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Cultural Sensitive

Paulo Roberto Lerias de Almeida, Gabriel Stefani Leão, Charlles David Gonçalves Gonçalves, Rafael Veiga Picon, Cristiane Valle Tovo
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Svetlana Ferreira Lima, Marcela Lucas de Souza Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
Amplicon sequencing technique has been increasingly applied to the clinical setting as a sensitive diagnostic tool. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a DNA extraction method that accurate isolates DNA from complex host-associated microbiota. Given the multifactorial etiology of clinical mastitis and the diversified lifestyle of bacterial species harboring in milk, here four distinct milk sample fractions: raw whole milk, milk fat, casein-pellet, and casein-pellet + fat from healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis, were subjected to bead-beating DNA extraction, followed by high-throughput sequencing...
2018: PloS One
Judi Mesman
This integrative discussion of the special issue on video observations of sensitive caregiving in different cultural communities provides a reflection on the seven empirical studies that are at the heart of this special issue. The two main aims of this special issue are highlighted in terms of their overall conclusions: (1) video observations can be useful and reliable tools to assess sensitivity in non-Western cultural contexts; (2) caregiver sensitivity can be observed across very different cultural contexts and can be expressed in various culture-specific ways...
March 21, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Biku Joseph John, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, Rathi Baskaran, Gautham Srinivasan, Venkatakrishnan Leelakrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Acute Pancreatitis (AP) presenting with Systemic Inflammatory Response syndrome (SIRS) are more likely to have severe acute pancreatitis and are at increased risk of complications. Additionally, persistence of SIRS at 48 hrs after admission is associated with persistent organ failure and a worse outcome. We investigated the usefulness of SIRS as a criterion for referring patients to a tertiary pancreatic care centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analyses of patients admitted with AP over a one year period...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Majd Tarabichi, Abtin Alvand, Noam Shohat, Karan Goswami, Javad Parvizi
A 62-year-old man who had undergone a primary knee arthroplasty 3 years earlier, presented to the emergency department with an infected prosthesis. He underwent prosthesis resection. All cultures failed to identify the infecting organism. Analysis of the intraoperative samples by next-generation sequencing revealed Streptococcus canis (an organism that resides in the oral cavity of dogs). It was later discovered that the patient had sustained a dog scratch injury several days earlier. The patient reports that his dog had licked the scratch...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Adrian Smedowski, Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Ruchi Maniar, Michael Ajeleti, Iwona Matuszek, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Preclinical toxicity screening of the new retinal compounds is an absolute requirement in the pathway of further drug development. Since retinal neuron cultivation and in vivo studies are relatively expensive and time consuming, we aimed to create a fast and reproducible ex vivo system for retinal toxicity screening. For this purpose, we used rat retinal explant culture that was retrogradely labeled with the FluoroGold before the isolation. Explants were exposed to a toxic concentration of gentamicin and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a known neuroprotective agent...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Valéria Nagy, Anna Podmaniczki, André Vidal-Meireles, Roland Tengölics, László Kovács, Gábor Rákhely, Alberto Scoma, Szilvia Z Tóth
Background: Photobiological H2 production has the potential of becoming a carbon-free renewable energy source, because upon the combustion of H2 , only water is produced. The [Fe-Fe]-type hydrogenases of green algae are highly active, although extremely O2 -sensitive. Sulphur deprivation is a common way to induce H2 production, which, however, relies substantially on organic substrates and imposes a severe stress effect resulting in the degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Results: We report on the establishment of an alternative H2 production method by green algae that is based on a short anaerobic induction, keeping the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle inactive by substrate limitation and preserving hydrogenase activity by applying a simple catalyst to remove the evolved O2 ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael F Sweeney, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Background: Three-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelial cells allow for biologically-relevant studies of the development of the mammary gland in rodents and humans under normal and pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis. Under these conditions, mammotropic hormones play significant roles in tissue morphogenesis. Therefore, a system that recreates the normal, hormonally responsive epithelium would be a valuable tool to study the normal state and its transition to carcinogenesis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Yi Zhang, Jielin Pan, Qilan Xu, Hao Li, Jianhao Wang, Chao Zhang, Guobin Hong
Objective: To construct carcinoma vascular endothelial-targeted polymeric nanomicelles with high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity and to evaluate their biological safety and in vitro tumor-targeting effect, and to monitor their feasibility using clinical MRI scanner. Method: Amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) was synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in which cyclic pentapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) was conjugated with the terminal of hydrophilic PEG block...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Bhumit Patel, Vipul D Yagnik
Background/aims: As increasing numbers of Crohn's disease (CD) cases are being recognized in India, so the differential diagnosis of CD and gastrointestinal tuberculosis (GITB) is becoming increasingly important. If patients are misdiagnosed with GITB, toxicity may result from unnecessary anti-TB therapy and treatment of the primary disease (ie, CD) gets delayed. We therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of various parameters that can be used to predict GITB diagnosis at index evaluation...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Klemm et al. (mBio 9:e00105-18, 2018, present comprehensive antibiotic sensitivity patterns and genomic sequence data on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from typhoid fever cases during an epidemic in Pakistan. Microbiologic and genomic data pinpoint the identities and locations of the antimicrobial resistance genes and the outbreak strain's lineage. They propose that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi be added to the list of bacterial pathogens of public health importance that have become extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Amy E Baxter, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Gloria G Delgado, Nathalie Brassard, Christina M Stürzel, Frank Kirchhoff, Beatrice H Hahn, Matthew S Parsons, Daniel E Kaufmann, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
The conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) substantially impacts antibody recognition and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses. In the absence of the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, primary Envs sample a "closed" conformation that occludes CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes. The virus controls CD4 expression through the actions of Nef and Vpu accessory proteins, thus protecting infected cells from ADCC responses. However, gp120 shed from infected cells can bind to CD4 present on uninfected bystander cells, sensitizing them to ADCC mediated by CD4i antibodies (Abs)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Jeong-Uk Kim, Dae-Shick Ryu, Choong-Hwan Cha, Seon-Hee Park
AIMS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are clinically different, and the rapid detection and differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM is crucial for patient management and infection control. Given the slow growth of most pathogenic mycobacteria, nucleic acid amplification assays are excellent tools for direct identification of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. Recently, a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed that can directly detect 20 mycobacterial species in clinical specimens...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Guojun Zhang, Guanghui Zheng, Yan Zhang, Ruimin Ma, Xixiong Kang
Post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM) is one of the most severe hospital-acquired infections (HAI) worldwide, and a large number of pathogens, especially those possessing multi-resistance genes, are related to these infections. Existing methods for detecting bacteria and measuring their response to antibiotics lack sensitivity and stability, and laboratory-based detection methods are inconvenient, which require at least 24h to complete. Rapid identification of bacteria and the determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics are urgently needed, in order to combat the emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Ezekiel Maloney, Andrew M Zbojniewicz, Jie Nguyen, Yu Luo, Mahesh M Thapa
Ligamentous injuries of the pediatric wrist, once thought to be relatively uncommon, are increasingly recognized in the context of acute high-energy mechanism trauma and chronic axial loading, including those encountered in both recreational and high-performance competitive sports. Recent advances in MR-based techniques for imaging the pediatric wrist allow for sensitive identification of these often radiographically occult injuries. Detailed knowledge of the intrinsic and supportive extrinsic ligamentous complexes, as well as normal developmental anatomy and congenital variation, are essential to accurately diagnose injuries to these structures...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Jiang-Kai Dong, Hui-Min Lei, Qian Liang, Ya-Bin Tang, Ye Zhou, Yang Wang, Shengzhe Zhang, Wen-Bin Li, Yunguang Tong, Guanglei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Liang Zhu, Ying Shen
How to improve the efficacy and reverse the resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib, remains a major challenge in the targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-activating mutation. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is the key enzyme of de novo serine biosynthesis over-expressed in various types of cancer including lung cancer. Elevated PHGDH expression is correlated with a worse overall survival in clinical lung adenocarcinoma patients...
2018: Theranostics
Annie R Knight, Emma Taylor, Roman Lukaszewski, Karina Tveen Jensen, Helen E Jones, Jane E Carré, Michail N Isupov, Jennifer A Littlechild, Stephen J Bailey, Emily Brewer, Timothy J McDonald, Andrew R Pitt, Corinne M Spickett, Paul G Winyard
The generation of 3-nitrotyrosine, within proteins, is a post-translational modification resulting from oxidative or nitrative stress. It has been suggested that this modification could be used as a biomarker for inflammatory diseases. Despite the superiority of mass spectrometry-based determinations of nitrotyrosine, in a high-throughput clinical setting the measurement of nitrotyrosine by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is likely to be more cost-effective. ELISAs offer an alternative means to detect nitrotyrosine, but many commercially available ELISAs are insufficiently sensitive to detect nitrotyrosine in healthy human serum...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wei-Dong Lü, Rui-Fang Sun, Ye-Rong Hu, Jan-Rong Lu, Lu Gu, Zhi-Gang Liu, Guang-Yan Lei, Zhun Qiang, Lin Cai
Acellular tumor extracellular matrices (ECMs) have limitations when employed as three-dimensional scaffolds for tumor engineering. In this work, methylene blue-mediated photooxidation was used to crosslink acellular tumor ECMs. Photooxidative crosslinking greatly increased the stiffness of acellular tumor ECM scaffolds but barely altered the Amide III band of the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. MCF-7, HepG2 and A549 cells cultured on photooxidatively crosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds exhibited greater cell number per scaffold, more IL-8 and VEGF secretion, and increase migration and invasion abilities than cells cultured on uncrosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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