Read by QxMD icon Read


Dae-Young Kim, Min Kim, Surendra Shinde, Jung-Suk Sung, Gajanan Ghodake
Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles needs to be examined for their biocompatibility and suitability in biomedical applications. Gallic acid method was used for the high concentration synthesis (1mM) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) having narrow size-distribution at ambient temperature (25°C). Gallic acid capped AuNPs were characterized by different techniques such as, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDAX, SAED, and XPS. In-vitro stability of AuNPs with biomolecules, such as glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was explored at different concertation ranges...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Chrisovalantis Papadopoulos, Philipp Kirchner, Monika Bug, Daniel Grum, Lisa Koerver, Nina Schulze, Robert Poehler, Alina Dressler, Sven Fengler, Khalid Arhzaouy, Vanda Lux, Michael Ehrmann, Conrad C Weihl, Hemmo Meyer
Rupture of endosomes and lysosomes is a major cellular stress condition leading to cell death and degeneration. Here, we identified an essential role for the ubiquitin-directed AAA-ATPase, p97, in the clearance of damaged lysosomes by autophagy. Upon damage, p97 translocates to lysosomes and there cooperates with a distinct set of cofactors including UBXD1, PLAA, and the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1, which we term ELDR components for Endo-Lysosomal Damage Response. Together, they act downstream of K63-linked ubiquitination and p62 recruitment, and selectively remove K48-linked ubiquitin conjugates from a subpopulation of damaged lysosomes to promote autophagosome formation...
October 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Jovan Nikolic, Ahmet Civas, Zoé Lama, Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Danielle Blondel
Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV) induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the RNA granules formed during viral infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Estelle R Simo-Cheyou, George Vardatsikos, Ashok K Srivastava
We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (NR-PTK) c-Src is an upstream regulator of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II-induced activation of protein kinase B (PKB) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We have also demonstrated that ET-1 potently induces the expression of the early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor that is overexpressed in models of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of c-Src in ET-1‑induced Egr-1 expression has not yet been investigated and its role in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling remains controversial...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sarah L Cuddihy, Sarah Drake, D Tim Harwood, Andrew I Selwood, Paul S McNabb, Mark B Hampton
Portimine is a recently discovered member of a class of marine micro-algal toxins called cyclic imines. In dramatic contrast to related compounds in this toxin class, portimine has very low acute toxicity to mice but is highly cytotoxic to cultured cells. In this study we show that portimine kills human Jurkat T-lymphoma cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), with LC50 values of 6 and 2.5 nM respectively. Treated cells displayed rapid caspase activation and phosphatidylserine exposure, indicative of apoptotic cell death...
October 13, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Ameer L Elaimy, Aarif Ahsan, Katherine Marsh, William B Pratt, Dipankar Ray, Theodore S Lawrence, Mukesh K Nyati
Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone that plays an essential role in the stabilization of a large number of signal transduction molecules, many of which are associated with oncogenesis. An Hsp90 isoform (Hsp90α) has been shown to be selectively phosphorylated on two N-terminal threonine residues (threonine 5 and 7) and is involved in the DNA damage response and apoptosis. However, the kinase that phosphorylates Hsp90α after ionizing radiation (IR) and its role in post-radiation DNA repair remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Jianing Zhong, Xianfeng Li, Wanshi Cai, Yan Wang, Shanshan Dong, Jie Yang, Jian'an Zhang, Nana Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Fengbiao Mao, Cheng Zeng, Jinyu Wu, Xingzhi Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The Ten Eleven Translocation 1 (TET1) protein is a DNA demethylase that regulates gene expression through altering statue of DNA methylation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that TET1 could modulate transcriptional expression independent of its DNA demethylation activity; yet, the detailed mechanisms underlying TET1's role in such transcriptional regulation remain not well understood. Here, we uncovered that Tet1 formed a chromatin complex with histone acetyltransferase Mof and scaffold protein Sin3a in mouse embryonic stem cells by integrative genomic analysis using publicly available ChIP-seq data sets and a series of in vitro biochemical studies in human cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yi Li, Xiaoli Shi, Lei Tian, Hongyu Sun, Yujing Wu, Xia Li, Jianjun Li, Yujie Wei, Xinxiao Han, Jiao Zhang, Xiaowei Jia, Rui Bai, Limin Jing, Peng Ding, Huiliang Liu, Dong Han
A schematic for the mechanism of accelerating the assembly of intercalated discs (IDs) in cardiac myocytes regulated by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is presented. AuNPs with local nanoscale stiffness in the substrate activate β1-integrin signaling, which mediates the activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and its downstream signal kinase by stimulating expression of the transcription factors GATA4 and MEF-2c.
October 10, 2016: Advanced Materials
Yang Liu, Boran Wu, Yongxia Hao, Wei Zhu, Zhonggen Li, Xiaoli Chai
Mercury emission fluxes (MEFs) under different surface coverage conditions in a landfill were investigated in this study. The results show similar diel patterns of Hg emission flux under different coverage conditions, with peak fluxes occurring at midday and decreasing during night. We examined the effects of environmental factors on MEFs, such as the physiological characteristics of vegetation and meteorological conditions. The results suggest that growth of vegetation in the daytime facilitates the release of Hg in the anaerobic unit, while in the semi-aerobic unit, where vegetation had been removed, the higher mercury content of the cover soil prompted the photo-reduction pathway to become the main path of mercury release and increased MEFs...
October 6, 2016: Waste Management
Shuyuan Chen, Qin Zhang, Baoling Bai, Shengrong Ouyang, Yihua Bao, Huili Li, Ting Zhang
Dishevelled (DVL/Dvl) genes play roles in canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling, both of which are essential in neural tube closing and are involved in balancing neural progenitor growth and differentiation, or neuroepithelial cell polarity, respectively. In mouse Dvl haploinsufficiency leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which represent the second most common birth defects. However, DVL genes' genetic contributions in human NTDs are modest. We sought to explore the molecular impact on such genes in human NTDs in a Han Chinese cohort...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Vincent So, Divyanshi Jalan, Mathieu Lemaire, Matthew K Topham, Grant M Hatch, Richard M Epand
The incorporation of glycerol into lipid was measured using SV40 transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from either wild-type (WT) mice or from mice in which the epsilon isoform of diacylglycerol kinase (DGKε) was knocked out (DGKε(-/-)). We present an explanation for our finding that DGKε(-/-) MEFs exhibited greater uptake of (3)H-glycerol into the cell and a greater incorporation into lipids compared with their WT counterparts, with no change in the relative amounts of various lipids between the DGKε(-/-) and WT MEFs...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yu Wang, Hua Guan, Da-Fei Xie, Yi Xie, Xiao-Dan Liu, Qi Wang, Li Sui, Man Song, Hong Zhang, Jianhua Zhou, Ping-Kun Zhou
Radiotherapy with heavy ions is considered advantageous compared to irradiation with photons due to the characteristics of the Braggs peak and the high linear energy transfer (LET) value. To understand the mechanisms of cellular responses to different LET values and dosages of heavy ion radiation, we analyzed the proteomic profiles of mouse embryo fibroblast MEF cells exposed to two doses from different LET values of heavy ion 12C. Total proteins were extracted from these cells and examined by Q Exactive with Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Electrospray Ionization (ESI) Tandem MS (MS/MS)...
2016: PloS One
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sensen Shen, Rui Weng, Linnan Li, Xinyuan Xu, Yu Bai, Huwei Liu
Autophagy-related protein 7 (Atg7) is essential in the formation of the autophagophore and is indispensable for autophagy induction. Autophagy will exist in lower level or even be blocked in cells without Atg7. Even though the possible signaling pathways of Atg7 have been proposed, the metabolomic responses under acute starvation in cells with and without Atg7 have not been elucidated. This study therefore was designed and aimed to reveal the metabolomics of Atg7-dependent autophagy through metabolomic analysis of Atg7(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) and wild-type MEFs along with the starvation time...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Rohlin, Eva Rambech, Anders Kvist, Therese Törngren, Frida Eiengård, Ulf Lundstam, Theofanis Zagoras, Samuel Gebre-Medhin, Åke Borg, Jan Björk, Mef Nilbert, Margareta Nordling
Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel-based approaches detecting both SNVs, indels and CNVs in the same assay. We applied a panel including 19 CRC susceptibility genes to 91 individuals of six phenotypic subgroups. Targeted NGS-based sequencing of the whole gene regions including introns of the 19 genes was used...
September 30, 2016: Familial Cancer
D Song, Y W Wang, Y J Hou, Z L Dong, W W Wang, A K Li
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of microencapsulted (MEF) and the extract of seed (ECOS) on growth performance, immune functions, and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-d-old male broilers were randomly allotted into 6 treatments with 8 replicates/treatment and 5 broilers in each cage. The dietary treatments included 1) a basal diet without antibiotic (group A), 2) the basal diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (1 × 10 cfu/g MEF; group B), 3) the basal diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet (group C), 4) the basal diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (group D), 5) the basal diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet (group E), and 6) the basal diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (group F)...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Karolina Zazakowny, Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna Mastalska-Popławska, Kamil Kamiński, Anna Kusior, Marta Radecka, Maria Nowakowska
The present work aims at development of novel hybrid materials from genipin crosslinked collagen or collagen/chitosan hydrogels containing various types of TiO2 nanoparticles characterized with different anatase/rutile ratios. Collagen and chitosan were selected as hydrogel components since they are biopolymers being, like collagen, the major compound present in extracellular matrix or exhibit structural similarity to glycosaminoglycans, like chitosan. TiO2 nanoparticles were introduced to the hydrogel matrices to improve their mechanical properties as well as bioactivity...
September 22, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Seda Ceylan, Dilek Göktürk, Nimet Bölgen
In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin based cryogels were prepared by crosslinking chemically or physically for tissue engineering applications. Different PVA/Gelatin ratios (100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50) and crosslinking methods have been used to prepare cryogels; chemical and physical structure of the prepared matrices were analysed by FTIR and SEM; swelling and degradation profiles were followed. Chemical and physical crosslinking was obtained by using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and by applying freeze thawing cycle, respectively...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Jianbin Zhang, Jigang Wang, Jian Xu, Yuanqiang Lu, Jiukun Jiang, Liming Wang, Han-Ming Shen, Dajing Xia
Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the herb Curcumalonga and its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities has been widely studied. It has been reported that Curcumin can induce autophagy through inhibition of the Akt-mTOR pathway. However, the effect of Curcumin on lysosome remains largely elusive. In this study, we first found that Curcumin treatment enhances autophagic flux in both human colon cancer HCT116 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Moreover, Curcumin treatment promotes lysosomal function, evidenced by the increased lysosomal acidification and enzyme activity...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Yasukazu Takanezawa, Ryosuke Nakamura, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masako Kiyono
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental pollutant and causes a serious hazard to health worldwide. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity remain elusive. We show that MeHg reduced mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MeHg treatment increased levels of autophagy markers LC3-II and p62, possibly by acting on the MAPKs signaling pathway in several cell types. MeHg exposure elevated the number of LC3 puncta in stable GFP-LC3 MEFs and the number of autophagic vacuoles...
September 22, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"