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Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey

Rathmony Hong, Pauline Yongeun Ahn, Frank Wieringa, Tung Rathavy, Ludovic Gauthier, Rathavuth Hong, Arnaud Laillou, Judit Van Geystelen, Jacques Berger, Etienne Poirot
BACKGROUND: Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries...
2017: PloS One
François Chassagne, Eric Deharo, Hieng Punley, Geneviève Bourdy
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liver disorders are a major health problem in Cambodia, where some patients prefer to seek treatment from traditional healers. The aim of the study was to document the knowledge and practices of these healers in four Southern Cambodian provinces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out from September 2015 to January 2016 in Cambodian urban and rural areas. Thirty-three Khmer traditional healers (KTH) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire including socio-demographic data, healer's formation and their professional practice conditions, perception of liver diseases (types and causes of liver disorders, diagnostic methods and symptoms of liver problems), dietary recommendations given to patients, and herbal remedies used to treat them...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Christianne C Veugen, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Nicola James, Mehul Dhorda, Richard J Maude, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has seen a marked reduction in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum over the past decade without a corresponding decline in Plasmodium vivax incidence. It is unknown to what extent local transmission is sustained by a chain of clinical and sub-clinical infections or by continued re-introduction via migration. Using an ultrasensitive molecular technique, 20 villages in western Cambodia were surveyed to detect the low season prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax and local treatment records were reviewed...
January 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
Brian Willis, Saki Onda, Hanni Marie Stoklosa
BACKGROUND: To reach global and national goals for maternal and child mortality, countries must identify vulnerable populations, which includes sex workers and their children. The objective of this study was to identify and describe maternal deaths of female sex workers in Cambodia and causes of death among their children. METHODS: A convenience sample of female sex workers were recruited by local NGOs that provide support to sex workers. We modified the maternal mortality section of the 2010 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey and collected reports of all deaths of female sex workers...
November 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sowath Ly, Sirenda Vong, Philippe Cavailler, Elizabeth Mumford, Channa Mey, Sareth Rith, Maria D Van Kerkhove, San Sorn, Touch Sok, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has been of public health concern since 2003. Probable risk factors for A(H5N1) transmission to human have been demonstrated in several studies or epidemiological reports. However, transmission patterns may differ according to demographic characteristics of the population and local practices. This article aggregates these data from three studies with data collected in the previous surveys in 2006 and 2007 to further examine the risks factors associated with presence of anti-A(H5) antibodies among villagers residing within outbreak areas...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Giacomo Zanello, C S Srinivasan, Bhavani Shankar
In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects") and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects")? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition...
2016: PloS One
Sara E Canavati, Cesia E Quintero, Harriet L S Lawford, Sovann Yok, Dysoley Lek, Jack S Richards, Maxine Anne Whittaker
BACKGROUND: During the process of malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) have been identified as the most at-risk demographic. An important sub-group of MMPs are seasonal workers, and this paper presents an evaluation of the reach and effectiveness of interventions tailored towards this group and was carried out as part of the Containment Project from 2009-11. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted in Pailin Province in Western Cambodia...
August 26, 2016: Malaria Journal
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Nicole Bergen, Anne Schlotheuber, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Peter M Hansen, Kamel Senouci, Ties Boerma, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Immunisation programmes have made substantial contributions to lowering the burden of disease in children, but there is a growing need to ensure that programmes are equity-oriented. We aimed to provide a detailed update about the state of between-country inequality and within-country economic-related inequality in the delivery of three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), with a special focus on inequalities in high-priority countries...
September 2016: Lancet Global Health
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and to determine the factors associated with tobacco and alcohol use among chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Fifteen point five percent of those studied were current smokers, 14.5% current smokeless tobacco users, 20.7% daily tobacco users (smokers or smokeless tobacco), 9...
May 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Youngran Yang, Sopheak Thai, Jongsan Choi
The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) and analyze its determinants among Cambodian adults living with HIV/AIDS who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional study was conducted using convenience sampling to select 150 adults 18 years of age or older from the patient population at the HIV/AIDS care hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. QOL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life HIV BREF; socio-demographic characteristics, time elapsed since HIV diagnosis, months on ART, CD4 cell count, family and community support, depression, and anxiety were included in the survey...
December 2016: AIDS Care
Ghada Saad-Haddad, Jocelyn DeJong, Nancy Terreri, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Jamie Perin, Lara Vaz, Holly Newby, Agbessi Amouzou, Aluísio Jd Barros, Jennifer Bryce
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is critical for improving maternal and newborn health. WHO recommends that pregnant women complete at least four ANC visits. Countdown and other global monitoring efforts track the proportions of women who receive one or more visits by a skilled provider (ANC1+) and four or more visits by any provider (ANC4+). This study investigates patterns of drop-off in use between ANC1+ and ANC4+, and explores inequalities in women's use of ANC services. It also identifies determinants of utilization and describes countries' ANC-related policies, and programs...
June 2016: Journal of Global Health
Gail Melva Ormsby, Dawn Grant-Skiba, Kovin Naidoo, Jill E Keeffe
PURPOSE: To assess the perspectives of patients who acquired spectacles from an eye unit/vision center in Cambodia. DESIGN: A sample (n = 62) of patients was selected across 4 provinces: Prey Veng, Siem Reap, Battambang, and Takeo. METHODS: The Patient Spectacle Satisfaction Survey covering demographic and semistructured questions regarding patient satisfaction, style, and costs incurred was used to collect data. Information was transcribed and translated into English and analyzed by thematic coding using NVivo...
September 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Valérie Greffeuille, Prak Sophonneary, Arnaud Laillou, Ludovic Gauthier, Rathmony Hong, Rathavuth Hong, Etienne Poirot, Marjoleine Dijkhuizen, Frank Wieringa, Jacques Berger
The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition...
May 16, 2016: Nutrients
Geoffry Smith, Sunil J Wimalawansa, Arnaud Laillou, Prak Sophonneary, Samoeurn Un, Rathavuth Hong, Etienne Poirot, Khov Kuong, Chhoun Chamnan, Francisco N De Los Reyes, Frank T Wieringa
Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. The countrywide median of 25(OH)D was, respectively, 64.9 and 91.1 nmol/L for mothers and children. Based on The Endocrine Society cutoffs (>50<75 nmol/L = insufficiency; ≤50 nmol/L = deficiency); 64...
May 12, 2016: Nutrients
Jeffrey W Priest, M Harley Jenks, Delynn M Moss, Bunsoth Mao, Sokhal Buth, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Sann Chan Soeung, Naomi W Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Christopher J Gregory, Rekol Huy, Sinuon Muth, Patrick J Lammie
Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD)...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas J Peto, Sabine E Kloprogge, Rupam Tripura, Chea Nguon, Nou Sanann, Sovann Yok, Chhouen Heng, Cholrawee Promnarate, Jeremy Chalk, Ngak Song, Sue J Lee, Yoel Lubell, Mehul Dhorda, Mallika Imwong, Nicholas J White, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Treatment of the sub-clinical reservoir of malaria, which may maintain transmission, could be an important component of elimination strategies. The reliable detection of asymptomatic infections with low levels of parasitaemia requires high-volume quantitative polymerase chain reaction (uPCR), which is impractical to conduct on a large scale. It is unknown to what extent sub-clinical parasitaemias originate from recent or older clinical episodes. This study explored the association between clinical history of malaria and subsequent sub-clinical parasitaemia...
April 26, 2016: Malaria Journal
Valérie Greffeuille, Prak Sophonneary, Arnaud Laillou, Ludovic Gauthier, Rathmony Hong, Rathavuth Hong, Etienne Poirot, Marjoleine Dijkhuizen, Frank Wieringa, Jacques Berger
This study aimed to describe the trends over four nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Cambodia and to assess the main factors of inequality with regards to nutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition and over-nutrition evolved in opposite trends from 2000 to 2014, with a significant decrease in underweight and a significant increase in overweight women. This results in a shift, with overweight prevalence in women being higher than underweight for the first time in 2014...
April 19, 2016: Nutrients
Kristina Osbjer, Sofia Boqvist, Seng Sokerya, Chheng Kannarath, Sorn San, Holl Davun, Ulf Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region, socio-economic position, demographics, livestock management and zoonosis awareness...
2015: BMC Public Health
H Chemaitelly, L J Abu-Raddad
Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples...
January 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Wenjuan Wang, Rathavuth Hong
BACKGROUND: Continuum of care throughout pregnancy, birth, and after delivery has become a key program strategy for improving the health of mothers and newborns. Successful program implementation to improve the continuum of care relies on a better understanding of where the gaps are in seeking care along the pathway and what factors contribute to the gaps. METHODS: Using data from the 2010 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the levels of service use along the continuum of care...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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