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Maladaptive personality traits

Mieke Decuyper, Fien Gistelinck, Jasmine Vergauwe, Gina Pancorbo, Filip De Fruyt
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Marieke J H Begemann, Xianmin Gong, Iris E Sommer
Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual's responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Clay B Holroyd, Akina Umemoto
The United States National Institute of Mental Health has recently promoted the Research Domain Criteria framework, which emphasizes the study of neurocognitive constructs that cut across different disorders. These constructs are said to express dimensionally across the population, giving rise to psychopathologies only in the extreme cases where that expression is maladaptive. Inspired by the RDoC framework, we propose that recent insights into the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain area said to be responsible for selecting and motivating extended behaviors, may elucidate the etiology of a diverse array of mental disorders...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jörg Gross, Carsten K W De Dreu
Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos, or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive rule adherence is reduced by oxytocin - a hypothalamic neuropeptide that biases the biobehavioural approach-avoidance system. Participants (N=139) self-administered oxytocin or placebo intranasally, and reported their need for structure and approach-avoidance sensitivity...
September 23, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
James T Kennedy, Paul F Collins, Monica Luciana
Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ibrahim Taymur, Ersin Budak, Veli Duyan, Bilgen Biçer Kanat, Sinay Önen
OBJECTIVE: Drunk driving is one of the major behavioral issues connected with problematic alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. METHOD: One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating Solution Options, Solution Implementation and Verification, and Decision Making) were used to evaluate the participants...
September 2, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Elizabeth N Riley, Madeline Rukavina, Gregory T Smith
In youth, maladaptive personality traits such as urgency (the tendency to act rashly when highly emotional) predict early onset alcohol consumption. In adults, maladaptive behaviors, including substance use, predict negative personality change. This article reports on a test of hypothesized maladaptive, reciprocal prediction between youth drinking and the trait of urgency. In a sample of 1,906 youth assessed every 6 months from the spring of 5th grade through the spring of 8th grade, and again in the spring of 9th grade, the authors found such reciprocal prediction...
August 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Raphael Koster, Tricia X Seow, Raymond J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
Novelty seeking has been tied to impulsive choice and biased value based choice. It has been postulated that novel stimuli should trigger more vigorous approach and exploration. However, it is unclear whether stimulus novelty can enhance simple motor actions in the absence of explicit reward, a necessary condition for energizing approach and exploration in an entirely unfamiliar situation. In this study human subjects were cued to omit or perform actions in form of button presses by novel or familiar images...
2016: PloS One
Sabrina Kastaun, Tibo Gerriets, Marlene Tschernatsch, Mesut Yeniguen, Martin Juenemann
Great advances have been made in our understanding of Takotsubo syndrome in the past decade, but the aetiology of the condition remains incompletely understood. The most established theory, that catecholamine-mediated myocardial stunning is provoked by emotional or physiological stress, is supported by the presence of supraphysiological levels of plasma catecholamines in patients with Takotsubo syndrome. For this reason, the hyperexcitability of the autonomic nervous system under conditions of physical and emotional stress is often assessed in these patients...
July 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Jeffrey Roelofs, Peter Muris, Doret van Wesemael, Nick J Broers, Ida Shaw, Joan Farrell
Personality disorders are complex mental health problems, associated with chronic dysfunction in several life domains. Adolescents suffer from these disorders as well. The present study is a naturalistic case study, investigating whether group schematherapy (GST) can be applied to adolescents with personality disorders or personality disorder traits. Four clinically referred patients were included and completed questionnaires on quality of life, symptoms of psychopathology, schema modes, early maladaptive schemas, and schema coping styles...
2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Harilaos Papachristou, Chantal Nederkoorn, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND: Problematic alcohol use is common among university students and personality might account for individual differences in developing this maladaptive behavior. Two personality dispositions implicated in problematic alcohol use are negative urgency and neuroticism. However, the relationship of these traits to problematic alcohol use is unclear. In college students high neuroticism is not directly linked to problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, the experience of emotional distress in people high in neuroticism could impair the capacity for impulse control...
September 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
N Camart, M Cotte, S Leignel, C Bouvet, F Limosin
AIM: Literature reports particularities in certain psychological dimensions, such as personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and attachment styles among patients dependent on alcohol. Several international studies have also emphasized significant gender differences in psychological profiles. However, in France, only a few studies have dealt with this subject. Our aim was on the one hand to study the characteristics of alcohol-dependent patients in these variables, and on the other hand to search for gender differences...
June 24, 2016: L'Encéphale
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Aaron L Pincus, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger
Pathological narcissism represents a clinically relevant, albeit controversial personality construct, with multiple conceptualizations that are operationalized by different measures. Even in the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), 2 different views of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) are formulated (i.e., Section II and Section III). The DSM-5 Section III alternative PD model diagnosis of NPD is based on self and interpersonal dysfunction (Criterion A) and a profile of maladaptive personality traits (Criterion B), specifically elevated scores on Attention Seeking and Grandiosity...
June 23, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Angela E Lee-Winn, Lisa Townsend, Shauna P Reinblatt, Tamar Mendelson
OBJECTIVE: Binge eating behavior is a public health concern due to its negative physical and mental health consequences. Little is known about the interplay of personality traits, coping styles, and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations among the combination of neuroticism and impulsivity (NI), maladaptive coping styles (poor problem solving, distraction, and escape-avoidance), and lifetime prevalence of binge eating in a nationally representative sample of U...
August 2016: Eating Behaviors
Andrea Fossati, Serena Borroni, Antonella Somma, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger
In order to study the relationships between DSM-5 Section III maladaptive personality traits and personality dysfunction, 312 Italian community dwelling adults completed the Italian translations of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning Scale (MDPF); participants were also administered the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS). Consistent with previous findings, 22 (88.0%) PID-5 maladaptive trait scales showed moderate and significant correlations with MDPF Non Coping (median r value = ...
June 9, 2016: Personality Disorders
Kyriacos Kareklas, Gareth Arnott, Robert W Elwood, Richard A Holland
BACKGROUND: The expression of animal personality is indicated by patterns of consistency in individual behaviour. Often, the differences exhibited between individuals are consistent across situations. However, between some situations, this can be biased by variable levels of individual plasticity. The interaction between individual plasticity and animal personality can be illustrated by examining situation-sensitive personality traits such as boldness (i.e. risk-taking and exploration tendency)...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Cassie C Kennedy, Adeel Zubair, Matthew M Clark, Sheila Jowsey-Gregoire
CONTEXT: Psychosocial factors can impact lung transplant outcomes. However, it is currently unknown whether abuse survivorship influences lung transplant survival. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the abuse history of adult lung transplant patients and determine whether such history is associated with mortality. PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Adult lung transplant recipients evaluated from 2000 to 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was post-lung transplantation survival...
June 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Gregory J Lengel, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt
Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee...
April 21, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Bina Knöpfli, Davide Morselli, Pasqualina Perrig-Chiello
BACKGROUND: Marital dissolution is known to be among the most stressful life events with long-reaching negative consequences on individuals' lives. A limitation in research to date is that most studies have focused on the impact of marital disruption on well-being outcomes in younger adults. Furthermore, although population-based studies on divorce document a broad range of negative effects, more fine-grained analyses reveal a large heterogeneity in people's adjustment, which is still not well understood...
2016: Gerontology
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