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Health Beliefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938110/monitoring-harm-perceptions-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-among-u-s-adults-health-information-national-trends-survey-2012-2014-2015
#1
Shari P Feirman, Elisabeth A Donaldson, Mark Parascandola, Kimberly Snyder, Cindy Tworek
INTRODUCTION: Changes to the U.S. smokeless tobacco landscape in recent years include a change to health warnings on packages, the implementation of bans in some stadiums, and the launch of a federal youth prevention campaign. It is unclear whether such changes have impacted consumer beliefs about smokeless tobacco. This study examines relative harm perceptions of smokeless tobacco compared to cigarettes among adults and assesses changes in smokeless tobacco harm perceptions over time...
September 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938078/online-lactation-education-for-healthcare-providers-a-theoretical-approach-to-understanding-learning-outcomes
#2
Amanda L Watkins, Joan E Dodgson, Darya Bonds McClain
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding competencies are not standardized in healthcare education for any of the health professions. A few continuing education/professional development programs have been implemented, but research regarding the efficacy of these programs is scarce. Research aim: After a 45-hour lactation course, (a) Does breastfeeding knowledge increase? (b) Do beliefs and attitudes about infant feeding improve? (c) Does perceived behavioral control over performance of evidence-based lactation support practices increase? and (d) Do intentions to carry out evidence-based lactation support practices increase? METHODS: A nonexperimental pretest-posttest self-report survey design was conducted with a nonprobability sample of participants ( N = 71) in a lactation course...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936192/the-intricate-relationship-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-associated-subclinical-symptoms-in-healthy-individuals
#3
Lui Unterrassner, Thomas A Wyss, Diana Wotruba, Helene Haker, Wulf Rössler
The interplay between subclinical psychotic, negative, and affective symptoms has gained increased attention regarding the etiology of psychosis spectrum and other mental disorders. Importantly, research has tended to not differentiate between different subtypes of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) although they may not have the same significance for mental health. In order to gain information on the subclinical interplay between specific PLE and other symptoms as well as the significance of PLE for mental health, we investigated their specific associations in 206 healthy individuals (20-60 years, 73 females) using correlational and linear regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936120/knowledge-beliefs-and-practices-regarding-osteoporosis-among-female-medical-school-entrants-in-pakistan
#4
Muhammad Bilal, Abdul Haseeb, Aleena Zehra Merchant, Abdur Rehman, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Maarij Malik, Asad Hammad Ur Rehman, Pallavi Rani, Emaan Farhan, Taha S Rehman, Umer Sultan Shamsi, Sadia Aminah
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a growing health problem around the world. The increasing incidence of osteoporotic fractures coupled with the lack of knowledge about the disease in the general community means that the disease is continuously increasing the burden on health sector and the general population. The purpose of the study is to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about osteoporosis among female medical school entrants in Karachi. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted amongst 400 female medical school entrants of DOW University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Jinnah Sindh Medical University (JSMU)...
2017: Asia Pacific Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935387/attitudes-and-beliefs-pertaining-to-sexual-and-reproductive-health-among-unmarried-female-bhutanese-refugee-youth-in-philadelphia
#5
Cherie Priya Dhar, Dilu Kaflay, Nadia Dowshen, Victoria A Miller, Kenneth R Ginsburg, Frances K Barg, Katherine Yun
PURPOSE: We explored attitudes and beliefs pertaining to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried, female, resettled Bhutanese refugees 16-20 years. METHODS: Fourteen interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, and major themes were identified. RESULTS: SRH was stigmatized for unmarried youth, making seeking information about SRH or accessing family planning difficult. There were many misconceptions about access to SRH...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934198/-koko-et-les-lunettes-magiques-an-educational-entertainment-tool-to-prevent-parasitic-worms-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#6
Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Abel Kouamé, Kouassi Dongo, Richard B Yapi, Honorine M Moro, Christiane A Kouakou, Marta S Palmeirim, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933976/the-social-context-of-adolescent-co-use-of-cigarillos-and-marijuana-blunts
#7
Elizabeth Antognoli, Sarah Koopman Gonzalez, Erika Trapl, David Cavallo, Rock Lim, Brittany Lavanty, Susan Flocke
BACKGROUND: The use of cigarillos for smoking as a tobacco product and for making marijuana blunts is increasing among adolescents. Previous research has documented the co-use of these products, however little is known about the contextual features that generate and sustain this practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aims for a deeper understanding of why and how co-use of cigarillos and marijuana blunts occurs. METHODS: Between December 2015 and April 2016, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 adolescents aged 14-18 who reported smoking ≥1 cigarillo per week...
September 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933637/association-between-health-beliefs-and-gestational-weight-gain
#8
Tracey Ledoux, Saumali Daundasekara, Patricia Van Den Berg, Patrick Leung, Lorraine Walker, Pamela D Berens
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) provides recommendations for optimal weight gain during pregnancy to minimize complications associated with obesity and excessive weight gain. The Health Belief Model and prior research suggest knowledge of health recommendations and associated risks motivate health behaviors. This study determined whether knowledge of maternal and infant obesity risks during pregnancy (ORDP) and knowledge of IOM gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations were associated with total GWG and likelihood of adhering to IOM recommendations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933619/african-american-adults-and-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-changing-our-approach-can-move-the-needle
#9
Sandra Crouse Quinn
Consistent disparities in influenza (flu) vaccine uptake among African Americans, coupled with a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases, places too many African Americans at high risk for complications, hospitalizations and premature mortality. This disparity is the result of individual attitudes and beliefs, social norms, and health care practices. Recent research identifies critical factors affecting vaccine uptake among African American adults including perceived risk of vaccine side effects, social norms that do not support for vaccination, and lower knowledge of the flu and the vaccine...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931963/-when-you-re-a-baby-you-don-t-have-puberty-understanding-of-puberty-and-human-reproduction-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#10
Lisa B Hurwitz, Alexis R Lauricella, Brianna Hightower, Iris Sroka, Teresa K Woodruff, Ellen Wartella
Basic knowledge of human reproduction can help youth prepare for puberty and make later classes focused on advanced reproductive health topics manageable. With the intention of potentially informing the creation of learning materials, we conducted a needs assessment among children ages 7 to 12 in our suburban Chicago community to ascertain their current understanding of, and beliefs and misconceptions about, human reproduction, and to determine their needs for additional reproductive health education. We held qualitative focus group interviews with local children...
August 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931542/cumulative-kidney-complication-risk-by-50-years-of-type-1-diabetes-the-effects-of-sex-age-and-calendar-year-at-onset
#11
Tina Costacou, Trevor J Orchard
OBJECTIVE: A common belief is that only a minority of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) develop advanced kidney disease and that incidence is higher among men and lower in those diagnosed at a younger age. However, because few patients with T1D survived to older ages until recently, long-term risks have been unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the 50-year cumulative kidney complication risk in a childhood-onset T1D cohort diagnosed during 1950-80 (n = 932; mean baseline age 29 years, duration 19 years)...
September 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929846/becoming-dead-two-solitudes
#12
Eric Wasylenko
The moral divide between proponents and opponents of medical assistance in dying is wide and can be ascribed to a number of dichotomous beliefs. This article addresses a particular and less commonly described platform for the divide: human acquiescence to physical decline and death as an important stage of life, versus presumptive human mastery over the timing and manner of some peoples' death. Practical ideas are then offered for health systems that wish to bridge the divide, to provide both robust palliative end-of-life care and medical assistance in dying programs for their patients, while keeping health workers whole...
September 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929121/differential-and-combined-effects-of-physical-activity-profiles-and-prohealth-behaviors-on-diabetes-prevalence-among-blacks-and-whites-in-the-us-population-a-novel-bayesian-belief-network-machine-learning-analysis
#13
Azizi A Seixas, Dwayne A Henclewood, Aisha T Langford, Samy I McFarlane, Ferdinand Zizi, Girardin Jean-Louis
The current study assessed the prevalence of diabetes across four different physical activity lifestyles and infer through machine learning which combinations of physical activity, sleep, stress, and body mass index yield the lowest prevalence of diabetes in Blacks and Whites. Data were extracted from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) dataset from 2004-2013 containing demographics, chronic diseases, and sleep duration (N = 288,888). Of the total sample, 9.34% reported diabetes (where the prevalence of diabetes was 12...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928696/promoting-physical-activity-through-priming-the-content-of-motivation
#14
REVIEW
Tom St Quinton
Non-conscious processes are important in influencing the performance of a number of behaviors, such as physical activity. One way that such processes can be influenced is through priming. Despite this, approaches within health psychology have predominantly focused on reflective processes with a number of psychological theories dedicated to identifying the predictors of intention. In doing so, critical beliefs and thoughts are first identified and then altered within interventions. Such work has shown limited effectiveness, however, with a gap apparent between what one intends to do and what subsequently ensues...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928305/awakening-to-the-alcohol-epidemic-need-of-the-hour
#15
Dharav Sunil Shah
Globally, alcohol has become the most common risk factor for death and disability in the young age group of 15-49 years. Its use has been rapidly increasing in developing countries. It is a critical time wherein if effective preventive measures are not undertaken urgently, damage done will be difficult to reverse. However, health professionals are not responding to the alcohol epidemic in the manner that they responded to the tobacco epidemic. The article discusses two beliefs which are making us accept the use of alcohol as normal...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928056/-vaccine-hesitancy-discourse-analysis-of-parents-who-have-not-fully-or-partially-vaccinated-their-children
#16
Maite Cruz Piqueras, Ainhoa Rodríguez García de Cortazar, Joaquín Hortal Carmona, Javier Padilla Bernáldez
OBJECTIVE: To analyse and understand vaccination hesitancy discourses, particularly those of people who have decided not to vaccinate their sons and daughters. METHODS: Qualitative study of five individual interviews and two focus groups with people who chose not to vaccinate their children in the province of Granada (Spain). RESULTS: Mothers and fathers manifest a system of health beliefs different to the biomedical paradigm. From an ethical point of view, they justify their position based on the right to autonomy and responsibility for their decisions...
September 16, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927464/cervical-cancer-screening-behavior-and-associated-factors-among-women-of-ugrachandi-nala-kavre-nepal
#17
Radha Acharya Pandey, Era Karmacharya
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer in Nepal ranks as the first most frequent cancer among women. Primary prevention measures, such as prophylactic vaccines against high risk HPV, are now available. Over time, vaccination will decrease the prevalence of the disease among younger women; however, screening will still be needed. The objective of the study was to assess the cervical cancer screening behavior and its associated factors among women of Nala Village Development Committee (VDC), Kavre...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927437/community-participation-in-mosquito-breeding-site-control-an-interdisciplinary-mixed-methods-study-in-cura%C3%A3-ao
#18
Jelte Elsinga, Henry T van der Veen, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Arie Dijkstra, Martin P Grobusch, Adriana Tami, Ajay Bailey
BACKGROUND: As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. METHODS: In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927341/perceived-need-of-and-interest-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-amongst-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-three-sexual-health-clinics-in-london-uk
#19
Lauren Bull, Pavle Dimitrijevic, Sophie Beverley, Alex Scarborough, Sundhiya Mandalia, Olamide Dosekun, Tristan Barber, Iain Reeves, Sheena McCormack, Michael Rayment
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven efficacy in reducing the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM), but has not yet been commissioned in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived need and benefit (or experience of) PrEP among HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics. HIV-negative MSM attending three sexual health centres in London, UK were opportunistically invited to complete a questionnaire. Data collected comprised demographic data and sexual and drug use behaviours as well as questions regarding perceptions of risk and need for PrEP...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926775/geographic-and-demographic-correlates-of-autism-related-anti-vaccine-beliefs-on-twitter-2009-15
#20
Theodore S Tomeny, Christopher J Vargo, Sherine El-Toukhy
This study examines temporal trends, geographic distribution, and demographic correlates of anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-2015. A total of 549,972 tweets were downloaded and coded for the presence of anti-vaccine beliefs through a machine learning algorithm. Tweets with self-disclosed geographic information were resolved and United States Census data were collected for corresponding areas at the micropolitan/metropolitan level. Trends in number of anti-vaccine tweets were examined at the national and state levels over time...
September 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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