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"Exercise" and "performance"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#1
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723842/reduced-neuromuscular-performance-in-amenorrheic-elite-endurance-athletes
#2
Åsa B Tornberg, Anna Melin, Fiona Manderson Koivula, Anders Johansson, Sven Skouby, Jens Faber, Anders Sjödin
INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM) and 14 SFHA athletes from national teams and competitive clubs participated. Methods included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA);; resting metabolic rate and work efficiency; exercise capacity; knee muscular strength (KMS) and knee muscular endurance (KME); reaction time (RT); blood sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723813/effect-of-resistance-training-on-blood-pressure-and-autonomic-responses-in-treated-hypertensives
#3
Gabriela Alves Trevizani, Mariana Balbi Seixas, Paulo Roberto Benchimol-Barbosa, Jeferson Macedo Vianna, Lilian Pinto da Silva, Jurandir Nadal
This study evaluated the effect of resistance training (RT) on heart rate variability (HRV) and on blood pressure (BP) responses to acute and short-term exposure in treated hypertensive subjects. Twenty one men participated in the study, eight hypertensive under drug treatment regimen and achieving adequate blood pressure control prior to inclusion (HT) and thirteen normotensive (NT). The RT protocol consisted of 12 sessions with 8 exercises (leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion and seated arm curl) performed for 2 sets of 15-20 repetitions with 50% of one repetition-maximum (1RM) with 2-minute rest intervals in between sets, 3x/week...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722467/the-influence-of-lower-extremity-lean-mass-on-landing-biomechanics-during-prolonged-exercise
#4
Melissa M Montgomery, Amanda J Tritsch, John R Cone, Randy J Schmitz, Robert Henson, Sandra J Shultz
CONTEXT:   The extent to which lower extremity lean mass (LELM) relative to total body mass influences one's ability to maintain safe landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise when injury incidence increases is unknown. OBJECTIVES:   To examine the influence of LELM on (1) pre-exercise lower extremity biomechanics and (2) changes in biomechanics during an intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and (3) determine whether these relationships differ by sex. We hypothesized that less LELM would predict higher-risk baseline biomechanics and greater changes toward higher-risk biomechanics during the IEP...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#5
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721747/faster-v%C3%AC-o2-kinetics-after-priming-exercises-of-different-duration-but-same-fatigue
#6
Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Arthur Peyrard, John Temesi, Guillaume Y Millet, Juan M Murias
This study compared the responses of two priming exercises of similar fatigue on the adjustment of the oxygen uptake time constant (τV̇O2) in cycling. Ten healthy young adults (25 ± 3 yr) performed: three step transitions from a 20-W baseline to the power output (PO) below the gas exchange threshold (MOD, MODPRE); a 3-min bout (P3MIN) at 90% of peak PO (POpeak), followed by MOD (MOD3MIN); and a 6-min bout (P6MIN) at 80% of POpeak, followed by MOD (MOD6MIN). The O2 supply-to-O2 demand ([HHb]/V̇O2) ratio was calculated for MODPRE, MOD3MIN, and MOD6MIN...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721428/gender-and-age-differences-in-levels-types-and-locations-of-physical-activity-among-older-adults-living-in-car-dependent-neighborhoods
#7
W Li, E Procter-Gray, L Churchill, S E Crouter, K Kane, J Tian, P D Franklin, J K Ockene, J Gurwitz
BACKGROUND: A thorough understanding of gender differences in physical activity is critical to effective promotion of active living in older adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine gender and age differences in levels, types and locations of physical activity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observation. SETTING: Car-dependent urban and rural neighborhoods in Worcester County, Massachusetts, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 111 men and 103 women aged 65 years and older...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721169/investigating-an-outbreak-of-measles-in-margibi-county-liberia-october-2015
#8
Joseph Asamoah Frimpong, Maame Pokuah Amo-Addae, Peter Adebayo Adewuyi, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Thomas Knue Nagbe
The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases highlights the need to have well-trained field epidemiologists who will be at the forefront in the fight against these diseases, especially during an outbreak. Training for outbreak investigation is most effective when participants can develop their competencies in a practical exercise. To that end, this case study was based on a measles outbreak investigation conducted in Liberia during October 2015 by Liberia Frontline Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) residents, simulating steps to perform outbreak investigation in a real-life situation as a field epidemiologist...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721124/association-between-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-and-inflammatory-airway-disease-in-polo-ponies
#9
Katia Moreira da Silva, Juliana Nabuco Pereira Otaka, Carlos Alexandre Paula Gonçalves, Estevão Grossi Aguiar Silva, Nayro Xavier de Alencar, Daniel Augusto Barroso Lessa
The respiratory system is essential for health and high athletic performance in horses. Respiratory diseases have been recognized as having a major impact on training equine animals and are commonly cited as the second most common cause of wasted training time. Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is an important cause of poor performance in young racehorses. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a major issue for the equine industry because of its high prevalence and association with reduced athletic performance...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720915/evaluation-of-the-use-of-a-virtual-patient-on-student-competence-and-confidence-in-performing-simulated-clinic-visits
#10
Catherine A Taglieri, Steven J Crosby, Kristin Zimmerman, Tulip Schneider, Dhiren K Patel
Objective. To assess the effect of incorporating virtual patient activities in a pharmacy skills lab on student competence and confidence when conducting real-time comprehensive clinic visits with mock patients. Methods. Students were randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. The control group completed the clinic visit prior to completing virtual patient activities. The intervention group completed the virtual patient activities prior to the clinic visit. Student proficiency was evaluated in the mock lab...
June 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#11
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720871/localization-of-damage-in-the-human-leg-muscles-induced-by-downhill-running
#12
Sumiaki Maeo, Yukino Ando, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami
We investigated localization of damage within the knee extensors (KEs) and plantar flexors (PFs) induced by downhill running (DR) by using transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen young adults performed 45-min DR (-15% slope) at their maximal tolerable velocity. At pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise, T2-MRI was scanned and T2 values for each muscle composing KEs and PFs at proximal, middle, and distal sites were calculated. Maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (RTD: 0-30, 0-50, 0-100, 0-200 ms) were also measured...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720541/biological-sources-of-variation-of-serum-adiponectin-among-healthy-individuals-in-comparison-with-related-nutritional-and-inflammatory-markers
#13
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin (AN) is a nutritional and inflammatory marker of various diseases. Its biological sources of variation (SVs) have been widely evaluated in, but its relationships with other related markers remain to be studied comprehensibly by use of multivariate analyses including factor analysis. METHODS: Serum specimens from 752 well-defined healthy subjects (295 males; 457 females) obtained from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Vietnam were tested for total AN (tAN) and high-molecular-weight AN (hmAN) together with 71 major analytes...
July 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720251/-advises-and-performs-physical-exercise
#14
EDITORIAL
F V Martínez García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720182/ground-reaction-forces-during-reduced-gravity-running-in-parabolic-flight
#15
Peter Cavanagh, Andrea Rice, Molly Glauberman, Amanda Sudduth, Arien Cherones, Shane Davis, Michael Lewis, Andrea Hanson, Grier Wilt
BACKGROUND: Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. METHODS: In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720128/the-utility-of-mini-clinical-evaluation-exercise-mini-cex-in-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-medical-education-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
Sara Mortaz Hejri, Mohammad Jalili, Mandana Shirazi, Rasoul Masoomi, Saharnaz Nedjat, John Norcini
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequently used assessment tools that measure the trainees' performance in workplace is the mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX), in which an expert observes and rates the actual performance of trainees. Several primary studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mini-CEX by assessing its educational and psychometric properties. The objective of this BEME review is to explore, analyze, and synthesize the evidence considering the utility of the mini-CEX for assessing undergraduate and postgraduate medical trainees...
July 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719765/beetroot-juice-is-more-beneficial-than-sodium-nitrate-for-attenuating-muscle-pain-after-strenuous-eccentric-bias-exercise
#17
Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J West, Emma J Stevenson
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) and a nitrate only drink (sodium nitrate; SN) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty recreationally active males consumed either BTJ (n=10), a nitrate matched SN drink (n=10) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; n=10) immediately, 24 and 48 h after performing 100 drop jumps. To assess muscle damage, maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 h following the drop jumps...
July 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719620/endurance-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-exercise-in-mice-with-a-muscle-specific-defect-in-the-control-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#18
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Takuya Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Kadota, Chihaya Terai, Daichi Shindo, Takashi Morioka, Miki Ota, Yukako Morishita, Kengo Ishihara, Yoshiharu Shimomura
It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK). In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice) to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718987/the-impact-of-exercise-on-sleep-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Ravi Reddy, Joseph El Youssef, Kerri Winters-Stone, Deborah Branigan, Joseph Leitschuh, Jessica Castle, Peter G Jacobs
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of exercise on sleep and nocturnal hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In a 3-week crossover trial, 10 adults with T1D were randomized to perform aerobic, resistance or no exercise. During each exercise week, participants completed two separate 45-minute exercise sessions at an academic medical center. Participants returned home and wore a continuous glucose monitor and a wrist based activity monitor to estimate sleep duration. Participants on average lost 70 (±49) minutes of sleep (p = 0...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718320/oral-prednisolone-for-4-days-does-not-increase-exercise-tolerance-in-men-with-copd
#20
S L Karlsson, V Backer, Nina Skavlan Godtfredsen
One of the primary objectives in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is preventing decrease in lung function and reducing the annual number of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). An oral course of systemic corticosteroids is a commonly used treatment in AECOPD. We hypothesize that this treatment also increases exercise performance and decreases muscle fatigue. In a randomized double-blinded, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated 14 men (8 on prednisolone 37.5 mg vs. 6 on placebo) with severe and very severe COPD...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
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