape juice (RGJ), a known antioxidant, on testis of adult Wister rat to protect from oxidative stress induced damages by heat stress has been investigated in this study. Heat stress was induced maintaining body and testicular temperature at 43°C for 30min/day for 15 days using a hyperthermia induction chamber. Four groups of rats (n=6 per group) comprising of Group-I (control) -kept at 32°C, Group-II -exposed to heat stress alone, Group-III received RGJ (0.8ml/rat/day) alone and Group-IV -exposed to heat stress and received RGJ at same dose...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Andrew C Clark, Rebecca C Deed
The aldehyde 3-S-glutathionylhexanal is an intermediate which is produced during the formation of the wine aroma precursor 3-S-glutathionylhexanol, after the reaction of glutathione with trans-2-hexenal. This study was conducted to assess whether the chemical, as opposed to the enzymatic, production of 3-S-glutathionylhexanal could occur at a significant rate in grape juice. LC-MS/MS was used in low- and high-resolution modes, in combination with functional group derivatization, to identify and quantitate products...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jin Zhang, Maria A Astorga, Jennifer M Gardner, Michelle E Walker, Paul R Grbin, Vladimir Jiranek
Limiting assimilable nitrogen restricts yeast's ability to successfully complete fermentation. In the absence of a commercially available deletion collection in a wine yeast background, a screening approach was applied to a transposon library in a wine yeast derivative to identify clones with superior fermentation performance. Eight candidate genes, when disrupted by Ty insertion, were identified as enabling yeast to efficiently complete a model oenological fermentation with limited nitrogen availability. Analogous single gene disruptions were subsequently constructed in the haploid wine yeast strain, C911D and the performance of these during fermentation was analysed...
December 28, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Peng Wang, Guojun Yao, Donghui Liu, Zhiqiang Zhou
A novel effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on cohesive floating organic drop has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazine herbicides and triazole fungicides in aqueous samples followed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-undecanol as extractant was well dispersed by effervescence. In order to obtain relatively high extraction efficiency, the effects of salt, volume of effervescence mixture, volume of extraction solvent and temperature were investigated...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Subasish Behera, Prashant Khetrapal, Sandhya Kapoor Punia, Deepak Agrawal, Minal Khandelwal, Jitendra Lohar
Introduction: The increasing problem of antibiotic drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms in the past few decades has recently led to the continuous exploration of natural plant products for new antibiotic agents. Many consumable food materials have good as well as their bad effects, good effect includes their antibacterial effects on different microorganisms present in the oral cavity. Recently, natural products have been evaluated as source of antimicrobial agent with efficacies against a variety of microorganisms...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Cecilia N Amadi, Amaka A Mgbahurike
BACKGROUND: Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
Samaneh Akbarzade, Mahmoud Chamsaz, Gholam Hossein Rounaghi, Mahdi Ghorbani
A selective and sensitive magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction (MDSPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (Sevin, Fenitrothion, Malathion, Parathion, and Diazinon) in fruit juice and real water samples. Zero valent Fe-reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs@ Fe) as a new and effective sorbent were prepared and applied for extraction of organophosphorus pesticides using MDSPME method. In order to study the performance of this new sorbent, the ability of rGOQDs@ Fe was compared with graphene oxide and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite by recovery experiments of the organophosphorus pesticides...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Bobin Lee, Jin-Ho Park, Ju-Young Byun, Joon Heon Kim, Min-Gon Kim
Label-free biosensing methods that rely on the use of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have attracted great attention as a result of their simplicity, high sensitivity, and relatively low cost. However, in-situ analysis of real samples using these techniques has remained challenging because colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) can be unstable at certain levels of pH and salt concentration. Even in the case of a chip-type LSPR sensor that can resolve the instability problem by employing NPs immobilized on the substrate, loading of a sample to sensor chip with exact volume control can be difficult for unskilled users...
November 26, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Veronika M Kupfer, Elisabeth I Vogt, Annemarie K Siebert, Magdalena L Meyer, Rudi F Vogel, Ludwig Niessen
The absence of the yeast protein seripauperin 5 (PAU5) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been suggested as a biomarker for the occurrence of gushing in sparkling wine as samples lacking PAU5 were found to be more susceptible to gushing. In this study, further characterization of PAU5 regarding its foam-stabilizing properties was performed to elucidate whether PAU5 has foam-stabilizing properties and therefore, to elucidate a direct influence on the gushing potential of sparkling wines. PAU5 was successfully purified from non-gushing sparkling wine using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
Sandra Nunes, Francesca Danesi, Daniele Del Rio, Paula Silva
Despite the fact that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has still no recognised therapy, treatments which have proven at least mildly successful in improving IBD symptoms include anti-inflammatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines. Resveratrol, a natural (poly)phenol found in grapes, red wine, grape juice and several species of berries, has been shown to prevent and ameliorate intestinal inflammation. Here, we discuss the role of resveratrol in the improvement of inflammatory disorders involving the intestinal mucosa...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
Trung D Nguyen, Michelle E Walker, Jennifer M Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
Vacuolar acidification serves as a homeostatic mechanism to regulate intracellular pH, ion and chemical balance, as well as trafficking and recycling of proteins and nutrients, critical for normal cellular function. This study reports on the importance of vacuole acidification during wine-like fermentation. Ninety-three mutants (homozygous deletions in lab yeast strain, BY4743), which result in protracted fermentation when grown in a chemically defined grape juice with 200 g L-1 sugar (pH 3.5), were examined to determine whether fermentation protraction was in part due to a dysfunction in vacuolar acidification (VA) during the early stages of fermentation, and whether VA was responsive to the initial sugar concentration in the medium...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
Antoine Gobert, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal, Christophe Morge, Céline Sparrow, Youzhong Liu, Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Stefania Vichi, Hervé Alexandre
Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olaf J Schelezki, Paul A Smith, Ana Hranilovic, Keren A Bindon, David W Jeffery
A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kayo Arita, Taro Honma, Shunji Suzuki
Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices...
2017: PloS One
Peter Morrison-Whittle, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have been making wine for thousands of years and microorganisms play an integral part in this process as they not only drive fermentation, but also significantly influence the flavour, aroma, and quality of finished wines. Since fruits are ephemeral, they cannot comprise a permanent microbial habitat; thus, an age-old unanswered question concerns the origin of fruit and ferment associated microbes. Here we use next-generation sequencing approaches to examine and quantify the roles of native forests, vineyard soil, bark, and fruit habitats as sources of fungal diversity in ferments...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
C F Haskell-Ramsay, R C Stuart, E J Okello, A W Watson
In the original publication of the article, on page 7, paragraph "Discussion", line 12, 'blackcurrant has been observed to increase digit vigilance reaction time' should read as 'blackcurrant has been observed to decrease digit vigilance reaction time'.
December 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Josep V Mercader, Antonio Abad-Somovilla, Consuelo Agulló, Antonio Abad-Fuentes
Fluxapyroxad is a new-generation carboxamide fungicide, with residues increasingly being found in food samples. Immunochemical assays have gained acceptance in food quality control as rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective methods for large sample throughput and in situ applications. In the present study, immunoreagents to fluxapyroxad were obtained for the first time, and competitive immunoassays were developed for the sensitive and specific determination of fluxapyroxad residues in food samples. Two carboxyl-functionalized analogues of fluxapyroxad were prepared, and antibodies with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were generated from both haptens, though a dissimilar response was observed concerning specificity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Olga Ponomarova, Natalia Gabrielli, Daniel C Sévin, Michael Mülleder, Katharina Zirngibl, Katsiaryna Bulyha, Sergej Andrejev, Eleni Kafkia, Athanasios Typas, Uwe Sauer, Markus Ralser, Kiran Raosaheb Patil
Many microorganisms live in communities and depend on metabolites secreted by fellow community members for survival. Yet our knowledge of interspecies metabolic dependencies is limited to few communities with small number of exchanged metabolites, and even less is known about cellular regulation facilitating metabolic exchange. Here we show how yeast enables growth of lactic acid bacteria through endogenous, multi-component, cross-feeding in a readily established community. In nitrogen-rich environments, Saccharomyces cerevisiae adjusts its metabolism by secreting a pool of metabolites, especially amino acids, and thereby enables survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis...
October 25, 2017: Cell Systems
Beatriz Vallejo, Cecilia Picazo, Helena Orozco, Emilia Matallana, Agustín Aranda
Glufosinate ammonium (GA) is a widely used herbicide that inhibits glutamine synthetase. This inhibition leads to internal amino acid starvation which, in turn, causes the activation of different nutrient sensing pathways. GA also inhibits the enzyme of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in such a way that, although it is not used as a fungicide, it may alter yeast performance in industrial processes like winemaking. We describe herein how GA indeed inhibits the yeast growth of a wine strain during the fermentation of grape juice...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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