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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926893/-effect-of-intratumor-heterogeneity-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-on-chemotherapy-sensitivity
#1
L Sun, W Wu, M Yan, P L Han, X Zhan, X W Ma, X G Cao, S Zhao, F Gao, Y Qi, W Cao
Objective: To investigate the relationship of heterogeneity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and chemotherapy sensitivity. Methods: Five different region specimens isolated from primary tumor(R1~R5)and 1 specimen(R6)isolated from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue from 10 ESCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were cultured in vitro. The inhibitory effect of cisplatin on proliferation of ESCC cells from different regions was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The cell cycle and apoptosis induced by cisplatin was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926883/-etiological-analysis-and-in-vitro-drug-sensitivity-of-bacterial-keratitis-in-northern-china-in-the-period-of-2006-2015
#2
Y Zhang, Z Q Wang, X G Sun
Objective: To analyze the etiology and drug sensitivity of bacterial keratitis and their changes, and to provide evidence for treatment and drug selection of bacterial keratitis. Methods: Retrospective case series study. From January 2006 to December 2015, corneal specimens suspected of bacterial infection were collected and cultured in Beijing Tongren Eye Center. General information of patients, etiological results and drug sensitivity test results were summarized and analyzed. The Chi-square test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed using SPSS 20...
September 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926603/scavenging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-astaxanthin-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-high-glucose-stimulated-mesothelial-cells
#3
Kazuaki Hara, Chieko Hamada, Keiichi Wakabayashi, Reo Kanda, Kayo Kaneko, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a chlorhexidine-induced PF rat model. This suggests that oxidative stress induction of EMT is a key event during peritoneal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925397/coactosin-like-protein-clp-cotl1-suppresses-breast-cancer-growth-through-activation-of-il-24-perp-and-inhibition-of-non-canonical-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#4
L Xia, X Xiao, W L Liu, Y Song, T J J Liu, Y J Li, E Zacksenhaus, X J Hao, Y Ben-David
Coactosin-like protein (CLP, or Cotl1), is an F-actin-binding protein, whose role in cancer is largely unknown. Here we show that CLP/Cotl1 is highly expressed in a rat epithelial breast cancer cell line (FE1.3) compared with its mesenchymal counterpart (FE1.2). Knockdown of CLP/Cotl1 in FE1.3 cells increased cell proliferation, whereas its overexpression in FE1.2 cells inhibited proliferation in culture and reduced tumor growth in xenograft assays in mice. Mechanistically, we identified two major pathways through which CLP/Cotl1 exerts its suppressive effects...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924979/quantification-of-etoposide-hypersensitivity-a-sensitive-functional-method-for-assessing-pluripotent-stem-cell-quality
#5
Frank J Secreto, Xing Li, Alyson J Smith, Elizabeth S Bruinsma, Ester Perales-Clemente, Saji Oommen, Gresin Hawse, Sybil C L Hrstka, Bonnie K Arendt, Emma B Brandt, Dennis A Wigle, Timothy J Nelson
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, translation of hiPSC technology depends upon a means of assessing hiPSC quality that is quantitative, high-throughput, and can decipher malignant teratocarcinoma clones from normal cell lines. These attributes are lacking in current approaches such as detection of cell surface makers, RNA profiling, and/or teratoma formation assays. The latter remains the gold standard for assessing clone quality in hiPSCs, but is expensive, time-consuming, and incompatible with high-throughput platforms...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924496/challenging-a-bioinformatic-tool-s-ability-to-detect-microbial-contaminants-using-in-silico-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#6
Nathan D Olson, Justin M Zook, Jayne B Morrow, Nancy J Lin
High sensitivity methods such as next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are adversely impacted by organismal and DNA contaminants. Current methods for detecting contaminants in microbial materials (genomic DNA and cultures) are not sensitive enough and require either a known or culturable contaminant. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a promising approach for detecting contaminants due to its sensitivity and lack of need for a priori assumptions about the contaminant. Prior to applying WGS, we must first understand its limitations for detecting contaminants and potential for false positives...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924198/bacteriological-diagnosis-of-childhood-tb-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Andrew J Brent, Daisy Mugo, Robert Musyimi, Agnes Mutiso, Susan Morpeth, Michael Levin, J Anthony G Scott
Childhood TB diagnosis is challenging. Studies in adults suggest Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) culture or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay might be used to expand bacteriological diagnosis. However data from children are more limited. We prospectively compared MODS and Xpert MTB/RIF with standard microscopy and culture using the BD MGIT 960 system among 1442 Kenyan children with suspected TB. 97 specimens from 54 children were TB culture-positive: 91 (94%) by MGIT and 74 (76%) by MODS (p = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924033/rgpf-is-required-for-maintenance-of-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-in-streptococcus-mutans
#8
C J Kovacs, R C Faustoferri, R G Quivey
Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans, the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of deletion of rgpF, the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in construction of the core poly-rhamnose backbone of RGP...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923874/agar-based-screening-for-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-using-vipcheck%C3%A2-a-single-centre-evaluation
#9
J B Buil, H A L van der Lee, A J M M Rijs, J Zoll, J A M F Hovestadt, W J G Melchers, P E Verweij
Introduction Antifungal susceptibility testing is an essential tool for guiding therapy, although EUCAST and CLSI reference methods are often only available in specialized centres. We studied the performance of an agar-based screening method for the detection of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus cultures.Methods The VIPcheck™ consists of four wells containing voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole or a growth control. Ninety-six A. fumigatus isolates were used. Thirty-three isolates harboured a known resistance mechanism: TR34/L98H (11 isolates); TR46/Y121F/T289A (6 isolates); TR53 (2 isolates) and fourteen isolates with other cyp51A-gene point mutations...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923854/caveolae-mediated-endocytosis-is-critical-for-albumin-cellular-uptake-and-response-to-albumin-bound-chemotherapy
#10
Moumita Chatterjee, Edgar Ben-Josef, Ryan Robb, Marall Vedaie, Star Seum, Krishnan Thirumoorthy, Kamalakannan Palanichamy, Matthew Harbrecht, Arnab Chakravarti, Terence M Williams
Nab-paclitaxel, a nanoparticle conjugate of paclitaxel to human albumin, exhibits efficacy in pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, there is a lack of predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit most from its administration. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by identifying that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a candidate mechanism-based biomarker. Caveolae are small membrane invaginations important for trans-endothelial albumin uptake. Cav-1, the principal structural component of caveolae, is overexpressed in the cancers noted above which respond to nab-paclitaxel...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922814/the-consul-and-the-beatnik-the-establishment-youth-culture-and-the-beginnings-of-the-hippy-trail-1966-8
#11
Sharif Gemie, Brian Ireland
This paper analyses the attitudes expressed by consular and embassy officials to a new type of traveller they encountered in the mid-1960s. Their observations are contextualised within wider debates concerning 'youth' in the late 1950s and 1960s. Officials distinguished sharply between 'overlanders' (who could be tolerated or accommodated) and 'beatniks' whose behaviour was characterized as illegal and/or unacceptable. Smoking cannabis was identified as a key marker of beatnik behaviour. Officials' observations are contrasted with four accounts by new travellers from the period...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922561/reconciling-female-genital-circumcision-with-universal-human-rights
#12
John-Stewart Gordon
One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#13
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920960/long-noncoding-rna-egfr-as1-mediates-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-addiction-and-modulates-treatment-response-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Daniel S W Tan, Fui Teen Chong, Hui Sun Leong, Shen Yon Toh, Dawn P Lau, Xue Lin Kwang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Gopinath M Sundaram, Gek San Tan, Mei Mei Chang, Boon Tin Chua, Wan Teck Lim, Eng Huat Tan, Mei Kim Ang, Tony K H Lim, Prabha Sampath, Balram Chowbay, Anders J Skanderup, Ramanuj DasGupta, N Gopalakrishna Iyer
Targeting EGFR is a validated approach in the treatment of squamous-cell cancers (SCCs), although there are no established biomarkers for predicting response. We have identified a synonymous mutation in EGFR, c.2361G>A (encoding p.Gln787Gln), in two patients with head and neck SCC (HNSCC) who were exceptional responders to gefitinib, and we showed in patient-derived cultures that the A/A genotype was associated with greater sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as compared to the G/A and G/G genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920845/modified-use-of-real-time-pcr-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnancy
#15
Ali A Rabaan, Justin V Saunar, Ali M Bazzi, Joan L Soriano
The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd-Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919869/factors-influencing-parents-preferences-and-parents-perceptions-of-child-preferences-of-picturebooks
#16
Laura Wagner
This study examined factors influencing parents' preferences and their perceptions of their children's preferences for picturebooks. First, a content analysis was conducted on a set of picturebooks (N = 87) drawn from the sample described in Wagner (2013); Then, parents (N = 149) rated the books and several content properties were examined for their ability to predict parents' preferences and their perception of their children's preferences. The initial content analysis found correlated clusters of disparate measures of complexity (linguistic, cognitive, narrative) and identified a distinctive sub-genre of modern books featuring female protagonists...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919837/rethinking-the-measurement-of-energy-poverty-in-europe-a-critical-analysis-of-indicators-and-data
#17
Harriet Thomson, Stefan Bouzarovski, Carolyn Snell
Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape...
August 2017: Indoor + Built Environment: the Journal of the International Society of the Built Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919833/conventional-culture-versus-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-for-screening-of-urethral-neisseria-gonorrhea-infection-among-asymptomatic-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Jiratha Budkaew, Bandit Chumworathayi, Chamsai Pientong, Tipaya Ekalaksananan
BACKGROUND: Many methods are used to detect urethral Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) infection among asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM). The objective of this study was to define the performance of conventional culture compared to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of asymptomatic urethral gonorrhea among MSM. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 147 clinical specimens for NG testing from asymptomatic participants were evaluated. MSM >18 years old who consented to undergo urethral swab and collection of urine samples from two clinics (one was the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) mobile clinic and the second was the antiretroviral clinic) located in Khon Kaen, Thailand, were recruited...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919697/16s-ribosomal-rna-sequencing-and-molecular-serotyping-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum-isolated-from-indian-field-conditions
#19
Vihang Vithalrao Patil, Debendranath Mishra, Dilip Vithalrao Mane
AIM: This study was aimed at identifying Indian field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum on both molecular as well as serological levels that cause infectious coryza in chickens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (HPG-2 PCR), and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing were employed for molecular identification. Whereas, multiplex PCR technique was used for serological identification of Indian field isolates of A. paragallinarum...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919615/microbiology-of-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bangladesh
#20
N Akhtar, P G Datta, M Yasmin, A Naha, A M Jewel, F Hossen, S Ahmed, U K Datta
This cross sectional prospective study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013. The objectives of this study were to identify the common microorganisms involved and the antibiograms of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patients in this tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. A total of 117 patients clinically diagnosed of CSOM were enrolled in the study...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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