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Jennifer S M Loose, Zarah Forsberg, Daniel Kracher, Stefan Scheiblbrandner, Roland Ludwig, Vincent G H Eijsink, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) represent a recent addition to the carbohydrate-active enzymes and are classified as auxiliary activity (AA) families 9, 10, 11 and 13. LPMOs are crucial for effective degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides like cellulose or chitin. These enzymes are copper-dependent and utilize a redox mechanism to cleave glycosidic bonds that is dependent on molecular oxygen and an external electron donor. The electrons can be provided by various sources, such as chemical compounds (e...
September 19, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Alex Blokland, Richard G Watt, Georgios Tsakos, Anja Heilmann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were socially graded among children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, using nationally representative data from the Children's Dental Health Survey (CDHS) 2013. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Children's Dental Health Survey 2013 which was conducted among a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...
August 12, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Frank Tammo Wieringa, Miriam Dahl, Chhoun Chamnan, Etienne Poirot, Khov Kuong, Prak Sophonneary, Muth Sinuon, Valerie Greuffeille, Rathavuth Hong, Jacques Berger, Marjoleine Amma Dijkhuizen, Arnaud Laillou
BACKGROUND: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. METHODS: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey...
2016: Nutrients
Sona Garajova, Yann Mathieu, Maria Rosa Beccia, Chloé Bennati-Granier, Frédéric Biaso, Mathieu Fanuel, David Ropartz, Bruno Guigliarelli, Eric Record, Hélène Rogniaux, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin
The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These very powerful enzymes are abundant in fungal saprotrophs. LPMOs require activation by electrons that can be provided by cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs), but as some fungi lack CDH-encoding genes, other recycling enzymes must exist. We investigated the ability of AA3_2 flavoenzymes secreted under lignocellulolytic conditions to trigger oxidative cellulose degradation by AA9 LPMOs...
2016: Scientific Reports
N Acar, A Harb, A Albaya, H Kaskin
PURPOSE: Hip intertrochanteric fractures are very frequent. Early mobilization reduces the associated mortality and morbidity rate. DHS is still commonly used in many centers. We describe a new minimal invasive DHS technique (MIDHS) depending on radiological land marks, facilitating the application of DHS in a proper way without the use of an angle guide and we retrospectively compared the functional results of the new technique with that of the conventional DHS (CDHS) technique. METHODS: 116 patients (MIDHS n = 56; CDHS n = 60) with stable intertrochanteric fractures were followed up for at least 12 months...
June 8, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Andrea Cipri, Christopher Schulz, Roland Ludwig, Lo Gorton, Manel Del Valle
A novel application of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) as sensing element for a Bioelectronic Tongue (BioET) system has been tested. In this work CDHs from various fungi, which exhibit different substrate specificities, were used to discriminate between lactose and glucose in presence of the interfering matrix compound Ca(2+) in various mixtures. This work exploits the advantage of an electronic tongue system with practically zero pre-treatment of samples and operation at low voltages in a direct electron transfer mode...
May 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
M-V Corniola, E Tessitore, K Schaller, O P Gautschi
A cervical disc herniation (CDH) is a frequently encountered pathology in primary care medicine. It may give rise to a compression of a nerve root (a radiculopathy, with or without sensory-motor deficit) or of the spinal cord (myelopathy). The majority of CDHs can be supported by means of a conservative treatment. When a radiculopathy is found and a clinico-radiological correlation is present, a moderate neurological deficit appears suddenly, or if it is progressive under conservative treatment or if pain is poorly controlled by well-conducted conservative treatment performed during 6 to 8 months, surgery is then recommended...
October 28, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Diep Hong Ha, Ratilal Lalloo, Lisa M Jamieson, Loc Giang Do
OBJECTIVE: To assess dental caries trends in indigenous children in South Australia, 2001-2010; and contribution by area-level socioeconomic status (SES), remoteness and water fluoridation status. METHODS: This study is a part of the Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) is an ongoing national surveillance survey in Australia including children enrolled in the School Dental Services (SDS). Postcode-level adjusted mean deciduous and permanent caries experience was estimated at each year...
June 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Daniel Kracher, Kawah Zahma, Christopher Schulz, Christoph Sygmund, Lo Gorton, Roland Ludwig
The flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is secreted by wood-decomposing fungi, and is the only known extracellular enzyme with the characteristics of an electron transfer protein. Its proposed function is reduction of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenase for subsequent cellulose depolymerization. Electrons are transferred from FADH2 in the catalytic flavodehydrogenase domain of CDH to haem b in a mobile cytochrome domain, which acts as a mediator and transfers electrons towards the active site of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenase to activate oxygen...
August 2015: FEBS Journal
Allyson J Merrell, Benjamin J Ellis, Zachary D Fox, Jennifer A Lawson, Jeffrey A Weiss, Gabrielle Kardon
The diaphragm is an essential mammalian skeletal muscle, and defects in diaphragm development are the cause of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs), a common and often lethal birth defect. The diaphragm is derived from multiple embryonic sources, but how these give rise to the diaphragm is unknown, and, despite the identification of many CDH-associated genes, the etiology of CDH is incompletely understood. Using mouse genetics, we show that the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs), which are transient embryonic structures, are the source of the diaphragm's muscle connective tissue and regulate muscle development, and we show that the striking migration of PPF cells controls diaphragm morphogenesis...
May 2015: Nature Genetics
R Lalloo, L M Jamieson, D Ha, A Ellershaw, L Luzzi
BACKGROUND: Indigenous children experience significantly more dental caries than non-Indigenous children. This study assessed if access to fluoride in the water closed the gap in dental caries between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. METHODS: Data from four states and two territories were sourced from the Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) conducted in 2010. The outcomes were dental caries in the deciduous and permanent dentitions, and the explanatory variables were Indigenous status and access to fluoridated water (≥0...
September 2015: Australian Dental Journal
A Méndez-Gil, J Á Fernández-Valencia Laborde, J M Estrada-Masllorens, R Plaza-García, M Ríos Martín, P Camacho Carrasco, S Prat Fabregat, J Riba Ferret
AIM: The treatment of intertrochanteric fractures using a minimally invasive dynamic hip screw (MIDHS) technique has been reported to provide better results than the conventional technique (CDHS). The present study aims to determine whether there are any differences in terms of transfusion needs, morbidity, length of hospital stay, and economical costs, based on a study of two retrospective cohorts. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cohorts study of 80 patients with intertrochanteric femoral fractures (31-A1 and 31-A2...
November 2014: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Carolyn Hickman, Diana Jacobson, Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk
INTRODUCTION: The treatment challenge of adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDHs) creates an urgent need for evidence-based interventions. Therefore the purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a brief cognitive behavioral skills building intervention with 36 adolescents, 13 to 17 years of age, who had CDHs and mild to moderate depressive symptoms. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned either to the Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment-Headache Education Program (COPE-HEP) or to a headache education comparison group...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Nobuhiro Hidaka, Keisuke Ishii, Aki Mabuchi, Akiko Yamashita, Shiyo Ota, Jun Sasahara, Masaharu Murata, Nobuaki Mitsuda
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and postnatal outcomes of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and additional anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of fetuses with CDH managed between 2005 and 2013. Patients were divided into complex and isolated groups based on the presence of additional anomalies. We analyzed the respective polyhydramnios, liver herniation, stomach position, lung to thorax transverse area ratio (LTR), and prognoses of the two groups...
March 2015: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Joyce N Mumah, Douglas Jackson-Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of a positive SES-HIV gradient in some SSA countries, researchers and policy-makers frequently assume that a range of protective interventions--increasing awareness of mechanisms of HIV transmission, techniques for prevention, greater access to health care facilities, and greater availability of condoms--will reduce the likelihood of contracting HIV, even among higher SES populations. We therefore explore the relationships between SES and these intervening behaviors to illuminate the complex factors that link SES and HIV among women in Cameroon...
2014: PloS One
Gupteshwar Gupta, Rishabh Gangwar, Ashwani Gautam, Lalit Kumar, Anuj Dhariwal, Vikram Sahai, Saroj Mishra
Class I cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular hemoflavo enzymes produced at low levels by the Basidiomycetes (white rot fungi). In presence of suitable electron acceptors, e.g., cytochrome c, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, or metal ions, it oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionolactone. A stringent requirement for disaccharides makes CDH also useful for conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid, an important ingredient in pharma and detergent industry. In this work, class I CDH was produced using a newly identified white rot fungus Termitomyces sp...
August 2014: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Chang Hyeok An, Eun Mi Je, Nam Jin Yoo, Sug Hyung Lee
Cadherins (CDHs) are important in maintenance of cell adhesion and polarity, alterations of which contribute to tumorigenesis. Alterations of E-cadherin, a prototype CDH, have been reported in many cancers. However, alterations of unconventional CDHs, including CDH10, CDH24 and DCHS2 are largely unknown in cancers. Aim of this study was to explore whether CDH10, CDH24 and DCHS2 genes are mutated in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that CDH10, CDH24 and DCHS2 genes had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI)...
January 2015: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Jiaxu Wang, Xiang Cui, Yue Zhou, Qiang Xiang
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds have been utilized in the tissue engineering field. It has been shown that both fibronectin (FN) and cadherin 11 (CDH) play important roles in the progress of osteogenesis and cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to fabricate recombinant FN/CDHs (rFN/CDHs)-loaded PLGA/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds and evaluate their effects on the adhesion and differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PLGA/collagen nanofibers were made by coaxial electrospinning...
August 2014: Connective Tissue Research
Loc G Do, Jenifer Miller, Claire Phelan, Shanti Sivaneswaran, A John Spencer, Clive Wright
BACKGROUND: It is important to evaluate concurrently the benefit for dental caries and the risk for dental fluorosis from early exposure to fluoride among children. AIM: To evaluate associations of different levels of exposure to fluoride in early childhood with dental caries and dental fluorosis experience in school children. METHODS: A Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) was conducted among school children in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) in 2007...
December 2014: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Maria Dimarogona, Evangelos Topakas, Paul Christakopoulos
Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs), cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33). PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed...
2012: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
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