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Grape juice

Chunmei Jiang, Xianqing Chen, Shuzhen Lei, Dongyan Shao, Jing Zhu, Yanlin Liu, Junling Shi
Fungal contamination is prevalent in grape berries and unavoidable during the winemaking process. In the botrytised wine, Botrytis cinerea contamination of grape berries beneficially promotes the wine flavor, which is desirable especially with high glycerol content. To investigate the underlying mechanism, Aspergillus carbonarius and B. cinerea spores were separately co-cultured with two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in both grape juice and synthetic nutrient media. The results showed that both A...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Laura Chasseriaud, Joana Coulon, Philippe Marullo, Warren Albertin, Marina Bely
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, naturally found in grape must, may impact wine quality positively or negatively. In this study, a mixture of five non-Saccharomyces species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia spp., Starmerella bacillaris (formerly called Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of the natural non-Saccharomyces community found in grape must, was used for alcoholic fermentation. The impact of CO2 saturation of the grape juice was studied first on this mixture alone, and then in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pengbao Shi, Changzheng Song, Haiju Chen, Bingbing Duan, Zhenwen Zhang, Jiangfei Meng
Flavonoids are important compounds for grape and wine quality. Foliar fertilization with iron compounds has been reported to have a substantial impact on grape composition in the grapevines growing in calcareous soil. However, much less is known about its real impact on flavonoid composition. In the present study, Ferric ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was foliar applied to Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines growing in calcareous soil over two consecutive vintages in order to study its effect on grape flavonoid composition...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stephanie Rollero, Audrey Bloem, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Carole Camarasa, Benoit Divol
The sequential inoculation of non- Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew C Clark, Rebecca C Deed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rocío Escribano, Lucía González-Arenzana, Javier Portu, Patrocinio Garijo, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
AIMS: 25 enological yeasts belonging to 9 different species (Candida zeylanoides, Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis pratensis, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were screened for aroma formation and fermentative behavior as part of a non-Saccharomyces yeasts selection program. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pure cultures were inoculated in pasteurized grape juice in order to perform alcoholic fermentations...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maurício Bonatto Machado de Castilhos, Lilian Fachin Leonardo Betiol, Gisandro Reis de Carvalho, Javier Telis-Romero
The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Merlot juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R2=0.99967 and relative error=7.99%). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations, ranging from 0.1766 (13...
March 2018: Food Research International
Josephine J Peter, Tommaso L Watson, Michelle E Walker, Jennifer M Gardner, Tom A Lang, Anthony Borneman, Angus Forgan, Tina Tran, Vladimir Jiranek
A deficiency of nitrogenous nutrients in grape juice can cause stuck and sluggish alcoholic fermentation, which has long been a problem in winemaking. Nitrogen requirements vary between wine yeast strains, and the ability of yeast to assimilate nitrogen depends on the nature and concentration of nitrogen present in the medium. In this study a wine yeast gene deletion collection (1844 deletants in the haploid AWRI1631 background) was screened to identify genes whose deletion resulted in a reduction in the time taken to utilise all sugars when grown in a chemically defined grape juice medium supplemented with limited nitrogen (75 mg L-1 as a free amino acid mixture)...
February 7, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Giovanna Fia, Claudio Gori, Ginevra Bucalossi, Francesca Borghini, Bruno Zanoni
The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile...
February 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Samantha A Radford, Parinya Panuwet, Ronald E Hunter, Dana Boyd Barr, P Barry Ryan
Since urinary insecticide metabolites are commonly used as biomarkers of exposure, it is important that we quantify whether insecticides degrade in food and beverages in order to better perform risk assessment. This study was designed to quantify degradation of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in beverages. Purified water, white grape juice, orange juice, and red wine were fortified with 500 ng/mL diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin, and aliquots were extracted several times over a 15-day storage period at 2...
February 2, 2018: Toxics
Thomas F Boudreau, Gregory M Peck, Sean F O'Keefe, Amanda C Stewart
Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L-1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L-1 ammonium...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Azjargal Enkhsaikhan, Akira Takahara, Yuji Nakamura, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Atsushi Sugiyama
A beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Yamanashi-no-megumi™) was developed as a supplemental fluid containing polyphenols, which has been clinically shown to enhance the colonic transit. In this study, we assessed the mechanism of its prokinetic action by analyzing the effects on both the colonic phosphodiesterase activity of rats (n=4) and the isolated colonic strip preparation of guinea pigs (n=4). The 7% (v/v) solution of the beverage significantly decreased the phosphodiesterase activity by 9% (n=4)...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Milad Ghani, Carlos Palomino Cabello, Mohammad Saraji, Jose Manuel Estela, Víctor Cerdà, Gemma Turnes Palomino, Fernando Maya
The application of layered double hydroxide-Al2 O3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks for solid-phase extraction is reported for the first time. Al2 O3 is embedded in a polymer matrix followed by an in situ metal-exchange process to obtain a layered double hydroxide-Al2 O3 -mixed-matrix disk with excellent flow-through properties. The extraction performance of the prepared disks is evaluated as proof of concept for the automated extraction using sequential injection analysis of organic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid) following an anion-exchange mechanism...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Mario F Mirabelli, Emanuela Gionfriddo, Janusz Pawliszyn, Renato Zenobi
We evaluated the performance of a dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) source for pesticide analysis in grape juice, a fairly complex matrix due to the high content of sugars (≈20% w/w) and pigments. A fast sample preparation method based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was developed, and novel matrix compatible SPME fibers were used to reduce in-source matrix suppression effects. A high resolution LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer allowed for rapid quantification in full scan mode...
January 22, 2018: Analyst
Emilien Peltier, Margaux Bernard, Marine Trujillo, Duyên Prodhomme, Jean-Christophe Barbe, Yves Gibon, Philippe Marullo
This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats...
2018: PloS One
Christopher L Blackford, Eric G Dennis, Robert A Keyzers, Claudia Schueuermann, Robert D Trengove, Paul K Boss
A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Soma Halder, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Sananda Dey, Sujay Kumar Bhunia, Alok Ranjan Koley, Biplab Giri
Ability of red grape juice (RGJ), a known antioxidant, on testis of adult Wister rat to protect from oxidative stress induced damages by heat stress has been investigated in this study. Heat stress was induced maintaining body and testicular temperature at 43°C for 30min/day for 15 days using a hyperthermia induction chamber. Four groups of rats (n=6 per group) comprising of Group-I (control) -kept at 32°C, Group-II -exposed to heat stress alone, Group-III received RGJ (0.8ml/rat/day) alone and Group-IV -exposed to heat stress and received RGJ at same dose...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Andrew C Clark, Rebecca C Deed
The aldehyde 3-S-glutathionylhexanal is an intermediate which is produced during the formation of the wine aroma precursor 3-S-glutathionylhexanol, after the reaction of glutathione with trans-2-hexenal. This study was conducted to assess whether the chemical, as opposed to the enzymatic, production of 3-S-glutathionylhexanal could occur at a significant rate in grape juice. LC-MS/MS was used in low- and high-resolution modes, in combination with functional group derivatization, to identify and quantitate products...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jin Zhang, Maria A Astorga, Jennifer M Gardner, Michelle E Walker, Paul R Grbin, Vladimir Jiranek
Limiting assimilable nitrogen restricts yeast's ability to successfully complete fermentation. In the absence of a commercially available deletion collection in a wine yeast background, a screening approach was applied to a transposon library in a wine yeast derivative to identify clones with superior fermentation performance. Eight candidate genes, when disrupted by Ty insertion, were identified as enabling yeast to efficiently complete a model oenological fermentation with limited nitrogen availability. Analogous single gene disruptions were subsequently constructed in the haploid wine yeast strain, C911D and the performance of these during fermentation was analysed...
December 28, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Peng Wang, Guojun Yao, Donghui Liu, Zhiqiang Zhou
A novel effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on cohesive floating organic drop has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazine herbicides and triazole fungicides in aqueous samples followed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-undecanol as extractant was well dispersed by effervescence. In order to obtain relatively high extraction efficiency, the effects of salt, volume of effervescence mixture, volume of extraction solvent and temperature were investigated...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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