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Maladaptive personality traits

Radu-Stefan Romosan, Liana Dehelean, Virgil-Radu Enatescu, Ana Cristina Bredicean, Ion Papava, Catalina Giurgi-Oncu, Ana-Maria Romosan
Purpose: Medical students' personality traits, emotion regulation strategies, and empathic behavior are considered powerful predictors for their future achievements, professional adjustment, and mental strength. Coping strategies such as "self-blame," "rumination," "catastrophizing," "blaming others," lack of empathy, decreased emotion recognition abilities, and neuroticism are maladaptive and, thus, less desirable traits in medical professionals...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Lauren Drvaric, R Michael Bagby, Michael Kiang, Romina Mizrahi
The 'at-risk' state for psychosis is a high-risk paradigm that examines factors that contribute to conversion to a first episode of psychosis. Although a multitude of contributing factors have been identified in one's susceptibility to conversion to psychosis, dimensional pathological personality traits have not been examined in 'at-risk' populations. In this study we examine lower- versus higher-risk for psychosis using traits from the DSM-5 Alternative Dimensional Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) to investigate which AMPD personality traits distinguish those 'at-risk' patients at relatively lower-risk for conversion to psychosis versus those at higher-risk...
October 2018: Psychiatry Research
José M Menchon, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Gambling disorder (GD) has been reclassified recently into the "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), a landmark occurrence for a behavioral addiction. GD is characterized by recurrent, maladaptive gambling behavior that results in clinically significant distress. Although the number of randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments is limited, some pharmacological treatments, notably opiate antagonists, have been employed in the treatment of GD...
2018: F1000Research
Christian Laier, Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand
Internet-gaming disorder (IGD) has become a clinically relevant phenomenon worth investigating with respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance. Considering theoretical models of specific Internet-use disorders, we assumed an interaction of maladaptive personality traits as unspecific predisposing factors and experience-based, gaming-related Internet-use expectancies in predicting symptoms of IGD. Therefore, 103 male and female regular Internet gamers were investigated with questionnaires assessing maladaptive personality traits in accordance to DSM-5, gaming-related positive and avoidance Internet-use expectancies, and symptoms of IGD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Monika A Waszczuk, Kaiqiao Li, Camilo J Ruggero, Sean A P Clouston, Benjamin J Luft, Roman Kotov
Background: Personality is a major predictor of many mental and physical disorders, but its contributions to illness course are understudied. Purpose: The current study aimed to explore whether personality is associated with a course of psychiatric and medical illness over 10 years following trauma. Methods: World Trade Center (WTC) responders (N = 532) completed the personality inventory for DSM-5, which measures both broad domains and narrow facets...
July 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Giovanna Nigro, Maria Ciccarelli, Marina Cosenza
Chasing, or continuing to gamble in an attempt to recoup losses, is a salient feature of problematic gambling. This study, which controlled for gambling severity and alcohol consumption, investigated the association between chasing and maladaptive personality trait domains among habitual gamblers. Participants comprised 126 adult habitual gamblers (73% males) aged between 18 and 69 years. They were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a computerized task developed to assess chasing behavior...
September 2018: Psychiatry Research
Denise S H Lim, Ai Jia Gwee, Ryan Y Hong
The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, recommends the joint consideration of personality disorder severity (i.e., dysfunction) and style (i.e., trait profile) in personality disorder diagnosis. The current study examined the association between maladaptive personality dysfunction and traits using a Singaporean student sample (N = 360). A subsample (n = 151) had informant ratings of personality traits on target participants...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jinbo He, Xitao Fan, Jinjin Yan, Fang Huang, Wen Wu, Zhihui Cai
Night Eating Syndrome has been shown to be associated with various negative physical and psychological consequences. This study explored the relationship between neuroticism and night eating, which had not been studied before. We also examined the possible mediating roles of psychological distress and maladaptive coping for the relationship between neuroticism and night eating. A sample of 578 Chinese college students were assessed on several measures: The Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale, the Night Eating Questionnaire, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Antonella Granieri, Fanny Guglielmucci, Antonino Costanzo, Vincenzo Caretti, Adriano Schimmenti
Background: Extensive research has demonstrated the positive associations among the exposure to traumatic experiences, the levels of dissociation, and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in adults. However, it has been hypothesized in clinical literature that an excessive activation of the dissociative processes following multiple traumatic experiences may jeopardize the psychological and behavioral functioning of the individuals, fostering higher levels of maladaptive personality functioning. Methods: The study involved 322 adult volunteers from Italy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Giorgio Falgares, Daniela Marchetti, Giovanna Manna, Pasquale Musso, Osmano Oasi, Daniel C Kopala-Sibley, Sandro De Santis, Maria C Verrocchio
Several studies have demonstrated that child maltreatment (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and neglect) may be a significant factor in the development of pathological personality traits that increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Currently, the challenge is to understand how different forms of early negative experiences render an individual prone to develop specific personality traits and, in turn, be more vulnerable to suicide risk. To understand the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality dimensions in suicide risk, our study aims to explore the role of self-criticism and dependency, two different pathological personality traits, as potential mediators of the link between different types of childhood maltreatment and suicide risk in young adults...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna Szücs, Katalin Szanto, Jean-Michel Aubry, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Background: Suicide rates generally peak in the second half of life and are particularly high in older men; however, little is known about the contribution of dispositional factors to late-life suicide. Maladaptive personality traits have been strongly implicated in suicide among younger adults, but the extent to which they continue to play a role in late-life suicidal behavior is unclear. We also do not know whether specific personality profiles interact with the stressors of aging to cause suicidal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jared R Ruchensky, John F Edens, Katherine S Corker, M Brent Donnellan, Edward A Witt, Daniel M Blonigen
Which core traits exemplify psychopathic personality disorder is a hotly debated question within psychology, particularly regarding the role of ostensibly adaptive traits such as stress immunity, social potency, and fearlessness. Much of the research on the interrelationships among putatively adaptive and more maladaptive traits of psychopathy has focused on the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) and its revision, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). These instruments include content scales that have coalesced to form 2 higher order factors in some (but not all) prior studies: Fearless Dominance and Self-Centered Impulsivity...
June 2018: Psychological Assessment
Wan-Sen Yan, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yan Lan, Zhi-Ming Li, Yong-Hui Li
Binge Eating Disorder (BED), considered a public health problem because of its impact on psychiatric, physical, and social functioning, merits much attention given its elevation to an independent diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Similar with substance use disorders, some neuropsychological and personality constructs are potentially implicated in the onset and development of BED, in which poor decision-making has been suggested to facilitate overeating and BED...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thomas A Widiger, Bo Bach, Michael Chmielewski, Lee Anna Clark, Colin DeYoung, Christopher J Hopwood, Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, Joshua D Miller, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Christopher J Patrick, Aaron L Pincus, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, David Watson, Mark H Waugh, Aidan G C Wright, Johannes Zimmermann, R Michael Bagby, David C Cicero, Christopher C Conway, Barbara De Clercq, Anna R Docherty, Nicholas R Eaton, Kelsie T Forbush, J D Haltigan, Masha Y Ivanova, Robert D Latzman, Donald R Lynam, Kristian E Markon, Ulrich Reininghaus, Katherine M Thomas
The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM-5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Sylia Wilson, Irene J Elkins, Jessica L Bair, Victoria C Oleynick, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The recent inclusion of an alternative model for personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) highlights the importance of extreme variants of personality for psychopathology. The maladaptive personality traits described in the alternative model comprise 5 higher-order domains and 25 lower-order facets that capture pathological levels of personality. The present report adds to a growing body of research on the implications of maladaptive personality traits for functioning by demonstrating significant associations between each of the higher-order domains (Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism) and most of the lower-order facets and lower romantic relationship satisfaction in a population-based sample of 284 monozygotic (MZ) adult twins...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Balázs Dávid, Attila Körmendi
Among behavioural addictions, addiction towards social media sites are identified, which are subtypes of compulsive internet usage. Among these, the most significant is the so-called Facebook addiction. Scientific experts agree, that this new phenomenon hasn't been known in detail yet, so it needs intensified scientific exploration. Different aspects of the personality are inclined to raise the probability of developing Facebook addiction. Neurotic and narcissistic traits of the personality are modifying the characteristic of Facebook use, and by this tendency, risk the individual for developing addiction...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
Nicholas A Armenti, Julia C Babcock
Individuals with borderline personality features may be susceptible to react to situational stressors with negative and interpersonally maladaptive emotionality (e.g., anger) and aggression. The current study attempted to test two moderated mediation models to investigate dispositional risk factors associated with borderline personality features and intimate partner violence (IPV). Results from an experimental rejection induction paradigm were examined using moderated regression to observe contextual reactions to imagined romantic rejection from a current romantic partner among individuals with borderline personality features...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nelson M Maldonato, Raffaele Sperandeo, Enrico Moretto, Silvia Dell'Orco
Borderline Personality Disorder is a serious mental disease, classified in Cluster B of DSM IV-TR personality disorders. People with this syndrome presents an anamnesis of traumatic experiences and shows dissociative symptoms. Since not all subjects who have been victims of trauma develop a Borderline Personality Disorder, the emergence of this serious disease seems to have the fragility of character as a predisposing condition. Infect, numerous studies show that subjects positive for diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder had scores extremely high or extremely low to some temperamental dimensions (harm Avoidance and reward dependence) and character dimensions (cooperativeness and self directedness)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rui C Campos, Ronald R Holden, Cristina Baleizão, Berta Caçador, Ana Sofia Fragata
The aim of the present study was to test whether the maladaptive personality traits of self-criticism and neediness predict suicide ideation when controlling for general distress. Further, potential interactive effects on suicide ideation of the two traits and distress were also evaluated. Two studies with nonclinical samples were conducted. The first investigation was cross-sectional and involved a final sample of 202 community adults while the second study was longitudinal with a final sample of 207 college students...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Christopher J Hopwood
Despite its demonstrated empirical superiority over the DSM-5 Section 2 categorical model of personality disorders for organizing the features of personality pathology, limitations remain with regard to the translation of the DSM-5 Section 3 alternative model of personality disorders (AMPD) to clinical practice. The goal of this paper is to outline a general and preliminary framework for approaching treatment from the perspective of the AMPD. Specific techniques are discussed for the assessment and treatment of both Criterion A personality dysfunction and Criterion B maladaptive traits...
May 2018: Personality and Mental Health
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